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bike_pub.bib

@article{Astrom2005,
  author = {{\AA}str{\"o}m, Karl J. and Klein, Richard E. and Lennartsson, Anders},
  title = {Bicycle Dynamics and Control},
  journal = {IEEE Control Systems Magazine},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {26--47},
  number = {4},
  month = {August},
  abstract = {This article analyzes the dynamics of bicycles from the perspective
	of control. Models of different complexity are presented, starting
	with simple ones and ending with more realistic models generated
	from multibody software. We consider models that capture essential
	behavior such as self-stabilization as well as models that demonstrate
	difficulties with rear wheel steering. We relate our experiences
	using bicycles in control education along with suggestions for fun
	and thought-provoking experiments with proven student attraction.
	Finally, we describe bicycles and clinical programs designed for
	children with disabilities.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Astrom2005},
  doi = {10.1109/MCS.2005.1499389},
  keywords = {bicycles, control engineering computing, control engineering education,design,
	handicapped aids, nonlinear control systems, nonlinear dynamicalsystems,
	position control, stability bicycle control, bicycle dynamics, clinical
	programs, computer simulation, control education, disabled children,
	dynamic behavior, inverted pendulum, modelling, multibody software,
	nonminimum phase steering behavior, rear wheel steering difficulties,
	self-stabilization}
}
@unpublished{Astrom2005a,
  author = {{\AA}str{\"o}m, Karl J. and Klein, Richard E. and Lennartsson, Anders},
  title = {Bicycle Dynamics and Control},
  note = {Preprint of Astrom2005},
  year = {2005},
  abstract = {This article analyzes the dynamics of bicycles from the perspective
	of control. Models of different complexity are presented, starting
	with simple ones and ending with more realistic models generated
	from multibody software. We consider models that capture essential
	behavior such as self-stabilization as well as models that demonstrate
	difficulties with rear wheel steering. We relate our experiences
	using bicycles in control education along with suggestions for fun
	and thought-provoking experiments with proven student attraction.
	Finally, we describe bicycles and clinical programs designed for
	children with disabilities.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Astrom2005a},
  doi = {10.1109/MCS.2005.1499389},
  number = {4},
  pages = {26--47}
}
@article{Astrom1976,
  author = {{\AA}str{\"o}m, Karl Johan and K{\"a}llstr{\"o}m, Claes},
  title = {Identification on Ship Steering Dynamics},
  journal = {Automatica},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {9–22},
  month = jan,
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Astrom1976}
}
@article{Astrom2001,
  author = {{\AA}str{\"o}m, Karl J. and Lunze, J.},
  title = {Why are we able to ride a bicycle?},
  journal = {Automatisierungstechnik},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {427--435},
  number = {10},
  month = {October},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Astrom2001}
}
@mastersthesis{Adiele1979,
  author = {C. Adiele},
  title = {Two wheeled vehicle design},
  school = {Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University},
  year = {1979},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Adiele1979}
}
@techreport{Cortes2007,
  author = {Aguilera Cortés, Luz Antonio and Jáuregui de la Mota, Rafael and
	González Palacios, Max
	
	Antonio and Torres Cisneros, Miguel and Cervantes Sánchez, J. Jesús
	and González Galván,
	
	Emilio J. and Herrera May, A. Leobardo},
  title = {Simulación y Control de una Suspensión Semiactiva: Caso de una Bicicleta
	para
	
	Descenso},
  institution = {Acta Universitaria},
  year = {2007},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cortes2007}
}
@inproceedings{Akande2011,
  author = {F. B. Akande and D. Ahmad and A. B. Fashina},
  title = {Modelling the motion resistance of a pneumatic bicycle wheel},
  booktitle = {Tillage for agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability
	conference},
  year = {2011},
  address = {Ilorin, Nigeria},
  month = {February 21--23},
  organization = {International Soil Tillage Research Organization},
  abstract = {The use of narrow wheels of which bicycle wheels are included have
	been proven to be one of the alternative solutions to soil compaction
	problems. Compaction caused by narrow wheels of higher inflation
	pressure is less than that caused by wider wheels of low inflation
	pressure. In this study, the motion resistance and motion resistance
	ratio of 660 mm bicycle wheel on the paved surface, grass field,
	tilled and wet surfaces have been measured empirically using the
	developed single wheel rolling resistance test rig for traction studies
	for non-lug narrow wheel. The motion resistance were measured as
	the towing force in real time using the Mecmesin Basic Force Gauge
	(BFG 2500). The respective effect of the dynamic load and towing
	velocity on motion resistance ratios have been modelled on different
	test surfaces. The mathematical modelling revealed that different
	relationships exist between the motion resistance ratio and the test
	variables on different test surfaces. These information will be useful
	in the development and operation of simple agricultural machines
	for low income farmers and the rural dwellers.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Akande2011}
}
@article{Alden1985,
  author = {Alden, R.T.H. and Qureshy, F.A.},
  title = {Eigenvalue Tracking Due to Parameter Variation},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {AC-30},
  pages = {923--925},
  number = {9},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {This note describes an efficient eigenvalue tracking algorithm, which
	is applicable in many engineerings ystems where the effect of parameter
	variation on system stability is to be determined. Starting with
	the original system eigenvalues, the algorithm uses determinants
	to compute first-order eigenvalue sensitivities which are used in
	an iterative method that converges rapidly to the new eigenvalues
	corresponding to the parameter change. The algorithm tracks all the
	system eigenvalues starting from a given base case. It is shown to
	be less costly than repeated eigenvalue evaluation and is illustrated
	by means of a simple power system example.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Alden1985}
}
@article{Amirouche1988,
  author = {F. M. L. Amirouche and R. L. Huston},
  title = {Dynamics of Large Constrained Flexible Structures},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {110},
  pages = {78-83},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Amirouche1988},
  doi = {10.1115/1.3152654},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/110/78/1}
}
@book{Anderson1979,
  title = {Optimal Filtering},
  publisher = {Dover Publications},
  year = {1979},
  author = {Anderson, Brian D. O. and Moore, John B.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Anderson1979}
}
@article{Andriacchi1998,
  author = {T. P. Andriacchi and E. J. Alexander and M. K. Toney and C. Dyrby
	and J. Sum},
  title = {A Point Cluster Method for In Vivo Motion Analysis: applied to a
	Study of Knee Kinematics},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanical Engineering},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {120},
  pages = {743--749},
  number = {6},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Andriacchi1998},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2834888},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JBY/120/743/}
}
@inbook{FlyingQualities,
  chapter = {10},
  pages = {215--238},
  title = {Flying Qualities},
  year = {XXXX},
  author = {Anonymous},
  note = {I think is a chapter of a book from a prof at Virginia Tech},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#FlyingQualities}
}
@conference{Anonymous1995,
  author = {Anonymous},
  title = {International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control 1994. AVEC '94},
  booktitle = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {24},
  number = {4--5},
  month = {June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Anonymous1995}
}
@conference{Anonymous1987,
  author = {Anonymous},
  title = {ICTS International School of Applied Dynamics 3rd Seminar on Advanced
	Vehicle System Dynamics},
  booktitle = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {16},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Anonymous1987}
}
@conference{Anonymous1978,
  author = {Anonymous},
  title = {Motorcycle Dynamics and Rider Control},
  booktitle = {SAE Special Publications},
  year = {1978},
  number = {SP--428},
  pages = {116},
  address = {Detroit, MI, USA},
  month = {February--March},
  organization = {SAE},
  publisher = {SAE, Warrendale, PA},
  note = {Ten (10) papers by various authors were presented at this session.
	The subjects discussed in these papers included the following: motorcycle
	steering behavior and straight line stability characteristics; lateral-directional
	motorcycle dynamics; effect of frame flexibility on high weave of
	motorcycles; effect of front fork flexibility on the stability of
	motorcycles; measurement of braking performance; motorcycle dynamics
	EM DASH fact, fiction and folklore; and riding behavior of motorcyclists
	as influenced by pavement characteristics. Selected papers were abstracted
	separately.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Anonymous1978}
}
@techreport{Anon1954,
  author = {Anonymous},
  title = {The Human Pilot},
  institution = {United States Navy Bureau of Aeronautics},
  year = {1954},
  number = {AE-61-4 III},
  month = {August},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Anon1954}
}
@article{Antonov2011,
  author = {Antonov, S. and Fehn, A. and Kugi, A.},
  title = {Unscented Kalman filter for vehicle state estimation},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {49},
  pages = {1497-1520},
  number = {9},
  abstract = { Vehicle dynamics control (VDC) systems require information about
	system variables, which cannot be directly measured, e.g. the wheel
	slip or the vehicle side-slip angle. This paper presents a new concept
	for the vehicle state estimation under the assumption that the vehicle
	is equipped with the standard VDC sensors. It is proposed to utilise
	an unscented Kalman filter for estimation purposes, since it is based
	on a numerically efficient nonlinear stochastic estimation technique.
	A planar two-track model is combined with the empiric Magic Formula
	in order to describe the vehicle and tyre behaviour. Moreover, an
	advanced vertical tyre load calculation method is developed that
	additionally considers the vertical tyre stiffness and increases
	the estimation accuracy. Experimental tests show good accuracy and
	robustness of the designed vehicle state estimation concept. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Antonov2011},
  doi = {10.1080/00423114.2010.527994},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423114.2010.527994},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423114.2010.527994}
}
@article{Antos2004,
  author = {Pavel Antos and Jorge Ambr\'{o}sio},
  title = {A Control Strategy for Vehicle Trajectory Tracking Using Multibody
	Models},
  journal = {Multibody System Dynamics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {365--394},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Antos2004}
}
@article{Aoki1999,
  author = {A. Aoki},
  title = {Effectiveness of the Basic Model for Motorcycle Dynamics},
  journal = {JSME Journal Series C},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {110--116},
  number = {636},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Aoki1999}
}
@article{Aoki1979,
  author = {Akira Aoki},
  title = {Experimental Study on Motorcycle Steering Performance},
  journal = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  year = {1979},
  month = {February},
  note = {SAE Paper 790265},
  abstract = {A study of the lateral motion of motorcycles has been conducted through
	experiments on four large motorcycles of Japanese manufacture. A
	total of five experimental procedures were applied to straight or
	nearly straight running conditions and curve running conditions,
	and the results of each experiment were arranged by frequency response
	function in terms of input and output.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Aoki1979}
}
@article{Aoki1999a,
  author = {Aoki, Akira and Katayama, Tsuyoshi and Nishimi, Tomoo and Okayama,
	Takumi},
  title = {Effects of Rider's Vibrational Characteristics on Straight-Running
	Stability of Motorcycles},
  journal = {Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. C},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {65},
  pages = {2294-2301},
  number = {634},
  note = {Japanese},
  abstract = {A six-degree-of-freedom model and a twelve-degree-of freedom model
	incorporating a rider's vibrational characteristics have been developed.
	The models include a mechanical model of the rider's body which consists
	of a leaning motion of the upper body and a lateral movement of the
	lower body. Damping properties and natural frequencies of weave and
	wobble modes were calculated using these models. Conclusions are
	drawn about effects of the rider's vibrational characteristics on
	the stability of motorcycles during straight running from the calculations
	in the six degree of freedom model. Implications for accurate modeling
	of motorcycle stability are derived from differences between the
	calculations in the twelve-degree-of-freedom model and running experiments.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Aoki1999a},
  issn = {03875024},
  publisher = {The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  url = {http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110002384218/en/}
}
@techreport{ArnbergTyden1974,
  author = {P. W. Arnberg and T. Tyden},
  title = {Stability and maneuverability performance of different types of bicycles},
  year = {1974},
  number = {45 A},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#ArnbergTyden1974}
}
@article{Arndt2009,
  author = {David Arndt and James E. Bobrow and Steven Peters and Karl Iagnemma
	and Steven Dubowsky},
  title = {Self-Balancing Control of a Four Wheeled Vehicle},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Arndt2009}
}
@article{Ashkenas1984,
  author = {I. L. Ashkenas},
  title = {Twenty-Five Years of Handling Qualities Research},
  journal = {J. of Aircraft},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {289--301},
  number = {5},
  note = {STI-P-323},
  abstract = {This paper reflects on 25 years (or more) of handling quality research
	and shares with the reader some of the author's resulting experiences
	and thoughts. When reaching back so far and considering all that
	has been accomplished, there are many facets of handling or flying
	qualities which could be covered and considered. However, the author
	chooses to limit discussion to those aspects concerned with the theory
	of handling qualities, in turn relating to closed-loop, pilot-vehicle,
	frequency-domain analysis and its application to handling and flight
	control problems. This is not to deny other aspects of handling qualities
	research which are beyond the scope of this limited exposition, such
	as: ground and in flight simulation; rating systems; optimal control
	operator models; workload concepts; and data collection and codification.
	Rather, it is to emphasize those aspects that the author is personally
	most familiar with, and which stress the design guidance role of
	handling qualities theory and practice. This has always been important
	and it is especially important now because of increasing dependence
	on sophisticated flight control systems which can completely alter
	the way an airplane responds to the pilot's inputs. In fact, handling
	quality research has recently come up for its share of criticism
	as being inadequate to cope with some of today's design problems.
	For example, Berry, in a recent article in Astronautics and Aeronautics
	and Gibson, in a paper before the AGARD Conference in Fort Worth,
	both decried the fact that there have been a rash of generic handling
	problems associated with high-performance aircraft having sophisticated
	flight control systems, and that such systems have not always reached
	their full potential to provide handling qualities superior to much
	simpler aircraft of the past. Against this background, first to be
	discussed are the basic aspects of handling or flying qualities and
	some of the early design problems that were solved; then, the growth
	of handling qualities theory in response to design demands; and,
	finally, how that theory has been applied and expanded over the years
	to become a valuable tool, especially useful in coping with new situations
	such as those that seem to be occurring almost daily.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ashkenas1984}
}
@inproceedings{Baldwin2009,
  author = {G. Douglas Baldwin},
  title = {Open Source Multibody Aeroelastic Modeling, Simulation, and Video
	Rendering},
  booktitle = {Multibody Dynamics: An ECCOMAS Thematic Conference},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {Multibody simulation and video animation are both powerful tools for
	analyzing, communicating, and promoting advanced vertical flight
	concepts. By combining these two activities, the rendered videos
	have the credibility of being physics based, and the multibody simulation
	results can be presented in a real world setting. This paper reports
	on the integration of two complimentary open source tools to create
	a general purpose multibody modeling, simulation, and video rendering
	environment that can be used for real-time pilot-in-the-loop or batch
	mode simulation and analysis. The two free open source tools that
	were integrated are MBDyn and Blender.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Baldwin2009}
}
@article{Baslamisli2009,
  author = {Baslamisli, S. \c{C}a\v{g}lar and K\"{o}se, \.{I}. Emre and Anla\c{s},
	G.},
  title = {Gain-scheduled integrated active steering and differential control
	for vehicle handling improvement},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {47},
  pages = {99--119},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {This paper presents a gain-scheduled active steering control and active
	differential design method to preserve vehicle stability in extreme
	handling situations. A new formulation of the bicycle model in which
	tyre slip angles, longitudinal slips and vehicle forward speed appear
	as varying vehicle parameters is introduced. Such a model happens
	to be useful in the design of vehicle dynamics controllers scheduled
	by vehicle parameters: after having expressed the parametric bicycle
	model in the parametric descriptor form, gain-scheduled active steering
	and differential controllers are designed to improve vehicle handling
	at ‘large’ driver-commanded steering angles. Simulations reveal
	the efficiency of the selected modelling and controller design methodology
	in enhancing vehicle handling capacity during cornering on roads
	with varying adhesion coefficient and under variable speed operation.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Baslamisli2009},
  url = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/00423110801927100}
}
@inproceedings{Baslamisli2007,
  author = {Baslamisli, S. \c{C}a\v{g}lar and Polat, \.{I}. and K\"{o}se, \.{I}.
	Emre},
  title = {Gain Scheduled Active Steering Control Based on a Parametric Bicycle
	Model},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {1168--1173},
  abstract = {This paper presents a gain scheduled active steering control design
	method to preserve vehicle stability in extreme handling situations.
	It is shown that instead of the classical linear tire model based
	on expressing cornering force proportional to tire sideslip angle,
	a simple rational model with validity extending beyond the linear
	regime of the tire may be considered. This results in a new formulation
	of the bicycle model in which tire sideslip angles and vehicle forward
	speed appear as time-varying parameters. Such a model happens to
	be useful in the design of controllers scheduled by tire sideslip
	angles: after having expressed the parametric bicycle model in the
	parametric descriptor form, a gain scheduled active steering controller
	is designed in this study to improve vehicle handling at "large"
	driver commanded steering angles. Simulations reveal the efficiency
	of the selected modeling and controller design methodology in enhancing
	vehicle handling capacity during cornering on roads with high and
	low adhesion coefficient.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Baslamisli2007},
  doi = {10.1109/IVS.2007.4290276},
  issn = {1931-0587},
  keywords = {control system synthesis, road vehicles, stability, steering systems,
	time-varying systems, vehicle dynamics, gain scheduled active steering
	control design, parametric bicycle model, rational model, time-varying
	parameter, tire sideslip angle, vehicle forward speed, vehicle handling
	capacity, vehicle stability}
}
@article{Bassett2008,
  author = {{Bassett Jr.}, David R. and Pucher, John and Buehler, Ralph and Thomason,
	Dixie L. and Crouter, Scott E.},
  title = {Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and
	Australia},
  journal = {Journal of Physical Activity and Health},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {795--814},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Bassett2008}
}
@unpublished{Basu-Mandal2006,
  author = {Basu-Mandal, P. and Chatterjee, A. and Papadopoulos, J.},
  title = {Hands-Free Circular Motions of a Benchmark Bicycle},
  note = {A pre-print provided by the authors.},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {We write nonlinear equations of motion for an idealized benchmark
	bicycle in two different ways and verify their validity. We then
	present a complete description of handsfree circular motions. Three
	distinct families exist. (i) A handlebar-forward family, starting
	from capsize bifurcation off straight-line motion and ending in unstable
	static equilibrium, with the frame perfectly upright and the front
	wheel almost perpendicular. (ii) A handlebar-reversed family, starting
	again from capsize bifurcation but ending with the front wheel again
	steered straight, the bicycle spinning infinitely fast in small circles
	while lying flat in the ground plane. (iii) Lastly, a family joining
	a similar flat spinning motion (with handlebar forward), to a handlebar-reversed
	limit, circling in dynamic balance at infinite speed, with the frame
	near upright and the front wheel almost perpendicular; the transition
	between handlebar forward and reversed is through moderate-speed
	circular pivoting, with the rear wheel not rotating and the bicycle
	virtually upright. Small sections of two families are stable.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Basu-Mandal2006},
  keywords = {bicycle dynamics, circular motions}
}
@article{Basu-Mandal2007,
  author = {Basu-Mandal, Pradipta and Chatterjee, Anindya and Papadopoulos, Jim
	M.},
  title = {Hands-free circular motions of a benchmark bicycle},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and EngineeringSciences},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {463},
  pages = {1983--2003},
  number = {2084},
  month = {August},
  abstract = {We write nonlinear equations of motion for an idealized benchmarkbicycle
	in two different ways and verify their validity. We then present
	a complete description of hands-free circular motions. Three distinct
	families exist. (i) A handlebar-forward family, starting from capsize
	bifurcation off straight-line motion and ending in unstable static
	equilibrium, with the frame perfectly upright and the front wheel
	almost perpendicular. (ii) A handlebar-reversed family, starting
	again from capsize bifurcation but ending with the front wheel again
	steered straight, the bicycle spinning infinitely fast in small circles
	while lying flat in the ground plane. (iii) Lastly, a family joining
	a similar flat spinning motion (with handlebar forward), to a handlebar-reversed
	limit, circling in dynamic balance at infinite speed, with the frame
	near upright and the front wheel almost perpendicular; the transition
	between handlebar forward and reversed is through moderate-speed
	circular pivoting, with the rear wheel not rotating and the bicycle
	virtually upright. Small sections of two families are stable.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Basu-Mandal2007},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2007.1849}
}
@book{Beckwith1990,
  title = {Mechanical Measurements},
  publisher = {Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.},
  year = {1990},
  author = {Thomas G. Beckwith and Roy Marangoni},
  edition = {Fourth},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Beckwith1990}
}
@inproceedings{Berriah1999,
  author = {Berriah, S. and Lachiver, G.},
  title = {Control of equilibrium and trajectory of a remotely controlled bicycle},
  booktitle = {Engineering Solutions for the Next Millennium. 1999 IEEE Canadian
	Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering},
  year = {1999},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Berriah1999}
}
@inproceedings{Berritta2002,
  author = {R. Berritta and L. Mitolo},
  title = {Evaluation of motorcycle performance in “U” turn test using multibody
	code LMS DADS},
  booktitle = {HIGH-TECH CARS AND ENGINES, COMPONENTS, MATERIALS, TECNOLOGIES AND
	INNOVATIVE SYSTEMS},
  year = {2002},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Berritta2002}
}
@article{Berry2000,
  author = {Michael J. Berry and Timothy R. Koves and John J. Benedetto},
  title = {The influence of speed, grade and mass during simulated off road
	bicycling},
  journal = {Applied Ergonomics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {531--536},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Berry2000}
}
@inproceedings{Besselink2008,
  author = {Igo Besselink and Tjalling Veldhuizen and Henk Nijmeijer},
  title = {Improving Yaw Dynamics by Feedforward Rear Wheel Steering},
  booktitle = {2008 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium},
  year = {2008},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Besselink2008}
}
@inproceedings{Beznos1998,
  author = {Beznos, A.V.; Formalsky, A.M.; et al.},
  title = {Control of autonomous motion of two-wheel bicycle with gyroscopic
	stabilization},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Robotics
	and Automation},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {2670--2675},
  address = {Leuven, Belgium},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Beznos1998}
}
@misc{Bianchi2009,
  author = {Bianchi},
  title = {2007 Bianchi Pista Specifications},
  howpublished = {http://www.bianchiusa.com/07-bicycles/07-track/07-pista.html},
  month = {July},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Bianchi2009}
}
@article{Biral2003,
  author = {Biral, F. and Bortoluzzi, D. and Cossalter, V. and Lio, M.},
  title = {Experimental Study of Motorcycle Transfer Functions for Evaluating
	Handling},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics
	and Mobility},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {1-25},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {Summary The transfer functions of a motorcycle, especially that between
	roll angle and steering torque, qualify input-output characteristics
	- that is, motion produced as a function of steering torque - and
	are closely related to ease of use and handling. This paper describes
	the measurement of the transfer functions of a typical sports motorcycle,
	resulting from data collected in slalom tests. These functions are
	then compared to analytical transfer functions derived from known
	models in the literature. The comparison shows fair to good agreement.
	Lastly, the formation of steering torque is analysed and the observed
	transfer functions are interpreted in this framework. It is shown
	that gyroscopic effects are mostly responsible for the lag between
	steering torque and roll angle, and that there is a velocity for
	which the various terms that combine to form steering torque cancel
	each other out, yielding a ‘maximum gain condition' for torque to
	roll transfer function which drivers rated ‘good handling'.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Biral2003},
  doi = {10.1076/vesd.39.1.1.8243},
  keywords = {steer torque, slalom},
  url = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1076/vesd.39.1.1.8243}
}
@inproceedings{Biral2010,
  author = {F. Biral and R. Lot and R. Sartori and A. Borin and B. Roessler†},
  title = {An intelligent Frontal Collision Warning system for Motorcycles},
  booktitle = {Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics 2010 Symposium on the Dynamics and
	Control of Single Track Vehicles},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Delft, Netherlands},
  month = {October},
  organization = {TU Delft},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Biral2010},
  keywords = {advanced rider assistance systems, frontal collision warning, optimal
	preview manoeuvre, motorcycle}
}
@mastersthesis{Bjermeland2006,
  author = {L. Bjermeland},
  title = {Modeling, simulation and control system design for an autonomous
	bicycle},
  school = {Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet},
  year = {2006},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Bjermeland2006}
}
@misc{Bjornstrup1995,
  author = {J{\o}rgen Bj{\o}rnstrup},
  title = {Estimation of Human Body Segment Parameters - Historical Background},
  year = {1995},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Bjornstrup1995}
}
@periodical{Bloomfield1999,
  title = {Tricks Of A Two-Wheeler -- `Look, Ma, No Hands' Not As Tough As It
	Sounds},
  year = {1999},
  organization = {The Washington Post},
  month = {August},
  author = {Louis A. Bloomfield},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Bloomfield1999}
}
@inproceedings{Boniolo2010a,
  author = {Ivo Boniolo and Stefano Corbetta and Sergio M. Savaresi},
  title = {Attitude estimation of a motorcycle in a Kalman filtering framework},
  booktitle = {6th IFAC Symposium Advances in Automotive Control},
  year = {2010},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Boniolo2010a}
}
@inproceedings{Boniolo2008a,
  author = {Ivo Boniolo and Michele Norgia and Mara Tanelli and Cesare Svelto
	and Sergio M. Savaresi},
  title = {Performance analysis of an optical distance sensor for roll angle
	estimation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 17th World Congress The International Federation
	of Automatic Control},
  year = {2008},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Boniolo2008a}
}
@inproceedings{Boniolo2010,
  author = {Ivo Boniolo and Sergio M Savaresi},
  title = {Motorcycle lean angle estimation with frequency separation principle
	and angular rates measurements},
  booktitle = {6th IFAC Symposium Advances in Automotive Control},
  year = {2010},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Boniolo2010}
}
@article{Boniolo2009,
  author = {Boniolo, I. and Savaresi, S. M. and Tanelli, M.},
  title = {Roll angle estimation in two-wheeled vehicles},
  journal = {IET Control Theory and Applications},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {20-32},
  number = {1},
  month = {January},
  abstract = {An innovative method for estimating the roll angle in two-wheeled
	vehicles is proposed. The roll angle is a crucial variable in the
	dynamics of two-wheeled vehicles, since it greatly affects the behaviour
	of the tire-road contact forces. Hence, the capability of providing
	in real time a reliable measure of such quantity allows us to evaluate
	the dynamic properties of the vehicle and its tyres, and represents
	the enabling technology for the design of advanced braking, traction
	and stability control systems. The method proposed is based on a
	low-cost sensor configuration, suitable for industrial purposes.
	The validity of the proposed approach is assessed in a multi-body
	motorbike simulator environment and also on an instrumented test
	vehicle.},
  address = {MICHAEL FARADAY HOUSE SIX HILLS WAY STEVENAGE, HERTFORD SG1 2AY,
	ENGLAND},
  affiliation = {Boniolo, I (Reprint Author), Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettr \&
	Informaz, Piazza L da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan, Italy. {[}Boniolo,
	I.; Savaresi, S. M.; Tanelli, M.] Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettr
	\& Informaz, I-20133 Milan, Italy. {[}Tanelli, M.] Univ Bergamo,
	Dipartimento Ingn Informaz \& Metodi Matemat, I-24044 Dalmine, BG,
	Italy.},
  author-email = {tanelli@elet.polimi.it},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Boniolo2009},
  doc-delivery-number = {400KB},
  doi = {10.1049/iet-cta:20080052},
  issn = {1751-8644},
  journal-iso = {IET Contr. Theory Appl.},
  keywords = {roll angle},
  keywords-plus = {MOTORCYCLE; STABILITY; SIMULATION; DYNAMICS; SYSTEMS; BRAKING; MODEL},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {30},
  publisher = {INST ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-IET},
  subject-category = {Automation \& Control Systems; Engineering, Electrical \& Electronic;
	Instruments \& Instrumentation},
  times-cited = {0},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000262865400002}
}
@inproceedings{Boniolo2008,
  author = {Boniolo, I. and Tanelli, M. and Savaresi, S.M.},
  title = {Roll angle estimation in two-wheeled vehicles},
  booktitle = {17th IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Part
	of 2008 IEEE Multi-conference on Systems and Control},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {31-36},
  address = {San Antonio, Texas, USA},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {In this work an innovative method for estimating the roll angle in
	two-wheeled vehicles is proposed. The capability of providing in
	real time a reliable measure of such quantity allows to evaluate
	the dynamic properties of the vehicle and its tires and represents
	the enabling technology for the design of advanced ABS systems and
	stability control systems. The method proposed in this work is based
	on a low-cost sensor configuration, suitable for industrial purposes.
	The validity of the proposed approach is assessed in a multi-body
	simulator environment and on an instrumented test vehicle.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Boniolo2008},
  doi = {10.1109/CCA.2008.4629599},
  issn = {1085-1992},
  journal = {Control Applications, 2008. CCA 2008. IEEE International Conference
	on},
  keywords = {braking, control system synthesis, road vehicles, stability, vehicle
	dynamicsABS system design, antilock braking system, instrumented
	test vehicle, low-cost sensor configuration, multibody simulator
	environment, roll angle estimation, stability control system design,
	two-wheeled vehicle dynamics}
}
@inproceedings{Bortoluzzi2000,
  author = {D. Bortoluzzi and A. Doria and R. Lot},
  title = {Experimental investigation and simulation of motorcycle turning performance},
  booktitle = {3rd International Motorcycle Conference},
  year = {2000},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Bortoluzzi2000},
  keywords = {steer torque}
}
@article{Bourlet1899,
  author = {Bourlet, C.},
  title = {Etude theorique sur la bicyclette},
  journal = {Bulletin de la Societe Mathematique de France},
  year = {1899},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {47-67},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Bourlet1899}
}
@article{Bower1915,
  author = {Bower, George S.},
  title = {Steering and Stability of Single-Track Vehicles},
  journal = {The Automobile Engineer},
  year = {1915},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {280--283},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Bower1915}
}
@book{Box1994,
  title = {Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control},
  publisher = {Prentice Hall},
  year = {1994},
  editor = {Jerome Grant},
  author = {George E. P. Box and Gwilym M. Jenkins and Gregory C. Reinsel},
  edition = {Third},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Box1994}
}
@article{Boyd1997,
  author = {Thomas F. Boyd and R. R. Neptune and M. L. Hull},
  title = {Pedal and knee loads using a multi-degree-of-freedom pedal platform
	in cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {505 - 511},
  number = {5},
  abstract = {To provide a scientific basis for the design of bicycle pedals which
	possibly alleviate over-use knee injuries, two hypotheses were tested
	in the present study. The two hypotheses were: (1) that the three-dimensional
	pedal constraint loads; and (2) that the three-dimensional intersegmental
	knee loads would be reduced more significantly by a foot/pedal platform
	allowing both adduction/abduction and inversion/eversion rotations
	simultaneously than by a platform which allowed either rotation individually.
	To test these hypotheses, pedal load and lower limb kinematic data
	were collected from 10 subjects who pedaled with four pedal platforms
	which allowed zero, one, and two degrees of freedom. A number of
	quantities describing both pedal loads and intersegmental knee loads
	was computed for each of the four pedal platforms using a previously
	reported biomechanical model. The quantities included the positive
	and negative extremes, averages, and areas, as well as the total
	absolute area and RMS. Quantities were compared using analysis of
	variance techniques. The key results were that there were significant
	reductions in the coupled nondriving moments at the pedal for the
	dual-rotation platform compared to each of the single-rotation cases.
	The significant reductions in the coupled moments at the pedal were
	not manifest at the knee. However, a general nonsignificant reduction
	in both coupled knee moments was evident. Also, the valgus knee moment
	was significantly reduced by the dual-rotation platform compared
	to the inversion/eversion only design. Although the axial knee moment
	was not significantly reduced by the dual-rotation platform over
	the adduction/abduction design, there was a general nonsignificant
	reduction. The lack of significance in knee load results occurred
	because of high intersubject variability. Accordingly, load reduction
	benefits made by introducing the second degree of freedom need to
	be considered individually.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Boyd1997},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9290(96)00152-2},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  keywords = {Cycling},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-3RGSWBR-X/2/370e4e69f48a79699d302f74ccefebb2}
}
@mastersthesis{Brekke2010,
  author = {Snorre Eskeland Brekke},
  title = {Autonomous Bicycle},
  school = {Norwegian University of Science and Technology},
  year = {2010},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Brekke2010}
}
@article{Bridges1987,
  author = {Bridges, P. and Russell, J. B.},
  title = {The Effect of Topboxes on Motorcycle Stability},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {345--354},
  number = {5--6},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Bridges1987}
}
@mastersthesis{Brok2009,
  author = {Brok},
  title = {A SimMechanics motorcycle tyre model for real time purposes},
  school = {Delft University of Technology},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Brok2009}
}
@mastersthesis{Buehler2007,
  author = {Theodore J. Buehler},
  title = {Fifty Years of Bicycle Policy in Davis, CA},
  school = {University of California, Davis},
  year = {2007},
  month = {June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Buehler2007}
}
@techreport{Bullen2001,
  author = {Frank Bullen and Sean Wilkinson},
  title = {Bicycle Accidents Caused By Steering Instability},
  institution = {The Federal Office of Road Safety, Australia},
  year = {2001},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Bullen2001}
}
@inproceedings{Cain2010,
  author = {S. M. Cain and N. C. Perkins},
  title = {Comparison of a Bicycle Steady-State Turning Model to Experimental
	Data},
  booktitle = {Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics 2010 Symposium on the Dynamics and
	Control of Single Track Vehicles},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Delft, Netherlands},
  month = {October},
  organization = {TU Delft},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cain2010},
  keywords = {instrumented bicycle, steady turning, rider lean, steering torque.
	steer torque sensor}
}
@techreport{Calspan1974,
  author = {Calspan},
  title = {A proposal to develop motorcycle rider training films},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1974},
  abstract = {This proposal describes a research program aimed at developing training
	films utilizing computer graphics techniques for use in motorcycle
	
	rider education. The approach is based on applying computer simulations
	and graphics methods already developed at Calspan to special motorcycle
	
	rider training problems. Emphasis has been placed on the off-tracking
	steering technique for cornering (i. e. the initiation of a turn
	by first steering out of it) but several other potential applications
	are identified.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Calspan1974}
}
@techreport{Calspan1974a,
  author = {Calspan},
  title = {Research on the accident avoidance capabilities of motorcycles},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1974},
  number = {ZN-5571-V},
  month = {December},
  note = {Six month progress report},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Calspan1974a}
}
@article{Capitani2006,
  author = {Capitani, R. and Masi, G. and Meneghin, A. and Rosti, D.},
  title = {Handling analysis of a two-wheeled vehicle using MSC.ADAMS/motorcycle},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics
	and Mobility},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {698--707},
  abstract = {In this article, the results of a virtual analysis of a two-wheeled
	vehicle are described. A virtual prototype of a Piaggio Liberty 150
	4T was built to evaluate the handling behavior during some codified
	maneuvers. The activity was done with the cooperation of Piaggio
	& C. SpA and MSC Software. The multibody model was built using MSC.Adams/Motorcycle.
	It reproduces the original vehicle (geometry, inertia, and spring/damper
	coefficients) and is fully parametrized. The actions between ground
	and tires are calculated with the "Magic Formula". The multibody
	model, controlled applying a steering torque to the handlebar, was
	tested during some maneuvers (turn, ISO lane change, "Figure 8"),
	and the results were compared with the experimental data acquired
	with an instrumented vehicle during the same maneuvers. Signal comparison
	gave a good agreement except for the differences due to the input
	forces: the multibody model is controlled only with the steering
	torque, but body movements and feet and hand pressures are applied
	to the instrumented vehicle.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Capitani2006},
  doi = {10.1080/00423110600883603}
}
@article{Cenciarini2006,
  author = {Cenciarini, Massimo and Peterka, Robert J.},
  title = {Stimulus-Dependent Changes in the Vestibular Contribution to Human
	Postural Control},
  journal = {Journal of Neurophysiology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {95},
  pages = {2733-2750},
  number = {5},
  abstract = {Humans maintain stable stance in a wide variety of environments. This
	robust behavior is thought to involve sensory reweighting whereby
	the nervous system adjusts the relative contribution of sensory sources
	used to control stance depending on environmental conditions. Based
	on prior experimental and modeling results, we developed a specific
	quantitative representation of a sensory reweighting hypothesis that
	predicts that a given reduction in the contribution from one sensory
	system will be accompanied by a corresponding increase in the contribution
	from different sensory systems. The goal of this study was to test
	this sensory-reweighting hypothesis using measures that quantitatively
	assess the relative contributions of the proprioceptive and graviceptive
	(vestibular) systems to postural control during eyes-closed stance
	in different test conditions. Medial/lateral body sway was evoked
	by side-to-side rotation of the support surface (SS) while simultaneously
	delivering a pulsed galvanic vestibular stimulus (GVS) through electrodes
	behind the ears. A model-based interpretation of sway evoked by SS
	rotations provided estimates of the proprioceptive weighting factor,
	Wp, and showed that Wp declined with increasing SS amplitude. If
	the sensory-reweighting hypothesis is true, then the decline in Wp
	should be accompanied by a corresponding increase in Wg, the graviceptive
	weighting factor, and responses to the GVS should increase in proportion
	to the value of Wg derived from responses to SS rotations. Results
	were consistent with the predictions of the proposed sensory-reweighting
	hypothesis. GVS-evoked sway increased with increasing SS amplitude,
	and Wg measures derived from responses to GVS and from responses
	to SS rotations were highly correlated.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cenciarini2006},
  doi = {10.1152/jn.00856.2004},
  eprint = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/95/5/2733.full.pdf+html},
  url = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/95/5/2733.abstract}
}
@article{Cerone2010,
  author = {Cerone, V. and Andreo, D. and Larsson, M. and Regruto, D.},
  title = {Stabilization of a Riderless Bicycle [Applications of Control]},
  journal = {Control Systems, IEEE},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {23 -32},
  number = {5},
  month = {October},
  abstract = {The bicycle provides transportation for leisure, recreation, and travel
	between home and work, throughout the world, in big cities as well
	as in small villages, supporting human mobility for more than a century.
	Modeling, analysis, and control of bicycle dynamics has been an attractive
	area of research in the last century as well as in recent years.
	Bicycle dynamics has attracted the attention of the automatic control
	research community because of its peculiar features, such as, for
	example, the fact that it depends strongly on the bicycle speed and
	that, under certain conditions, it exhibits both open right-half
	plane poles and zeros, making the design of feedback controllers
	for either balancing the bicycle in the upright position or moving
	it along a predefined path a challenging problem. In this article,
	the LPV nature of the bicycle dynamics is exploited to design a control
	system that automatically balances a riderless bicycle in the upright
	position. More precisely, the problem is formulated as the design
	of an LPV state-feedback controller that guarantees stability of
	this two-wheeled vehicle when the speed varies within a given range
	and its derivative is bounded.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cerone2010},
  doi = {10.1109/MCS.2010.937745},
  issn = {1066-033X},
  keywords = {LPV state-feedback controller design;automatic control research community;bicycle
	dynamics;bicycle speed;linear-parameter-varying approach;riderless
	bicycle balancing;riderless bicycle stabilization;bicycles;control
	system synthesis;linear systems;position control;stability;state
	feedback;vehicle dynamics;velocity control;}
}
@techreport{Chandler1975,
  author = {Chandler, R. F. and Clauser, C. E. and McConville, J. T. and Reynolds,
	H. M. and Young, J. W.},
  title = {Investigation of inertial properties of the human body},
  institution = {Wright-Patterson Air Force Base},
  year = {1975},
  number = {AMRL TR 74-137},
  address = {Ohio},
  note = {NTIS No. AD-A016 485},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chandler1975}
}
@manual{Chaplin2002,
  title = {Parking Lot Exercises to develop bicycle handling proficiency},
  author = {Lois Chaplin},
  organization = {Cornell University},
  address = {Ithaca, NY},
  year = {2002},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chaplin2002}
}
@inproceedings{Chen2010,
  author = {Chih-Keng Chen and Trung-Kien Dao},
  title = {A study of bicycle dynamics via system identification},
  booktitle = {Computer Communication Control and Automation (3CA), 2010 International
	Symposium on},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {204--207},
  month = {may},
  abstract = {This study investigates bicycle dynamic properties by using system
	identification approaches. The nonlinear bicycle model with configuration
	parameters from a previously developed benchmark model is studied.
	The roll angle of the bicycle is controlled at different speeds to
	generate input-output data including steering torque, roll and steering
	angles. The collected data are then used to identify the one-input
	two-output linear model by a prediction-error identification method
	using parameterization in canonical state-space form. Numerous properties
	for various speed ranges are discussed from the pole and zero locations
	of the identified linear model. The system stability, limit-cycle
	phase portraits of the roll and steering angles, and the non-minimum
	phase property of the nonlinear system are further investigated and
	compared.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chen2010},
  doi = {10.1109/3CA.2010.5533583},
  keywords = {bicycle dynamics;input-output data;nonlinear bicycle model;steering
	torque;system identification;bicycles;steering systems;vehicle dynamics;}
}
@article{Chen2007,
  author = {Chen, Chih-Keng and Dao, Thanh-Son},
  title = {Genetic Fuzzy Control for Path-Tracking of an Autonomous Robotic
	Bicycle},
  journal = {Journal of System Design and Dynamics},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {536--547},
  abstract = {Due to its non-holonomic constraints and a highly unstable nature,
	the autonomous bicycle is difficult to be controlled for tracking
	a target path while retaining its balance. As a result of the non-holonomic
	constraint conditions, the instantaneous velocity of the vehicle
	is limited to certain directions. Constraints of this kind occur
	under the no-slip condition. In this study, the problem of optimization
	of fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) for path-tracking of an autonomous
	robotic bicycle using genetic algorithm (GA) is focused. In order
	to implement path-tracking algorithm, strategies for balancing and
	tracking a given roll-angle are also addressed. The proposed strategy
	optimizes FLCs by keeping the rule-table fixed and tuning their membership
	functions by introducing the scaling factors (SFs) and deforming
	coefficients (DCs). The numerical simualtions prove the effectiveness
	of the proposed structure of the genetic fuzzy controller for the
	developed bicycle system.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chen2007},
  doi = {10.1299/jsdd.1.536},
  keywords = {Fuzzy System, Motion Control, Genetic Algorithm, Stability, Bicycle}
}
@article{Chen2006,
  author = {Chen, Chih-Keng and Dao, Thanh-Son},
  title = {Fuzzy Control for Equilibrium and Roll-Angle Tracking of an Unmanned
	Bicycle},
  journal = {Multibody System Dynamics},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {321-346},
  note = {10.1007/s11044-006-9013-7},
  affiliation = {Da-Yeh University Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering
	112 Shan-Jiau Rd. Changhua Taiwan 515 ROC 112 Shan-Jiau Rd. Changhua
	Taiwan 515 ROC},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chen2006},
  issn = {1384-5640},
  issue = {4},
  keyword = {Engineering},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11044-006-9013-7}
}
@article{Chen2005,
  author = {Chen, Chih-Keng and Dao, Thanh-Son and Yang, Chih-Kai},
  title = {Turning dynamics and equilibrium of two-wheeled vehicles},
  journal = {Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {377-387},
  note = {10.1007/BF02916158},
  abstract = {The equations of motion of two-wheeled vehicles, e g bicycles or motorcycles,
	are developed by using Lagrange’s equations for quasi-coord mates
	The pure rolling constiatnts between the ground and the two wheels
	aie considered in the dynamical equations of the system For each
	wheel, two nonholonomic and two holonomic constraints are introduced
	in a set of differential-algebraic equations (DAE) The constraint
	Jacobian matrix is obtained by collecting all the constraint equations
	and converting them into the velocity form Equilibrium, an algorithm
	for searching for equilibrium points of two-wheeled vehicles and
	the associated problems are discussed Formulae foi calculating the
	radii of curvatures of ground-wheel contact paths and the reference
	point are also given},
  affiliation = {Da-Yeh University Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering
	112 Shan-Jiau Rd 515 ROC Changhua Taiwan},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chen2005},
  issn = {1738-494X},
  issue = {0},
  keyword = {Engineering},
  publisher = {The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02916158}
}
@inproceedings{Chen2000,
  author = {Ping Ho Chen},
  title = {A scheme of fuzzy training and learning applied to Elebike control
	system},
  booktitle = {Ninth IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems},
  year = {2000},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chen2000}
}
@techreport{Cheng2003,
  author = {Kok Y. Cheng and David Bothman and Karl J. {\AA}str{\"o}m},
  title = {Bicycle Torque Sensor Experiment},
  institution = {University of California, Santa Barbara},
  year = {2003},
  abstract = {This experiment examines the relationship between the steering torque
	and the turning angle of a bicycle. Initially, a torque wrench experiment
	was conducted to determine the range of applied torque required to
	steer a bicycle. With this information, a handle bar assembly involving
	a load cell and a converter circuit weredesigned and fabricated.
	A calibration test was conducted on the load cell followed by a verification
	test to validate the handle bar assembly and the associated calibration
	data. Prior to conducting the experiment, two test courses were designed
	to test two types of bicycle turns: straight turns and circular turns.
	The results of the experiment concluded that a rider must apply large
	amounts of torque to the handle bars in order to complete a turn
	that requires a high turning angle. Sources for experimental errors
	and future improvements to this investigation are suggested.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cheng2003}
}
@article{Chi2007,
  author = {Chi, Chieh-Tsung},
  title = {Self-equilibrium control on a dynamic bicycle ride},
  journal = {WSEAS Trans. Sys. Ctrl.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {527--536},
  month = {November},
  acmid = {1486748},
  address = {Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chi2007},
  issn = {1991-8763},
  issue = {11},
  keywords = {bicycle, center of gravity, cost, equilibrium control, hysteresis
	controller, sloping road},
  numpages = {10},
  publisher = {World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS)},
  url = {http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1486744.1486748}
}
@inproceedings{Chidzonga2007,
  author = {Chidzonga, R.F. and Chikuni, E.},
  title = {Stabilizing a bicycle below critical speed},
  booktitle = {AFRICON 2007},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {1-7},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {This paper discusses the control of a naturally unstable bicycle at
	stand still based on local linearization of a nonlinear model which
	results in a 2times2 multiple input multiple output system. It is
	shown through simulation plus new insights on stabilizing non-minimum
	phase systems and f-domain design techniques that it is possible
	to keep the bicycle vertical outside the self stability speed domain
	where theory in the literature has predicted that it's not possible.
	In reality the stabilization goal is a skill which can be acquired
	through practice.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chidzonga2007},
  doi = {10.1109/AFRCON.2007.4401440},
  keywords = {MIMO systems, bicycles, linear systems, nonlinear control systems,
	road vehicles, stabilitylocal linearization, multiple input multiple
	output system, nonlinear model, self stability speed domain, stabilization
	goal, unstable bicycle control}
}
@inproceedings{Chidzonga2003,
  author = {Richard. F. Chidzonga and Eduard Eitelberg},
  title = {Controlling Velocity and Steering for Bicycle Stabilization},
  booktitle = {First African Control Conference},
  year = {2003},
  address = {Cape Town, South Africa},
  month = {December},
  abstract = {Control of a naturally unstable riderless bicycle around zero equilibrium
	speed is investigated. A simple parametric model is derived. It predicts
	basic known dynamics. Jacobian linearization reveals that zero speed
	tilt stabilization is a MIMO non-minimum phase problem. It is shown
	that at certain operating conditions, the bicycle can be controlled
	only through velocity or steering. Combining both loops to maintain
	vertical balance at all speeds is the challenge. Some control structures
	and ideas are explored.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chidzonga2003},
  keywords = {multi-loop control, bicycle stabilization}
}
@techreport{Chitta2006,
  author = {Sachin Chitta and Vijay Kumar},
  title = {Biking Without Pedaling},
  institution = {Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania},
  year = {2006},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chitta2006}
}
@article{Cho1996,
  author = {Cho, YH and Kim, J},
  title = {Stability Analysis of the human controlled vehicle moving along a
	curved path},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {51--69},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cho1996}
}
@article{Chou1992,
  author = {Chou, J.C.K.},
  title = {Quaternion kinematic and dynamic differential equations},
  journal = {Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {53-64},
  number = {1},
  month = {February},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Chou1992},
  doi = {10.1109/70.127239},
  issn = {1042-296X},
  keywords = {differential equations, dynamics, kinematics, vectors3D vector space,
	acceleration, angular displacement, dynamic differential equations,
	momentum, multiplicative commutativity, quaternion kinematic differential
	equations, quaternion multiplications, rotations, vector quaternions,
	velocity}
}
@techreport{Clauser1969,
  author = {Clauser, C. E. and McConville, J. T. and Young, J. W.},
  title = {Weight, volume and center of mass of segments of the human body},
  institution = {Wright-Patterson Air Force Base},
  year = {1969},
  number = {AMRL TR 69-70},
  address = {Ohio},
  note = {NTIS No. AD-710 622},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Clauser1969}
}
@article{Cleary2011,
  author = {Patricia A Cleary and Pirooz Mohazzabi},
  title = {On the stability of a bicycle on rollers},
  journal = {European Journal of Physics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {1293},
  number = {5},
  abstract = {Riding a bicycle on the newest form of indoor training, rollers, presents
	a unique experiment on bicycle stability. The stability factors eliminated
	by riding on rollers are discussed in terms of refined handling and
	control of the centre of mass on a bicycle. This paper is intended
	for undergraduate physics majors as well as any other general readership
	interested in the dynamics of bicycle stability.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cleary2011},
  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/0143-0807/32/i=5/a=017}
}
@inproceedings{Cloud1994,
  author = {Cloud, Chad},
  title = {Teaching kids how to ride a bike [fuzzy control]},
  booktitle = {NAFIPS/IFIS/NASA '94. Proceedings of the First International Joint
	Conference of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society
	Biannual Conference. The Industrial Fuzzy Control and Intelligent
	Systems Conference, and the NASA Joint Technolo},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {175-176},
  month = {December},
  abstract = {The usual way to teach a kid to ride a bike is by using training wheels.
	This creates a somewhat stable bike so the kid will hardly ever fall.
	After the kid has mastered a bike with training wheels, the wheels
	are taken away, and the second stage of learning starts. At this
	moment, since the kid is not completely prepared for a bike without
	training wheels, the kid may (and does) fall. So we either risk the
	kid hurting him/herself, or we have to have the kid under time-consuming
	adult supervision. The main problem with the control is that there
	is an abrupt transition between the two stages, so the kid goes into
	the second training stage unprepared. A natural solution is to make
	this transition gradual. We propose Fuzzy Control},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cloud1994},
  doi = {10.1109/IJCF.1994.375104},
  keywords = {Fuzzy Control, bike, training stage, training wheels, transition}
}
@article{Cloyd1996,
  author = {Cloyd, S. O. and Hubbard, M. and Alaways, L. W.},
  title = {A Control Scheme for an Opposed Recumbent Tandem Human-Powered Bicycle},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Biomechanics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {212},
  pages = {480--492},
  number = {4},
  month = {November},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cloyd1996}
}
@inproceedings{Coetzee2006,
  author = {Coetzee, Etienne and Krauskopf, Bernd and Lowenberg, Mark},
  title = {Nonlinear Aircraft Ground Dynamics},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Nonlinear Problems in Aviation and Aerospace},
  year = {2006},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Coetzee2006}
}
@article{Cole2012,
  author = {Cole, David J.},
  title = {A path-following driver–vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics,
	including measured and simulated responses to a step in steering
	angle overlay},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {0},
  pages = {1-24},
  number = {0},
  abstract = { An existing driver–vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics is improved
	in the areas of cognitive delay, intrinsic muscle dynamics and alpha–gamma
	co-activation. The model is used to investigate the influence of
	steering torque feedback and neuromuscular dynamics on the vehicle
	response to lateral force disturbances. When steering torque feedback
	is present, it is found that the longitudinal position of the lateral
	disturbance has a significant influence on whether the driver’s reflex
	response reinforces or attenuates the effect of the disturbance.
	The response to angle and torque overlay inputs to the steering system
	is also investigated. The presence of the steering torque feedback
	reduced the disturbing effect of torque overlay and angle overlay
	inputs. Reflex action reduced the disturbing effect of a torque overlay
	input, but increased the disturbing effect of an angle overlay input.
	Experiments on a driving simulator showed that measured handwheel
	angle response to an angle overlay input was consistent with the
	response predicted by the model with reflex action. However, there
	was significant intra- and inter-subject variability. The results
	highlight the significance of a driver’s neuromuscular dynamics in
	determining the vehicle response to disturbances. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cole2012},
  doi = {10.1080/00423114.2011.606370},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423114.2011.606370},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423114.2011.606370}
}
@phdthesis{Collins1963,
  author = {Robert Neil Collins},
  title = {A Mathematical Analysis of the Stability of Two Wheeled Vehicles},
  school = {Univeristy of Wisconsin},
  year = {1963},
  month = {June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Collins1963}
}
@techreport{Congleton2008,
  author = {Christopher Congleton},
  title = {Results of the Fall 2007 UC Davis Campus Travel Assessment},
  institution = {University of California Davis},
  year = {2008},
  number = {UCD-ITS-RR-09-01},
  month = {October},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Congleton2008}
}
@mastersthesis{Connors2009,
  author = {Brendan Connors},
  title = {Modeling and Stability Analysis of a Recumbent Bicycle with Oscillating
	Leg Masses},
  school = {University of California, Davis},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Connors2009},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@inproceedings{Connors2008,
  author = {Brendan Connors and Mont Hubbard},
  title = {Modelling and Stability Analysis of a Recumbent Bicycle with Oscillating
	Leg Masses},
  booktitle = {The Engineering of Sport 7},
  year = {2008},
  editor = {Margaret Estivalet and Pierre Brisson},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {677--685},
  month = {August},
  organization = {ISEA},
  publisher = {Springer Paris},
  abstract = {It has been observed in the testing of a recumbent bicycle with a
	very low centre of gravity that the pedalling cadence can affect
	the rider’s ability to control the vehicle. To understand the relationship
	between cadence and bicycle stability, a multibody dynamic model
	is created. This model has nine massive rigid bodies: the bicycle
	frame with fixed rider torso (with head & and arms), the front fork
	with handlebars, the front wheel, the rear wheel, the left thigh,
	the right thigh, the left shank with foot, the right shank with foot,
	and the cranks. Nonlinear equations of motion are compiled in Autolev,
	a symbolic calculator using Kane’s method for multibody dynamics
	(Autolev, 2005). A simulation of the bicycle slowly accelerating
	from its starting speed (5 m/s) to its target speed (35 m/s) is run
	iteratively over several gear ratios. A steering controller is implemented
	to stabilize the bike outside its stable stable speed range. The
	simulation displays the lean and steer angles as well as steering
	control torque. Lean angle and control torque increase significantly
	with cadence, and steer angle increases slightly with cadence. This
	relationship is used to create a shifting strategy to reduce the
	control effort needed by the pilot during top top-speed speed-record
	attempts.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Connors2008},
  doi = {10.1007/978-2-287-09411-8_79},
  keywords = {recumbent bicycle modelling stability cadence},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@unpublished{Connors2009a,
  author = {Connors, Brendan and Hubbard, Mont},
  title = {Modeling and stability analysis of a recumbent bicycle with oscillating
	leg masses},
  note = {to be submitted to ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Connors2009a},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@inproceedings{Cooper1974,
  author = {Cooper, K. R.},
  title = {The Effect of Aerodynamics on the Performance and Stability of High
	Speed Motorcycles},
  booktitle = {Second AIAA Symposium on Aerodynamic of Sports and Competition Automobiles},
  year = {1974},
  address = {Los Angeles},
  month = {May},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cooper1974}
}
@article{Cooper1973,
  author = {Cooper, K. R.},
  title = {The Wind Tunnel Development of a Low Drag, Partially Streamlined
	Motorcycle},
  journal = {DME/NAE Quarterly Bulletin},
  year = {1973},
  volume = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cooper1973}
}
@techreport{Cooper1969,
  author = {Cooper, R. J. and {Harper Jr.}, R. P.},
  title = {The Use of Pilot Rating Scales in the Evaluation of Aircraft Handling
	Qualities},
  institution = {NASA},
  year = {1969},
  type = {Technical Note},
  number = {TN D-5153},
  month = {April},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cooper1969}
}
@book{Cossalter2006,
  title = {Motorcycle dynamics},
  publisher = {LULU},
  year = {2006},
  author = {Vittore Cossalter},
  edition = {Second},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2006}
}
@article{Cossalter2008,
  author = {Vittore Cossalter and Alessandro Bellati and Alberto Doria and Martino
	Peretto},
  title = {Analysis of racing motorcycle performance with additional considerations
	for the Mozzi axis},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {815--826},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2008}
}
@article{Cossalter2005,
  author = {Vittore Cossalter and Alberto Doria},
  title = {The relation between contact patch geometry and the mechanical properties
	of motorcycle tyres},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {156--167},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2005}
}
@article{Cossalter2004a,
  author = {Vittore Cossalter and Alberto Doria},
  title = {Analysis of motorcycle slalom manoeuvres using the Mozzi axis concept},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {3},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2004a}
}
@article{Cossalter2012,
  author = {Cossalter, Vittore and Doria, Alberto and Formentini, Matteo and
	Peretto, Martino},
  title = {Experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of tyres’ properties
	on the straight running stability of a sport-touring motorcycle},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {357-375},
  number = {3},
  abstract = { The behaviour of a motorcycle on the road is largely governed by
	tyre properties. This paper presents experimental and numerical analyses
	dealing with the influence of tyre properties on the stability of
	weave and wobble in straight running. The final goal is to find optimal
	sets of tyre properties that improve the stability of a motorcycle.
	The investigation is based on road tests carried out on a sport-touring
	motorcycle equipped with sensors. Three sets of tyres are tested
	at different speeds in the presence of weave and wobble. The analysis
	of telemetry data highlights significant differences in the trends
	of frequency and damping of weave and wobble against speed. The experimental
	analysis is integrated by a parametric numerical analysis. Tyre properties
	are varied according to the design of experiments method, in order
	to highlight the single effects on stability of lateral and cornering
	coefficient of front and rear tyres. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2012},
  doi = {10.1080/00423114.2011.587520},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423114.2011.587520},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423114.2011.587520}
}
@article{Cossalter1999,
  author = {Cossalter, Vittore and Doria, Alberto and Lot, Roberto},
  title = {Steady Turning of Two-Wheeled Vehicles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {157--181},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {When driving along a circular path, the driver of a motorcycle controls
	the vehicle mainly by means of steering torque. If low steering torque
	is necessary, the driver feels that the vehicle is manoeuvrable.
	In this paper, a mathematical model concerning steering torque is
	developed; it takes into account the actual kinematic behaviour of
	the vehicle and the properties of motorcycle tyres. Tyre forces act
	at the contact points of toroidal tyres, which are calculated according
	to kinematic analysis. Non-linear equations are solved using an iterative
	approach. Several numerical results are presented, and the influence
	of tyre properties and some geometrical and inertial properties of
	the vehicle on steering torque are discussed.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter1999},
  keywords = {handling},
  publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
  url = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1076/vesd.31.3.157.2013}
}
@article{Cossalter2003,
  author = {V. Cossalter and A. Doria and R. Lot and N. Ruffo and M. Salvador},
  title = {Dynamic properties of motorcycle and scooter tires: measurment and
	comparison},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {329--352},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2003}
}
@inproceedings{Cossalter1998,
  author = {Vittore Cossalter and Mauro Da Lio and Francesco Biral and Luca Fabbri},
  title = {Evaluation of Motorcycle Maneuverability With the Optimal Maneuver
	Method},
  booktitle = {Motorsports Engineering Conference \& Exposition},
  year = {1998},
  number = {983022},
  address = {Dearbon, Michigan, USA},
  month = {November},
  organization = {SAE},
  abstract = {This paper deals with the application of the optimal maneuver method
	to the assessment of motorcycle maneuverability.\\
	
	The optimal maneuver method is a novel approach to the analysis of
	vehicle performance. The essence of this method is the solution of
	an optimal control problem which consists in moving the vehicle,
	according to holding trajectory constraints, between two given endpoints
	in the "most efficient way". The concept of "most efficient" is defined
	by a proper penalty function defined to express maneuverability.\\
	
	In this paper we briefly outline the method and give examples of its
	application to three classical maneuvers commonly used to test motorcycle
	handling: a slalom test, a lane change maneuver and a U-curve.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter1998}
}
@article{Cossalter2002,
  author = {Cossalter, V. and Lot, R.},
  title = {A Motorcycle Multi-Body Model for Real Time Simulations Based on
	the Natural Coordinates Approach},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {423–447},
  number = {6},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2002}
}
@article{Cossalter2004,
  author = {Cossalter, V. and Lot, R. and Maggio, F.},
  title = {The Modal Analysis of a Motorcycle in Straight Running and on a Curve},
  journal = {Meccanica},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {1--16},
  number = {1},
  month = {February},
  abstract = {The vibrational modes (generalized) of a two-wheel vehicle are studied
	in several trim configurations. The modal analysis is carried out
	on a 3D non-linear mathematical model, developed using the natural
	coordinates approach. A special procedure for evaluating the steady
	state solutions in straight running and on a curve is proposed. The
	paper presents detailed results of the modal analysis for a production
	sports motorcycle. Furthermore, the influence of speed and lateral
	(centripetal) acceleration on stability, shape and modal interactions
	(coupling) is highlighted. Finally, consistency between the first
	experimental tests and simulation results is shown.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2004},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026269926222}
}
@inproceedings{Cossalter2002a,
  author = {Cossalter, V. and Lot, R. and Maggio, F.},
  title = {The Influence of Tire Properties on the Stability of a Motorcycle
	in Straight Running and Curves},
  booktitle = {SAE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS P},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {87-94},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2002a}
}
@article{Cossalter2007,
  author = {V. Cossalter and R. Lot and M. Peretto},
  title = {Steady turning of motorcycles},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal
	of Automobile Engineering},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {221},
  pages = {1343--1356},
  abstract = {When driving along a circular path, the rider controls a motorcycle
	mainly by the steering torque. If the steering torque is low and
	the vehicle is moderately over-steering, a good handling feeling
	is perceived by the rider. In this paper, non-linear steady turning
	results are analysed over a wide range of forward speeds and lateral
	accelerations, and different ‘driving zones’ are identified by
	considering the steering torque transition speeds and steering angle
	critical speed. A parametric linear model of steady turning, concerning
	both the steering torque and the steering angle, is developed and
	simple parametric expressions of transition speeds and the critical
	speed are obtained. Steady turning tests involving different motorcycles
	are presented, the transition speeds and critical speed are found
	by linear fitting, and the characteristics of the different driving
	zones are investigated. The primary purpose is to determine the conditions
	at which the operational safety and handling of the vehicle do not
	impose severe demands on rider skill for control and adequate path-following
	properties, i.e. to identify a ‘preferable driving zone’.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2007},
  doi = {10.1243/09544070JAUTO322},
  keywords = {motorcycle, steady turning, capsize, over-steering, under-steering}
}
@article{Cossalter2006a,
  author = {Vittore Cossalter and James Sadauckas},
  title = {Elaboration and quantitative assessment of manoeuvrability for motorcycle
	lane change},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {903--920},
  number = {12},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cossalter2006a}
}
@article{Cox2008,
  author = {Peter Cox},
  title = {The Role of Human Powered Vehicles in Sustainable Mobility},
  journal = {Built Environment},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {140-160},
  number = {4},
  month = {May},
  abstract = {As part of the move towards sustainable transport and urban mobility
	practices, increased cycle use is commonly advocated as a factor
	in this modal shift. New developments in cycle technology are beginning
	to introduce new classes of cycles and other human powered vehicles
	as options within a wider advocacy of cycling for urban mobility
	and which may offer advantages and greater opportunity for users.
	However, these innovations may also raise questions for the design
	and construction of the built environment. Drawing on a SCOT approach,
	this paper therefore examines the implications of some innovatory
	cycle designs and the limitations on their deployment that may arise
	through the interaction with wider design environments.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Cox2008},
  doi = {10.2148/benv.34.2.140}
}
@techreport{Davis1975,
  author = {J. A. Davis},
  title = {Bicycle Tire Testing - Effects of Inflation Pressure \& Low Coefficient
	Surfaces},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1975},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Davis1975}
}
@techreport{Davis1974,
  author = {J. A. Davis and R. J. Cassidy},
  title = {The Effect of Frame Properties on Bicycling Efficiency},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1974},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Davis1974}
}
@article{Davis1981,
  author = {R.R. Davis and M.L. Hull},
  title = {Measurement of pedal loading in bicycling: II. Analysis and results},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {857 - 861, 863-872},
  number = {12},
  abstract = {A computer-based instrumentation system was used to accurately measure
	the six foot-pedal load components and the absolute pedal position
	during bicycling. The instrumentation system is the first of its
	kind and enables extensive and meaningful biomechanical analysis
	of bicycling. With test subjects riding on rollers which simulate
	actual bicycling, pedalling data were recorded to explore four separate
	hypotheses. Experiments yielded the following major conclusions:
	(1) Using cleated shoes retards fatigue of the quadriceps muscle
	group. By allowing more flexor muscle utilization during the backstroke,
	cleated shoes distribute the workload and alleviate the peak load
	demand on the quadriceps group; (2) overall pedalling efficiency
	increases with power level; (3) non-motive load components which
	apply adverse moments on the knee joint are of significant magnitude;
	(4) analysis of pedalling is an invaluable training aid. One test
	subject reduced his leg exertion at the pedal by 24 per cent.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Davis1981},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(81)90013-0},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4BYSFKJ-12/2/7e2d24476ffb292f1619f9cbeebceeda}
}
@article{Davis1981a,
  author = {Davis, R. and Hull, M. L.},
  title = {DESIGN OF ALUMINUM BICYCLE FRAMES},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {103},
  pages = {901--907},
  number = {4},
  address = {345 E 47TH ST, NEW YORK, NY 10017},
  affiliation = {DAVIS, R (Reprint Author), UNIV CALIF DAVIS,DEPT MECH ENGN,DAVIS,CA
	95616.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Davis1981a},
  doc-delivery-number = {MM057},
  issn = {0161-8458},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {17},
  publisher = {ASME-AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENG},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Mechanical},
  times-cited = {2},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1981MM05700033}
}
@book{Dean2008,
  title = {The Human-Powered Home: Choosing Muscles Over Motors},
  publisher = {New Society Publishers},
  year = {2008},
  author = {Tamara Dean},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dean2008}
}
@inproceedings{Defoort2008,
  author = {Defoort, M. and Murakami, T.},
  title = {Second order sliding mode control with disturbance observer for bicycle
	stabilization},
  booktitle = {Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2008. IROS 2008. IEEE/RSJ International
	Conference on},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {2822 -2827},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {Controlling a riderless bicycle is a challenging problem because the
	dynamics are nonlinear. In this paper, an innovative robust control
	strategy based on 2nd order sliding mode control (SMC) is proposed
	for the stabilization of an autonomous bicycle. In order to improve
	overall performance, application of a disturbance observer (DOB)
	is suggested. The combination of 2nd order SMC and DOB enables to
	increase the robustness of the system trajectories while avoiding
	the chattering phenomenon. The proposed control scheme is validated
	by simulation and experimental results for bicycle stabilization
	at low and zero velocities.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Defoort2008},
  doi = {10.1109/IROS.2008.4650685},
  keywords = {autonomous bicycle;bicycle stabilization;chattering phenomenon;disturbance
	observer;riderless bicycle;second order sliding mode control;bicycles;control
	nonlinearities;mobile robots;observers;road vehicles;robust control;variable
	structure systems;}
}
@techreport{Dempster1955,
  author = {Dempster, W. T.},
  title = {Space Requirements of the Seated Operator, Geometrical, Kinematic
	and Mechanical Aspects of the Body with Special Reference to the
	Limbs},
  institution = {Wright-Patterson AFB},
  year = {1955},
  type = {Technical Report},
  number = {WADC 55-159},
  address = {Ohio},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dempster1955}
}
@article{Desloge1988,
  author = {Edward A. Desloge},
  title = {The Gibbs-Appell equations of motion},
  journal = {American Journal of Physics},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {841--846},
  number = {9},
  abstract = {A particularly simple and direct derivation of the Gibbs-Appell equations
	of motion is given. In addition to the conventional results, a relatively
	unknown but elegant and useful form of the equations of motion is
	also obtained. The role of virtual displacements in generating generalized
	equations of motion is discussed. The relationship between the Gibbs-Appell
	equations of motion and Langrange's equations of motion is discussed.
	Auxiliary results that facilitate the application of the Gibbs-Appell
	equations of motion to rigid bodies are presented. The theory is
	demonstrated by generating equations of motion for a disk rolling
	on a horizontal plane.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Desloge1988},
  doi = {10.1119/1.15463},
  keywords = {EQUATIONS OF MOTION; CLASSICAL MECHANICS; ROLLING; DISKS},
  publisher = {AAPT},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AJP/56/841/1}
}
@article{Desloge1986,
  author = {Desloge, Edward A.},
  title = {A comparison of Kane's equations of motion and the Gibbs--Appell
	equations of motion},
  journal = {American Journal of Physics},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {470-472},
  number = {5},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Desloge1986},
  doi = {10.1119/1.14566},
  keywords = {EQUATIONS OF MOTION; DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS; CLASSICAL MECHANICS},
  publisher = {AAPT},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AJP/54/470/1}
}
@article{Dijk2007,
  author = {van Dijk, Tomas},
  title = {Bicycles made to measure},
  journal = {Delft Outlook},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {7--10},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dijk2007}
}
@article{Dikarev1981,
  author = {E. D. Dikarev and S. B. Dikareva and N. A. Fufaev},
  title = {Effect of Inclination of Steering Axis and of Stagger of the Front
	Wheel on Stability of Motion of a Bicycle},
  journal = {Izv. AN sssR. Mekhanika Tverdogo Tela},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {69-73},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dikarev1981}
}
@article{Djerassi2003,
  author = {S. Djerassi and H. Bamberger},
  title = {Constraint Forces and the Method of Auxiliary Generalized Speeds},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mechanics},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {70},
  pages = {568-574},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Djerassi2003},
  doi = {10.1115/1.1572902},
  keywords = {kinematics; vectors; decomposition; N-body problems},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AMJ/70/568/1}
}
@inproceedings{Donida2006,
  author = {Filippo Donida and Gianni Ferretti and Sergio M. Savaresi and Francesco
	Schiavo and Mara Tanelli},
  title = {Motorcycle Dynamics Library in Modelica},
  booktitle = {Modelica},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {This paper presents a Modelica library developed for
	
	the dynamic simulation of a motorcycle, developed
	
	within the Dymola environment (see [1], [2], [3])
	
	and tailored to test and validation of active control
	
	systems for motorcycle dynamics. As a matter of
	
	fact, as a complete analytical model for two-wheeled
	
	vehicles is not directly available due to the complexity
	
	of their dynamic behavior, a reliable model should
	
	be based on multibody modeling tools endowed with
	
	automated symbolic manipulation capabilities. In this
	
	work we illustrate the modular approach to motorcycle
	
	modeling and discuss the tire-road interaction model,
	
	which is the crucial part of the simulator. Moreover,
	
	we propose a virtual driver model which allows to
	
	perform all possible maneuvers.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Donida2006}
}
@article{Doria2012,
  author = {Doria, A. and Formentini, M. and Tognazzo, M.},
  title = {Experimental and numerical analysis of rider motion in weave conditions},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {0},
  pages = {1-14},
  number = {0},
  abstract = { Motorcycle dynamics is characterised by the presence of modes of
	vibration that may become unstable and lead to dangerous conditions.
	In particular, the weave mode shows large yaw and roll oscillations
	of the rear frame and out of phase oscillations of the front frame
	about the steer axis. The presence of the rider influences the modes
	of vibration, since the mass, stiffness and damping of limbs modify
	the dynamic properties of the system; moreover, at low frequency
	the rider can control oscillations. There are few experimental results
	dealing with the response of the rider in the presence of large oscillations
	of the motorcycle. This lack is due to the difficulty of carrying
	out measurements on the road and of reproducing the phenomena in
	the laboratory. This paper deals with a research programme aimed
	at measuring the oscillations of the rider's body on a running motorcycle
	in the presence of weave. First, testing equipment is presented.
	It includes a special measurement device that is able to measure
	the relative motion between the rider and the motorcycle. Then the
	road tests carried out at increasing speeds (from 160 to 210 km/h)
	are described and discussed. Best-fitting methods are used for identifying
	the main features of measured vibrations in terms of natural frequencies,
	damping ratios and modal shapes. The last section deals with the
	comparison between measured and simulated response of the motorcycle–rider
	system in weave conditions; good agreement was found. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Doria2012},
  doi = {10.1080/00423114.2011.621542},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423114.2011.621542},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423114.2011.621542}
}
@article{Doyle1988,
  author = {A. J. R. Doyle},
  title = {The Essential Human Contribution to Bicycle Riding},
  journal = {Training, Human Decision Making and Control},
  year = {1988},
  pages = {351--370},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Doyle1988}
}
@phdthesis{Doyle1987,
  author = {Anthony John Redfern Doyle},
  title = {The Skill of Bicycle Riding},
  school = {Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield},
  year = {1987},
  abstract = {The principal theories of human motor skill are compared. Disagreements
	between them centre around the exact details of the feedback loops
	used for control. In order to throw some light on this problem a
	commonplace skill was analysed using computer techniques to both
	record and model the movement. Bicycle riding was chosen as an example
	because it places strict constraints on the freedom of the rider's
	actions and consequently allows a fairly simple model to be used.
	Given these constraints a faithful record of the delicate balancing
	movements of the handlebar must also be a record of the rider's actions
	in controlling the machine.
	
	
	An instrument pack, fitted with gyroscopic sensors and a handlebar
	potentiometer, recorded the roll, yaw and steering angle changes
	during free riding in digital form on a microcomputer disc. A discrete
	step computer model of the rider and machine was used to compare
	the output characteristic of various control systems with that of
	the experimental subjects. Since the normal bicycle design gives
	a measure of automatic stability it is not possible to tell how much
	of the handlebar movement is due to the rider and how much to the
	machine. Consequently a bicycle was constructed in which the gyroscopic
	and castor stability were removed. In order to reduce the number
	of sensory contributions the subjects were blindfolded.
	
	
	The recordings showed that the basic method of control was a combination
	of a continuous delayed repeat of the roll angle rate in the handle-bar
	channel, with short intermittent ballistic acceleration inputs to
	control angle of lean and consequently direction.
	
	
	A review of the relevant literature leads to the conclusion that the
	proposed control system is consistent with current physiological
	knowledge. Finally the bicycle control system discovered in the experiments
	is related to the theories of motor skills discussed in the second
	chapter.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Doyle1987}
}
@mastersthesis{Dressel2007,
  author = {Andrew Dressel},
  title = {The Benchmarked Linearized Equations of Motion for an Idealized Bicycle
	(Implemented in Software and Distributed via the Internet)},
  school = {Cornell University},
  year = {2007},
  month = {January},
  abstract = {People have been successfully building and riding bicycles since the
	1800s, and many attempts have been made to describe the motion of
	these machines mathematically. However, common acceptance of the
	correct linearized equations of motion for a bicycle has remained
	elusive. In his 1988 master’s thesis at Cornell University, Scott
	Hand derived the equations again and performed the first known extensive
	survey of the literature, finding and documenting the mistakes made
	in previous attempts. The question remained however of what mistakes,
	if any, Mr. Hand and his advisors made. The subsequent advent of
	cheap and plentiful computing power and the development of numerical
	methods to take advantage of it provide an opportunity to confirm,
	once and for all, the correct linearized equations of motion for
	an idealized bicycle. That is exactly what A. L. Schwab, J. P. Meijaard,
	and J. M. Papadopoulos have done in their recent paper. The next
	step is to efficiently promulgate these correct and confirmed equations
	in a useful form. The goal is that anyone working in the areas of
	bicycle or motorcycle handling or control can use these equations
	directly or verify their own underlying equations against this benchmark.
	This thesis describes a program, JBike6, its on-line help, and its
	web site designed specifically for that purpose: to provide a turn-key
	application for evaluating the self-stability of a bicycle. JBike6
	also generates numbers (eigenvalues and matrix entries) that can
	be used to compare, to very high precision, against any other linearized
	or fully non-linear equations of motion for a bicycle. After a brief
	review of the application, theory, and results of JBike6, the contents
	of this thesis consist primarily of hard copy of the on-line help
	and web site and screen shots of the program. The text has been modified
	to be more readable as a narrative and some pictures have been formatted
	to fit within the margins. Obviously, the interactive nature of the
	program, the help file, and the web site, including the hyperlinks,
	animations, and videos, is not available in this printed document.
	While all the components will continue to evolve, this thesis is
	a snapshot of them in September 2006. Many redundancies have been
	removed, but some remain in order to preserve the integrity and flow
	of the individual components. All these components may currently
	be found on-line at www.tam.cornell.edu/~ad29/JBike6},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dressel2007}
}
@article{Dressel2012,
  author = {Dressel, Andrew and Rahman, Adeeb},
  title = {Measuring sideslip and camber characteristics of bicycle tyres},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {0},
  pages = {1-14},
  number = {0},
  abstract = { Sideslip and camber tyre properties, the forces and moments a tyre
	generates as it rolls forward under different circumstances, have
	been found to be important to motorcycle dynamics. A similar situation
	may be expected to exist for bicycles, but limited bicycle tyre data
	and a lack of the tools necessary to measure it may contribute to
	its absence in bicycle dynamics analyses. Measuring these properties
	requires holding the tyre at a fixed orientation with respect to
	the pavement and its direction of travel, and then measuring the
	lateral force and torque about the steer axis generated as the tyre
	rolls forward. Devices exist for measuring these characteristics
	of automobile tyres. One device is known to exist specifically for
	motorcycle tyres, and it has been used at least once on bicycle tyres,
	but the minimum load it can apply is nearly double the actual load
	carried by most bicycle tyres. This paper presents a low-cost device
	that measures bicycle tyre cornering stiffness and camber stiffness.
	},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dressel2012},
  doi = {10.1080/00423114.2011.615408},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423114.2011.615408},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423114.2011.615408}
}
@article{Dohring1957,
  author = {D{\"{o}}hring, E.},
  title = {Steering Wobble in Single-Track Vehicles},
  journal = {Automob. Tech. Z.},
  year = {1957},
  volume = {58},
  pages = {282--286},
  number = {10},
  note = {MIRA Translation No. 62167},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dohring1957}
}
@article{Dohring1955,
  author = {D{\"{o}}hring, E.},
  title = {Stability of Single-Track Vehicles},
  journal = {Forschung Ing.-Wes.},
  year = {1955},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {50--62},
  number = {2},
  note = {Translated by J. Lotsof, March 1957},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dohring1955},
  keywords = {steer angle,roll angle,inertia ellipsoids}
}
@article{Dohring1954,
  author = {D{\"{o}}hring, E.},
  title = {Die Stabilitat von Einspurfahrzeugen},
  journal = {Automob. Techn. Z.},
  year = {1954},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {69--72},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dohring1954}
}
@phdthesis{Dohring1953,
  author = {D{\"{o}}hring, E.},
  title = {\"{U}ber die {S}tabilit\"{a}t und die {L}enkkr\"{a}fte von {E}inspurfahrzeugen},
  school = {Technical University Braunschweig},
  year = {1953},
  address = {Germany},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dohring1953},
  keywords = {steering angle,}
}
@phdthesis{Eaton1973,
  author = {Eaton, David J.},
  title = {Man-Machine Dynamics in the Stabilization of Single-Track Vehicles},
  school = {University of Michigan},
  year = {1973},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Eaton1973}
}
@inproceedings{Eaton1973a,
  author = {Eaton, David J.},
  title = {An Experimental Study of the Motorcycle Roll Stabilization Task},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference on Manual Control},
  year = {1973},
  pages = {233--234},
  month = {May},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Eaton1973a}
}
@inproceedings{Eaton1973b,
  author = {Eaton, David J. and Segel, Leonard},
  title = {Lateral Dynamics of the Uncontrolled Motorcycle},
  booktitle = {Second International Congress on Automotive Safety},
  year = {1973},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Eaton1973b}
}
@techreport{Edwards1972,
  author = {Frederick G. Edwards},
  title = {Determination of pilot and vehicle describing functions from the
	Gemini-10 mission},
  institution = {NASA Ames Research Center},
  year = {1972},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Edwards1972}
}
@inproceedings{Ellis1973,
  author = {Ellis, J. R. and G. F. Hayhoe},
  title = {The Steady State and Transient Handling Characteristics of a Motorcycle},
  booktitle = {Second International Congress on Automotive Safety},
  year = {1973},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ellis1973}
}
@inproceedings{Ellis1971,
  author = {Ellis, J. R. and G. F. Hayhoe},
  title = {The Steering Geometry of a Single-Track Vehicle},
  booktitle = {Second International Congress on Vehicle Mechanics},
  year = {1971},
  address = {Paris, France},
  month = {September},
  organization = {University of Paris},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ellis1971}
}
@article{Erb2001,
  author = {R. Erb},
  title = {Zum Problem der StabilitÀt beim Fahrradfahren},
  journal = {MNU},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {279--284},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Erb2001}
}
@techreport{Ervin1976,
  author = {Ervin, R. D. and C. MacAdam and Y. Watanabe},
  title = {Motorcycle Braking Performance, Final Technical Report},
  institution = {Highway Safety Research Institute},
  year = {1976},
  number = {UM-HSRI-76-30-2},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ervin1976}
}
@article{Escalona2011,
  author = {Escalona, José and Recuero, Antonio},
  title = {A bicycle model for education in multibody dynamics and real-time
	interactive simulation},
  journal = {Multibody System Dynamics},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1-20},
  note = {10.1007/s11044-011-9282-7},
  abstract = {This paper describes the use of a bicycle model to teach multibody
	dynamics. The bicycle motion equations are first obtained as a DAE
	system written in terms of dependent coordinates that are subject
	to holonomic and non-holonomic constraints. The equations are obtained
	using symbolic computation. The DAE system is transformed to an ODE
	system written in terms of a minimum set of independent coordinates
	using the generalised coordinates partitioning method. This step
	is taken using numerical computation. The ODE system is then numerically
	linearised around the upright position and eigenvalue analysis of
	the resulting system is performed. The frequencies and modes of the
	bicycle are obtained as a function of the forward velocity which
	is used as continuation parameter. The resulting frequencies and
	modes are compared with experimental results. Finally, the non-linear
	equations of the bicycle are used to create an interactive real-time
	simulator using Matlab-Simulink. A series of issues on controlling
	the bicycle are discussed. The entire paper is focussed on teaching
	engineering students the practical application of analytical and
	computational mechanics using a model that being simple is familiar
	and attractive to them.},
  affiliation = {Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of
	Seville, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Escalona2011},
  issn = {1384-5640},
  keyword = {Engineering},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11044-011-9282-7}
}
@inproceedings{Escalona2010,
  author = {J.L. Escalona and A.M. Recuero},
  title = {A bicycle model for education in machine dynamics and real-time interactive
	simulation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings, Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics 2010
	
	Symposium on the Dynamics and Control of Single Track Vehicles,},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Delft, The Netherlands},
  month = {October},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Escalona2010}
}
@phdthesis{Evangelou2003,
  author = {Simos Evangelou},
  title = {The Control and Stability Analysis of Two-Wheeled Road Vehicles},
  school = {University of London},
  year = {2003},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {The multibody dynamics analysis software, AUTOSIM, is used to develop
	automated linear and nonlinear models for the hand derived motorcycle
	models presented in (Sharp, 1971, 1994b). A more comprehensive model,
	based on previous work (Sharp and Limebeer, 2001), is also derived
	and extended. One version of the code uses AUTOSIM to produce a FORTRAN
	or C program which solves the nonlinear equations of motion and generates
	time histories, and a second version generates linearised equations
	of motion as a MATLAB file that contains the state-space model in
	symbolic form. Local stability is investigated via the eigenvalues
	of the linearised models that are associated with equilibrium points
	of the nonlinear systems. The time histories produced by nonlinear
	simulation runs are also used with an animator to visualise the result.
	A comprehensive study of the effects of acceleration and braking
	on motorcycle stability with the use of the advanced motorcycle model
	is presented. The results show that the wobble mode of a motorcycle
	is significantly destabilised when the machine is descending an incline,
	or braking on a level surface. Conversely, the damping of the wobble
	mode is substantially increased when the machine is ascending an
	incline at constant speed, or accelerating on a level surface. Except
	at very low speeds, inclines, acceleration and deceleration appear
	to have little effect on the damping or frequency of the weave mode.
	A theoretical study of the effects of regular road undulations on
	the dynamics of a cornering motorcycle with the use of the same model
	is also presented. Frequency response plots are used to study the
	propagation of road forcing signals to the motorcycle steering system.
	It is shown that at various critical cornering conditions, regular
	road undulations of a particular wavelength can cause severe steering
	oscillations. The results and theory presented here are believed
	to explain many of the stability related road accidents that have
	been reported in the popular literature. The advanced motorcycle
	model is improved further to include a more realistic tyre-road contact
	geometry, a more comprehensive tyre model based on Magic Formula
	methods utilising modern tyre data, better tyre relaxation properties
	and other features of contemporary motorcycle designs. Parameters
	describing a modern high performance machine and rider are also included.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Evangelou2003}
}
@article{Evangelou2006,
  author = {Evangelou, S. and Limebeer, D.J.N. and Sharp, R.S. and Smith, M.C.},
  title = {Control of motorcycle steering instabilities},
  journal = {Control Systems Magazine, IEEE},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {78-88},
  number = {5},
  month = {October},
  abstract = {The establishment of damper settings that provide an optimal compromise
	between wobble- and weave-mode damping is discussed. The conventional
	steering damper is replaced with a network of interconnected mechanical
	components comprised of springs, dampers and inerters - that retain
	the virtue of the damper, while improving the weave-mode performance.
	The improved performance is due to the fact that the network introduces
	phase compensation between the relative angular velocity of the steering
	system and the resulting steering technique},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Evangelou2006},
  doi = {10.1109/MCS.2006.1700046},
  issn = {0272-1708},
  keywords = {compensation, motorcycles, springs (mechanical), stabilitydamper settings,
	inerters, interconnected mechanical components, motorcycle steering
	instabilities, phase compensation, springs, weave-mode damping, wobble-mode
	damping}
}
@inproceedings{Evangelou2004,
  author = {Evangelou, S. and Limebeer, D.J.N. and Sharp, R.S. and Smith, M.C.},
  title = {Steering compensation for high-performance motorcycles},
  booktitle = {Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {749-754 Vol.1},
  month = {December},
  abstract = {This paper introduces the idea of using a mechanical steering compensator
	to influence the dynamic behaviour of a high-performance motorcycle.
	The compensator is seen as a possible replacement for a conventional
	steering damper, and comprises a network of a spring, a damper and
	a less familiar component called the inerter. The inerter was recently
	introduced to allow the synthesis of arbitrary passive mechanical
	impedances, and finds a new potential application in the present
	work. The approach taken here to design the compensator is based
	on classical Bode-Nyquist frequency response ideas. The vehicle study
	involves computer simulations, which make use of a state-of-the-art
	motorcycle model whose parameter set is based on a Suzuki GSX-R1000
	sports machine. The study shows that it is possible to obtain significant
	improvements in the dynamic properties of the primary oscillatory
	modes, known as "wobble" and "weave", over a full range of lean angles,
	as compared with the standard machine fitted with a conventional
	steering damper.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Evangelou2004},
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2004.1428746},
  issn = {0191-2216},
  keywords = {compensation, frequency response, motorcycles, position control, springs
	(mechanical), steering systemsBode-Nyquist frequency response, high-performance
	motorcycles, inerter, mechanical steering compensator, passive mechanical
	impedance, spring, steering compensation, steering damper}
}
@techreport{Evangelou2000,
  author = {Simos Evangelou and David J. N. Limebeer},
  title = {Animation of the "SL2001" motorcycle model},
  institution = {Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College
	of Science, Technology and Medicine},
  year = {2000},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Evangelou2000}
}
@techreport{Evangelou2000a,
  author = {Simos Evangelou and David J. N. Limebeer},
  title = {LISP programming of the "Sharp 1971" motorcycle model},
  institution = {Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College
	of Science, Technology and Medicine},
  year = {2000},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Evangelou2000a}
}
@techreport{Evangelou2000b,
  author = {Simos Evangelou and David J. N. Limebeer},
  title = {LISP programming of the "Sharp 1994" motorcycle model},
  institution = {Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College
	of Science, Technology and Medicine},
  year = {2000},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Evangelou2000b}
}
@article{Evangelou2008,
  author = {Simos Evangelou and David J. N. Limebeer and Maria Tomas Rodriguez},
  title = {Influence of Road Camber on Motorcycle Stability},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mechanics},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {75},
  pages = {231--236},
  number = {6},
  eid = {061020},
  abstract = {This paper studies the influence of road camber on the stability of
	single-track road vehicles. Road camber changes the magnitude and
	direction of the tire force and moment vectors relative to the wheels,
	as well as the combined-force limit one might obtain from the road
	tires. Camber-induced changes in the tire force and moment systems
	have knock-on consequences for the vehicle's stability. The study
	makes use of computer simulations that exploit a high-fidelity motorcycle
	model whose parameter set is based on a Suzuki GSX-R1000 sports machine.
	In order to study camber-induced stability trends for a range of
	machine speeds and roll angles, we study the machine dynamics as
	the vehicle travels over the surface of a right circular cone. Conical
	road surfaces allow the machine to operate at a constant steady-state
	speed, a constant roll angle, and a constant road camber angle. The
	local road-tire contact behavior is analyzed by approximating the
	cone surface by moving tangent planes located under the road wheels.
	There is novelty in the way in which adaptive controllers are used
	to center the vehicle's trajectory on a cone, which has its apex
	at the origin of the inertial reference frame. The results show that
	at low speed both the weave- and wobble-mode stabilities are at a
	maximum when the machine is perpendicular to the road surface. This
	trend is reversed at high speed, since the weave- and wobble-mode
	dampings are minimized by running conditions in which the wheels
	are orthogonal to the road. As a result, positive camber, which is
	often introduced by road builders to aid drainage and enhance the
	friction limit of four-wheeled vehicle tires, might be detrimental
	to the stability of two-wheeled machines.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Evangelou2008},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2937140},
  keywords = {damping; friction; mechanical contact; mechanical stability; motorcycles;
	tyres; vehicle dynamics; wheels},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AMJ/75/061020/1}
}
@article{Evangelou2007,
  author = {Simos Evangelou and David J. N. Limebeer and Robin S. Sharp and Malcolm
	C. Smith},
  title = {Mechanical Steering Compensators for High-Performance Motorcycles},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mechanics},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {74},
  pages = {332-346},
  number = {2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Evangelou2007},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2198547},
  keywords = {steering systems; motorcycles; vehicle dynamics; design engineering;
	quadratic programming},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AMJ/74/332/1}
}
@mastersthesis{Evertse2010,
  author = {M. V. C. Evertse},
  title = {Rider analysis using a fully instrumented motorcycle},
  school = {Delft University of Technology},
  year = {2010},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Evertse2010}
}
@techreport{Evertse2009,
  author = {Marc V. C. Evertse},
  title = {Rider Analysis: Strengthen bridge between rider feeling and data},
  institution = {Yamaha Motor Europe NV},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Evertse2009}
}
@article{Fajans2000,
  author = {Fajans, J.},
  title = {Steering in Bicycles and Motorcycles},
  journal = {American Journal of Physics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {68},
  pages = {654--659},
  number = {7},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Fajans2000}
}
@inproceedings{Falco1997,
  author = {de Falco, D. and Riviezzo, E.},
  title = {Bond graph modeling the longitudinal dynamics of motorcycles},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Bond Graph Modeling and Simulation},
  year = {1997},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Falco1997}
}
@inproceedings{Filippi2011,
  author = {de Filippi, Pierpaolo and Mara Tanelli and Matteo Corno and Sergio
	M. Savaresi},
  title = {Enhancing active safety of two-wheeled vehicles via electronic stability
	control},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 18th World Congress The International Federation
	of Automatic Control},
  year = {2011},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Filippi2011}
}
@unpublished{Findlay2006,
  author = {Findlay, Chad and Moore, Jason Keith and Perez-Maldonado, Claudia},
  title = {SISO Control of a Bicycle-Rider System},
  note = {MAE 272 Report 2, Winter 2006},
  year = {2006},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Findlay2006}
}
@unpublished{Findlay2006a,
  author = {Findlay, Chad and Moore, Jason Keith and Perez-Maldonado, Claudia},
  title = {SISO Control of a Bicycle-Rider System Presentation},
  note = {MAE 272 Report 2, Winter 2006},
  year = {2006},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Findlay2006a}
}
@book{Foale2002,
  title = {Motorcycle handling and chassis design: the art and science},
  publisher = {Tony Foale Designs},
  year = {2002},
  author = {Tony Foale},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Foale2002}
}
@phdthesis{Forouhar1992,
  author = {F.A. Forouhar},
  title = {Robust stabilization of high-speed oscillations in single track vehicles
	by feedback control of gyroscopic moments of crankshaft and engine
	inertia},
  school = {University of California, Berkeley},
  year = {1992},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Forouhar1992}
}
@article{Franke1990,
  author = {Franke, G. and Suhr, W. and Rie\ss, F.},
  title = {An advanced model of bicycle dynamics},
  journal = {European Journal of Physics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {116--121},
  number = {2},
  abstract = {A theoretical model of a moving bicycle is presented for arbitrary
	bicycle geometries at finite angles. The nonlinear equations of motion
	are derived and solved with the help of a computer. The solutions
	are tested for energy conservation, and examined with respect to
	inherent stability. For common bicycles, velocity and lean angle
	ranges of self-stable motion are predicted.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Franke1990},
  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/0143-0807/11/116}
}
@incollection{Frezza2003,
  author = {Frezza, Ruggero and Beghi, Alessandro},
  title = {Simulating a Motorcycle Driver},
  booktitle = {New Trends in Nonlinear Dynamics and Control and their Applications},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2003},
  editor = {Kang, Wei and Borges, Carlos and Xiao, Mingqing},
  volume = {295},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences},
  pages = {175-186},
  note = {10.1007/978-3-540-45056-6_11},
  affiliation = {Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Italy},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Frezza2003},
  isbn = {978-3-540-40474-3},
  keyword = {Engineering},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-45056-6_11}
}
@article{Frezza2006,
  author = {Frezza, R. and Beghi, A.},
  title = {A virtual motorcycle driver for closed-loop simulation},
  journal = {Control Systems Magazine, IEEE},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {62-77},
  number = {5},
  month = {October},
  abstract = {The development of a motorcycle driver for virtual prototyping applications
	is discussed. The driver is delivered with a commercial multibody
	code as a tool for performing closed-loop maneuvers with virtual
	motorcycle models. The closed-loop controller is developed with a
	qualitative analysis of how a human rider controls a motorcycle.
	The analysis concerns handling and maneuverability, which are relevant
	for real and virtual vehicle performance evaluation. A motorcycle
	model for control design and a controller structure are developed.
	The model is based on a mathematical representation of common-sense
	rules of motorcycle riding. The virtual rider is then tested in various
	operating conditions to assess whether the control requirements are
	achieved. Criteria for evaluating driver models are briefly discussed},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Frezza2006},
  doi = {10.1109/MCS.2006.1700045},
  issn = {0272-1708},
  keywords = {closed loop systems, control system CAD, motorcycles, virtual prototypingclosed-loop
	maneuvers, commercial multibody code, control design, maneuverability,
	motorcycle control, motorcycle driver development, motorcycle handling,
	multibody tools, qualitative analysis, system performance evaluation,
	virtual motorcycle models, virtual prototyping}
}
@inbook{Frezza2004,
  chapter = {Simulating a Motorcycle Driver},
  pages = {175-186},
  title = {New Trends in Nonlinear Dynamics and Control and their Applications},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  year = {2004},
  author = {Ruggero Frezza and Alessandro Beghi},
  volume = {295},
  number = {295},
  series = {Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences},
  abstract = {Controlling a riderless bicycle or motorcycle is a challenging problem
	because the dynamics are nonlinear and non-minimum phase. Further
	difficulties are introduced if one desires to decouple the control
	of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. In this paper, a control
	strategy is proposed for driving a motorcycle along a lane, tracking
	a speed pro.le given as a function of the arc length of the mid lane.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Frezza2004},
  doi = {10.1007/b80168}
}
@article{Fu1965,
  author = {Fu, Hiroyasu},
  title = {Fundamental Characteristics of Single-Track Vehicles in Steady Turning},
  journal = {JSME Bulletin},
  year = {1965},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {284--293},
  number = {34},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Fu1965},
  keywords = {roll angle,steer torque,tire slip,motorcycle}
}
@inproceedings{Fuchs1998,
  author = {Andreas Fuchs},
  title = {Trim of aerodynamically faired single-track vehicles in crosswinds},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd European Seminar on Velomobiles},
  year = {1998},
  address = {Roskilde, Denmark},
  month = {August},
  abstract = {This paper is about minimizing the disturbing effects of steady crosswinds
	on singletrack
	
	vehicles (velomobiles and hpv / bicycles / motorcycles). A solution
	of the static
	
	problem ‘aerodynamically faired single-track vehicle in crosswind’
	is presented.
	
	The Cornell Bicycle Model (Cornell Bicycle Research Project) describes
	the physical
	
	behavior of an idealized bicycle (single-track vehicle) at no wind.
	Other equations in a
	
	previous paper describe the torques on fairings due to aerodynamic
	forces which induce
	
	lean of single-track vehicles and lead to steering-action. These equations
	are combined
	
	with those of the bicycle model to describe the conditions for equilibrium
	at some lean
	
	but zero steering angle. Parameters affecting equilibrium are mass
	distribution, vehicleand
	
	fairing geometry and the relative position of fairing and vehicle
	structure. Faired
	
	single-track velomobiles whose parameters are such that the equilibrium-equation
	(‘trim
	
	equation’) is fullfilled could be easier to ride in steady crosswind
	than those designed at
	
	random.
	
	Because the trim equation derived in this paper does not describe
	the dynamic behavior
	
	e.g. of a velomobile coming from a no-wind situation into one with
	steady, alternating or
	
	impulse-input crosswind, further investigations will be needed for
	even better hpv- or
	
	other single-track vehicle design.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Fuchs1998}
}
@article{Fujii2012,
  author = {Fujii, Shigeru and Shiozawa, Souichi and Shinagawa, Akinori and Kishi,
	Tomoaki},
  title = {Steering characteristics of motorcycles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {0},
  pages = {1-19},
  number = {0},
  abstract = {In this study, the results of a steady-state cornering test using
	a sport-touring motorcycle and the analysis of those test results
	are presented. This test was conducted as an activity in our efforts
	to realise a quantitative development method for motorcycles. The
	measurement data from this test include measurement results for tyre
	force, tyre moment, and tyre slip angle that have not been practically
	addressed in the research of motorcycles, in addition to normal measurement
	results for velocity, steering angle, steering torque, roll angle,
	etc. Until now research on motorcycle dynamics characteristics has
	indicated that ‘there is a strong relationship between the motorcycle
	dynamics characteristics and the tyre slip angle’. However, since
	it is difficult to take highly precise measurements of the motorcycle’s
	tyre slip angle during actual riding, especially when the motorcycle
	is tilted during cornering, such measurements have been avoided,
	cf. [H. Ishii and Y. Tezuka, Considerations of turning performance
	for motorcycle, SETC (1997), pp. 383–389]. Nevertheless, in this
	research we attempted to measure the tyre slip angle and also attempted
	to investigate in detail the dynamics characteristics and tyre characteristics
	during riding. Until now there has not been an adequate investigation
	conducted under a variety of riding conditions, but it is the aim
	of this research to show that it is possible to measure the tyre
	slip angle with a reasonable accuracy. It is our opinion that this
	will open a new path to a more detailed investigation of the motorcycle’s
	dynamics characteristics. In addition, we conducted measurements
	using not only the normal rider’s lean angle (lean-with posture),
	but also measurements in the case where the rider’s lean angle was
	intentionally changed, in order to investigate the effects that a
	change in the rider’s posture has on the variation in the measurement
	results of the motorcycle’s dynamics. Furthermore, we then compared
	these measurement results with the results obtained from simulations.
	Additionally, steering index values were calculated from the measurement
	results.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Fujii2012},
  doi = {10.1080/00423114.2011.607900},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423114.2011.607900},
  keywords = {inertial measurment unit,kalman filter,GPS,roll angle},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423114.2011.607900}
}
@inproceedings{Fujikawa1986,
  author = {Fujikawa, H. and M. Hubbard},
  title = {Optimal Human Control and Stability of the Skateboard},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 25th Conference, Society of Instrument and Control
	Engineers},
  year = {1986},
  address = {Tokyo, Japan},
  month = {July},
  organization = {Society of Instrument and Control Engineers,},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Fujikawa1986}
}
@article{Fukui2008,
  author = {Katsuhiko Fukui and Toshimichi Takahashi},
  title = {Study of the Performance of a Driver-vehicle System for Changing
	the Steering Characteristics of a Vehicle},
  journal = {R\&D Review of Toyota CRDL},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {20--25},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Fukui2008}
}
@mastersthesis{Galbusera2004,
  author = {Luca Galbusera},
  title = {PROBLEMI DI STABILIZZAZIONE NELLA GUIDA DI UNA BICICLETTA},
  school = {POLITECNICO DI MILANO},
  year = {2004},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Galbusera2004}
}
@mastersthesis{Gallaspy2000,
  author = {Gallaspy, Jason Matthew},
  title = {Gyroscopic Stabilization of an Unmanned Bicycle},
  school = {Auburn University},
  year = {2000},
  address = {Auburn, Alabama, USA},
  abstract = {This paper presents a method for stabilizing an unmanned bicycle upright.
	The system uses a gimbaled gyroscope to apply a restoring torque
	on the bicycle frame if a leaning angle is sensed. First, a dynamic
	model is developed by determining state equations from mechanical
	and electrical principles. This model is used to design a controller
	to stabilize the bicycle, which is implemented using a digital microcontroller.
	Simulations using MATLAB/Simulink are analyzed, and experimental
	results are summarized. Finally, recommendations for further work
	are included in the concluding remarks.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gallaspy2000}
}
@unpublished{Gallaspy2001,
  author = {Jason M. Gallaspy and John Y. Hung},
  title = {Gyroscopic Stabilization Of A Stationary Unmanned Bicycle},
  note = {a planned journal article of the same name as his thesis},
  year = {2001},
  abstract = {This paper presents a method for stabilizing an unmanned bicycle in
	the upright position. Nonlinear dynamics of the bicycle and control
	gyroscope are modeled using Lagrange’s method. Then, a linear approximate
	model is developed to design a controller to stabilize the bicycle.
	An 8-bit fixed-point microcontroller computes control commands to
	actuate the gyroscope gimbal axis, thus producing a restoring torque
	on the bicycle frame. Simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK are analyzed,
	and experimental results are summarized. Finally, recommendations
	for further work are given in the concluding remarks.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gallaspy2001}
}
@inproceedings{Gani1997,
  author = {Gani, M. and Limebeer, D. and Sharp, R.},
  title = {Multi-body simulation software in the analysis of motorcycle dynamics},
  booktitle = {Transportation Systems. Proceedings volume from the 8th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS
	Symposium.},
  year = {1997},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gani1997}
}
@inproceedings{Gani1997a,
  author = {M. Gani and D. Limebeer and R.S. Sharp},
  title = {Multibody simulation software in the study of two-wheeled road vehicles},
  booktitle = {Proc. 8th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS Symposium on Transportation Systems '97},
  year = {1997},
  address = {Chania, Greece.},
  month = {June},
  abstract = {Due to the model complexity, the manual derivation of the equations
	of motion of two-wheeled road vehicles is not practical, particularly
	if one wishes to study complex modes of operation such as certain
	cornering phenomena. We establish the feasibility of using multi-body
	model building software to study the straight running properties
	of a motorcycle. Our results accurately match those found by Sharp
	[6], who hand derived the equations of motion, with the added advantage
	of a significant reduction in the time taken to model the system.
	Furthermore, we demonstrate the agreement between the results of
	the linear model and the time responses obtained from a small perturbation
	non-linear system derived by the multi-body package. We also contend
	that the probability of incorrectly modelling the system, using these
	software tools, is less than that found in manual methods. Three
	examples are given to demonstrate how these tools can reduce the
	time and effort needed in improving motorcycle design. Firstly, a
	motorcycle model is used to predict the change in stability resulting
	from changes in the mechanical trail. Then we show how this base
	model used by Sharp [6] can be extended to include bounce, pitch
	and suspension freedoms. Finally, we implement a simple rider control
	mechanism to study the counter steering phenomenon.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gani1997a}
}
@inproceedings{Gani1997b,
  author = {Gani, M. and Limebeer, D. J. N. and Sharp, R.},
  title = {The analysis of motorcycle dynamics and control},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop Modelling and Control of Mechanical Systems},
  year = {1997},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gani1997b}
}
@inproceedings{Gani1996,
  author = {Mahbub Gani and Robin Sharp and David Limebeer},
  title = {Multi-body simulation software in the study of two-wheeled road vehicles},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 35th Conference on Decision and Control},
  year = {1996},
  address = {Kobe, Japan},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gani1996}
}
@article{Garcia1988,
  author = {Garcia, A. and Hubbard, M.},
  title = {Spin Reversal of the Rattleback: Theory and Experiment},
  journal = {Proceedngs of the Royal Society London A},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {418},
  pages = {165-197},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Garcia1988}
}
@techreport{Gelder2006,
  author = {van Gelder, Eric},
  title = {A Literature Review of Tilting Vehicle Dynamics and Controls},
  institution = {University of California, Davis},
  year = {2006},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gelder2006}
}
@article{Genin1997,
  author = {Joseph Genin and Juehui Hong and Wei Xu},
  title = {Accelerometer Placement for Angular Velocity Determination},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {474-477},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Genin1997},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2801281},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/119/474/1}
}
@inproceedings{Genta1990,
  author = {Genta, G. and Albesiano, R.},
  title = {MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ASSESSING THE DRIVEABILTY OF MOTORCYCLES},
  booktitle = {Proceedings - Society Of Automotive Engineers May 7-11 1990},
  year = {1990},
  number = {707-714 8756-8470},
  publisher = {SAE},
  note = {SAE Paper 905211},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Genta1990}
}
@inproceedings{Getz1995a,
  author = {Getz, Neil H.},
  title = {Internal equilibrium control of a bicycle},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (Cat.
	No.95CH35803)},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {4285-4287},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  month = {December},
  organization = {IEEE Control Syst. Soc},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  note = {Proceedings of 1995 34th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control,
	13-15 December 1995, New Orleans, LA, USA},
  abstract = {Internal equilibrium control is applied to the problem of path-tracking
	with balance for the bicycle using steering and rear-wheel torque
	as inputs. From the internal dynamics of the bicycle an internal
	equilibrium manifold, a submanifold of the state-space, is constructed.
	The internal equilibrium controller makes a neighborhood of the manifold
	attractive and invariant. This results in approximate tracking of
	time-parameterized paths in the plane while retaining balance.},
  affiliation = {Getz, N.H.; Dept. of Electr. Eng. \& Comput. Sci., California Univ.,
	Berkeley, CA, USA.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Getz1995a},
  identifying-codes = {[C1996-03-3360F-003],[0 7803 2685 7/95/\$4.00],[10.1109/CDC.1995.478913]},
  isbn = {0 7803 2685 7},
  keywords = {Theoretical or Mathematical/ dynamics; motion control; vehicles/ internal
	equilibrium control; bicycle; steering; rear-wheel torque; internal
	equilibrium manifold; internal dynamics; state-space submanifold/
	C3360F Control of other land traffic systems; C3120C Spatial variables
	control},
  language = {English},
  number-of-references = {4},
  publication-type = {C},
  type = {Conference Paper},
  unique-id = {INSPEC:5189922}
}
@inproceedings{Getz1994,
  author = {Getz, Neil H.},
  title = {Control of balance for a nonlinear nonholonomic non-minimum phase
	model of a bicycle},
  booktitle = {American Control Conference},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {1},
  number = {{P}aper 751712},
  pages = {148-151},
  address = {Baltimore, {MD}},
  month = {June--July},
  organization = {AACC},
  abstract = {A feedback control law is derived that causes a nonlinear, nonholonomic,
	nonminimum phase model of a riderless powered two-wheeled bicycle
	to stably track arbitrary smooth trajectories of roll-angle and non-zero
	rear-wheel velocity.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Getz1994},
  doi = {10.1109/ACC.1994.751712},
  keywords = { dynamics, feedback, motion control, nonlinear control systems, stability,
	tracking balance control, feedback control, nonlinear nonholonomic
	non-minimum phase model, roll-angle, trajectory tracking, two-wheeled
	bicycle, velocity}
}
@inproceedings{Getz1995,
  author = {Getz, Neil H. and Marsden, Jerrold E.},
  title = {Control for an autonomous bicycle, Paper 525473},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Robotics and Automation},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {1397-1402},
  address = {Nagoya, Aichi, Japan},
  month = {May},
  organization = {IEEE},
  abstract = {The control of nonholonomic and underactuated systems with symmetry
	is illustrated by the problem of controlling a bicycle. We derive
	a controller which, using steering and rear-wheel torque, causes
	a model of a riderless bicycle to recover its balance from a near
	fall as well as converge to a time parameterized path in the ground
	plane. Our construction utilizes new results for both the derivation
	of equations of motion for nonholonomic systems with symmetry, as
	well as the control of underactuated robotic systems},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Getz1995},
  doi = {10.1109/ROBOT.1995.525473},
  issn = {1050-4729},
  keywords = { mobile robots autonomous bicycle, nonholonomic systems, rear-wheel
	torque, riderless bicycle, steering, symmetry, time-parameterized
	path convergence, underactuated robotic systems}
}
@article{Gibbs1879,
  author = {Gibbs, J. W.},
  title = {On the Fundamental Formulae of Dynamics},
  journal = {American Journal of Mathematics},
  year = {1879},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {49--64},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gibbs1879},
  copyright = {Copyright © 1879 The Johns Hopkins University Press},
  issn = {00029327},
  jstor_articletype = {primary_article},
  jstor_formatteddate = {Mar., 1879},
  publisher = {The Johns Hopkins University Press},
  url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2369196}
}
@inproceedings{Giner2009,
  author = {Giner, D.M. and Jian Kang and Manka, M.},
  title = {A "corner solver" for motorcycles as a tool for the development of
	a virtual rider},
  booktitle = {Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 2009. VPPC '09. IEEE},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1110 -1117},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {In this paper, a solver for the cornering analysis of motorcycles
	is presented. Its main outcome is the trim condition of the vehicle
	accelerating through a corner. There are several advantages of using
	this approach over a dynamic solution. Firstly, a controller is not
	needed to stabilize the motorcycle under the desired conditions and,
	secondly, the solution is much faster. The exploration of the motorcycle
	equilibrium points and their dependence on the speed and the corner
	radius will give a useful insight for the design of a virtual rider.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Giner2009},
  doi = {10.1109/VPPC.2009.5289724},
  keywords = {corner solver;motorcycle equilibrium points;virtual rider;motorcycles;traffic
	engineering computing;vehicle dynamics;virtual reality;}
}
@inproceedings{Giner2008,
  author = {David Moreno Giner and Claudio Brenna and Ioannis Symeonidis and
	Gueven Kavadarlic},
  title = {MYMOSA – TOWARDS THE SIMULATION OF REALISTIC MOTORCYCLE MANOEUVRES
	BY COUPLING MULTIBODY AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of IMECE2008 2008 ASME International Mechanical Engineering
	Congress and Exposition},
  year = {2008},
  number = {IMECE2008-67297},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Giner2008}
}
@inproceedings{Giner2009a,
  author = {David Moreno Giner and Michal Manka},
  title = {Motorcycle dynamic models for virtual rider design and cornering
	analysis},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical
	Conferences \& Computers and Information in Engineering Conference,
	IDETC/CIE 2009},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Giner2009a}
}
@techreport{Godthelp1975,
  author = {J. Godthelp and M. Buist},
  title = {Stability and Manoeuvrability Characteristics of Single Track Vehicles},
  institution = {Institute for Road Safety Research},
  year = {1975},
  number = {IZF 1975 C-2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Godthelp1975}
}
@article{Godthelp1978,
  author = {J. Godthelp and P.I.J. Wouters},
  title = {Koers houden door fietsers en bromfietsers},
  journal = {Verkeerskunde},
  year = {1978},
  pages = {537 - 543},
  number = {11},
  month = {November},
  abstract = {Benodigde strookbreedte op rechte wegvakken en kruisingen
	
	
	Wendbaarheid en stabiliteit van tweewielers
	
	
	Consequenties voor verkeers- en gedragsregels},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Godthelp1978},
  keywords = {bicycle, experimental, geometrical properties, stability, maneuvrability}
}
@techreport{Gohl2006,
  author = {J. Gohl and R. Rajamani and P. Starr and L. Alexander},
  title = {Development of a novel tilt-controlled narrow commuter vehicle},
  institution = {University of Michigan, Center of Transportation Studies},
  year = {2006},
  number = {CTS 06-05},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gohl2006}
}
@article{Gonzalez1989,
  author = {Hiroko Gonzalez and M.L. Hull},
  title = {Multivariable optimization of cycling biomechanics},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {1151 - 1161},
  number = {11-12},
  abstract = {Relying on a biomechanical model of the lower limb which treats the
	leg-bicycle system as a five-bar linkage constrained to plane motion,
	a cost function derived from the joint moments developed during cycling
	is computed. At constant average power of 200 W, the effect of five
	variables on the cost function is studied. The five variables are
	pedalling rate, crank arm length, seat tube angle, seat height, and
	longitudinal foot position on the pedal. A sensitivity analysis of
	each of the five variables shows that pedalling rate is the most
	sensitive, followed by the crank arm length, seat tube angle, seat
	height, and longitudinal foot position on the pedal (the least sensitive).
	Based on Powell's method, a multivariable optimization search is
	made for the combination of variable values which minimize the cost
	function. For a rider of average anthropometry (height 1.78 m, weight
	72.5 kg), a pedalling rate of 115 rev min-1, crank arm length of
	0.140 m, seat tube angle of 76°, seat height plus crank arm length
	equal to 97% of trochanteric leg length, and longitudinal foot position
	on the pedal equal to 54% of foot length correspond to the cost function
	global minimum. The effect of anthropometric parameter variations
	is also examined and these variations influence the results significantly.
	The optimal crank arm length, seat height, and longitudinal foot
	position on the pedal increase as the size of rider increases whereas
	the optimal cadence and seat tube angle decrease as the rider's size
	increases. The dependence of optimization results on anthropometric
	parameters emphasizes the importance of tailoring bicycle equipment
	to the anthropometry of the individual.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gonzalez1989},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(89)90217-0},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C4FF6M-F/2/b5e4187fef443c14777e8d0704ce77ef}
}
@article{Gonzalez1988,
  author = {Hiroko Gonzalez and M.L. Hull},
  title = {Multivariable optimization of cycling biomechanics},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {872 - 872},
  number = {10},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gonzalez1988},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(88)90079-6},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C00GS2-NM/2/5486d206cf5bc34b007ac076bb382be0}
}
@inproceedings{Goodarzi2007,
  author = {Avesta Goodarzi and Amir Soltani and Ebrahim Esmailzadeh},
  title = {Handling improvement of motorcycles using active seats},
  booktitle = {Advances in Automotive Control},
  year = {2007},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Goodarzi2007},
  doi = {10.3182/20070820-3-US-2918.00039}
}
@techreport{Gordon1989,
  author = {Gordon, C. C. and Churchill, T. and Clauser, C. E. and Bradtmiller,
	B. and McConville, J. T.and Tebbetts, I. and Walker, R. A.},
  title = {1988 Anthropometric survey of U.S. Army personnel: summary statistics
	interim report},
  institution = {U.S. Army Natick RD\&E Center},
  year = {1989},
  number = {NATICK/TR-89/027},
  address = {Massachusetts},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gordon1989}
}
@techreport{Goyal1989,
  author = {Suresh Goyal},
  title = {Second Order Kinematic Constraint Between Two Bodies Rolling, Twisting
	and Slipping Against Each Other While Maintaining Point Contact},
  institution = {Cornell University},
  year = {1989},
  number = {TR 89-1043},
  address = {Ithaca, New York},
  month = {October},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Goyal1989}
}
@article{Greenslade1983,
  author = {{Greenslade Jr.}, T. B.},
  title = {More bicycle physics},
  journal = {Physics Teacher},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {360--363},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Greenslade1983}
}
@article{Griffiths2005,
  author = {I. W. Griffiths and J. Watkins and D. Sharpe},
  title = {Measuring the moment of inertia of the human body by a rotating platform
	method},
  journal = {American Journal of Physics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {73},
  pages = {85-92},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Griffiths2005},
  doi = {10.1119/1.1648688},
  keywords = {biomechanics; gyroscopes; rotation; angular momentum; readout electronics},
  publisher = {AAPT},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AJP/73/85/1}
}
@patent{Gustafsson2002,
  nationality = {Swedish},
  number = {WO 02/01151 A1},
  year = {2002},
  yearfiled = {2001},
  author = {Gustafsson, Fredrik},
  title = {Methods for estimating the roll angel and pitch angle of a two-wheeled
	vehicle system and a computer program to perform the methods},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Gustafsson2002}
}
@article{Hakansson2007,
  author = {Hakansson, N.A. and Hull, M.L.},
  title = {Influence of Pedaling Rate on Muscle Mechanical Energy in Low Power
	Recumbent Pedaling Using Forward Dynamic Simulations},
  journal = {Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions
	on},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {509-516},
  number = {4},
  month = {December},
  abstract = {An understanding of the muscle power contributions to the crank and
	limb segments in recumbent pedaling would be useful in the development
	of rehabilitative pedaling exercises. The objectives of this work
	were to 1) quantify the power contributions of the muscles to driving
	the crank and limb segments using a forward dynamic simulation of
	low-power pedaling in the recumbent position, and 2) determine whether
	there were differences in the muscle power contributions at three
	different pedaling rates. A forward dynamic model was used to determine
	the individual muscle excitation amplitude and timing to drive simulations
	that best replicated experimental kinematics and kinetics of recumbent
	pedaling. The segment kinematics, pedal reaction forces, and electromyograms
	(EMG) of 10 muscles of the right leg were recorded from 16 subjects
	as they pedaled a recumbent ergometer at 40, 50, and 60 rpm and a
	constant 50 W workrate. Intersegmental joint moments were computed
	using inverse dynamics and the muscle excitation onset and offset
	timing were determined from the EMG data. All quantities were averaged
	across ten cycles for each subject and averaged across subjects.
	The model-generated kinematic and kinetic quantities tracked almost
	always within 1 standard deviation (SD) of the experimental data
	for all three pedaling rates. The uniarticular hip and knee extensors
	generated 65% of the total mechanical work in recumbent pedaling.
	The triceps surae muscles transferred power from the limb segments
	to the crank and the bi-articular muscles that crossed the hip and
	knee delivered power to the crank during the leg transitions between
	flexion and extension. The functions of the individual muscles did
	not change with pedaling rate, but the mechanical energy generated
	by the knee extensors and hip flexors decreased as pedaling rate
	increased. By varying the pedaling rate, it is possible to manipulate
	the individual muscle power contributions to the crank and limb segments
	in recumbe- - nt pedaling and thereby design rehabilitative pedaling
	exercises to meet specific objectives.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hakansson2007},
  doi = {10.1109/TNSRE.2007.906959},
  issn = {1534-4320},
  keywords = {electromyography, kinematics, patient rehabilitationEMG, crank, electromyograms,
	forward dynamic simulations, hip extensors, inverse dynamics, kinetics,
	knee extensors, leg extension, leg flexion, limb segments, low power
	recumbent pedaling, muscle excitation amplitude, muscle mechanical
	energy, muscle power, pedal reaction forces, pedaling rate, rehabilitative
	pedaling exercises, segment kinematics, triceps surae muscles}
}
@article{Hall2004,
  author = {B D Hall},
  title = {On the propagation of uncertainty in complex-valued quantities},
  journal = {Metrologia},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {173},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {This paper explores a recent suggestion to use a bivariate form of
	the Gaussian 'error propagation law' to propagate uncertainty in
	the measurement of complex-valued quantities (Ridler N M and Salter
	M J 2002 Metrologia [/0026-1394/39/3/6] 39 295–302 ). Several alterative
	formulations of the law are discussed in which the contributions
	from individual input terms are more explicit. The calculation of
	complex-valued sensitivity coefficients is discussed and a matrix
	generalization of the notion of a 'component of uncertainty' in a
	measurement result is introduced. A form of a 'chain rule' is given
	for the propagation of uncertainty when several intermediate equations
	are involved.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hall2004},
  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/0026-1394/41/i=3/a=010}
}
@article{Hall2003,
  author = {B D Hall},
  title = {Calculating measurement uncertainty for complex-valued quantities},
  journal = {Measurement Science and Technology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {368},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {A software technique is described that provides support for uncertainty
	calculations for complex-valued measurements. The technique is based
	on classical methods of multivariate statistics and propagation of
	variance as well as automatic differentiation, which is an established
	computational method. It facilitates propagation of covariance data
	by automating the calculation of sensitivity coefficients. The technique
	introduces a simple abstraction to represent measurement data and
	defines arithmetic operations and standard functions that manipulate
	this abstraction. The method is not difficult to implement and is
	easy to use. An example source code in C++ is included.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hall2003},
  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/0957-0233/14/i=3/a=316}
}
@inproceedings{Ham2006,
  author = {Woonchul Ham and Hyunseok Choi},
  title = {Autonomous Tracking Control and Inverse Kinematics of Unmanned Electric
	Bicycle System},
  booktitle = {SICE-ICASE, 2006. International Joint Conference},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {336 -339},
  month = {October},
  abstract = {In the former researches for the unmanned bicycle system, we do focus
	on stabilizing it by using the lateral motion of mass and suggest
	a control algorithm for steering angle and driving wheel speed for
	a given desired path. We also suggest a new algorithm for nonlinear
	inverse kinematic problem which is similar to Piccard's iterative
	method in basic concept. We then propose a tracking control strategy
	by moving the center of load mass left and right respectively based
	on the nonlinear compensation-like control studied in the former
	researches. From the computer simulation results, we can show the
	effectiveness of the proposed control strategy},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ham2006},
  doi = {10.1109/SICE.2006.315703},
  keywords = {Piccard iterative method;autonomous tracking control;inverse kinematics;unmanned
	electric bicycle system;iterative methods;mobile robots;nonlinear
	control systems;remotely operated vehicles;robot kinematics;robust
	control;tracking;}
}
@inproceedings{Ham2007,
  author = {Woonchul Ham and Seunghwan Kim},
  title = {A New Iterative Algorithm for the Inverse Kinematic Problem and Its
	Application to Unmanned Electric Bicycle System},
  booktitle = {Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, 2007. CIRA
	2007. International Symposium on},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {444 -449},
  month = {June},
  abstract = {In the former researches (Ingyu Park, et al., 2001), (Sangduck Lee
	and Woonchul Ham, 2002), (Seonghoon Kim and Woonchul Ham, 2004),
	we suggested an algorithm which can be used for deriving the nonlinear
	inverse kinematic problem in unmanned bicycle system by using iterative
	method. In this short note, we reinforce the former method and propose
	a new iterative algorithm for a certain type of nonlinear dynamic
	equation such as inverse kinematics of bicycle system. The idea of
	proposed algorithm is similar to Piccard's iterative method in basic
	concept. We also propose a robust control strategy for tracking problem
	in bicycle system based on nonlinear compensation. In this control
	algorithm, we invent and attach the load mass balance system for
	the self stabilization with more ease. From the computer simulation
	results, we can see that the proposed control algorithm can be applied
	to the real system.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ham2007},
  doi = {10.1109/CIRA.2007.382889},
  keywords = {computer simulation;iterative algorithm;load mass balance system;nonlinear
	compensation;nonlinear dynamic equation;nonlinear inverse kinematic
	problem;robust control strategy;self stabilization;unmanned electric
	bicycle system;bicycles;compensation;iterative methods;mobile robots;nonlinear
	dynamical systems;remotely operated vehicles;robot kinematics;robust
	control;}
}
@mastersthesis{Hand1988,
  author = {Richard Scott Hand},
  title = {Comparison and Stability Analysis of Linearized Equations of Motion
	For a Basic Bicycle Model},
  school = {Cornell University},
  year = {1988},
  address = {Ithaca, New York},
  month = {May},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hand1988}
}
@misc{Harper1984,
  author = {{Harper Jr.}, Robert P. and George E. Cooper},
  title = {Handling Qualities and Pilot Evaluation},
  year = {1984},
  note = {Wright Brothers Lectureship in Aeronautics},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Harper1984}
}
@article{Harper1986,
  author = {Harper, R. P. and Cooper, G. E.},
  title = {Handling Qualities and Pilot Evaluation},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {515-529},
  number = {5},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Harper1986}
}
@article{Hartman1978,
  author = {Hartman, Charles H.},
  title = {Human Factors Portion of the Motorcycle Dynamics and Handling Equation},
  journal = {SAE Special Publications},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {SP--428},
  pages = {73--78},
  month = {February--March},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hartman1978}
}
@inproceedings{Hasegawa1980,
  author = {Hasegawa, A},
  title = {Analysis of Controllability and Stability of Motorcycles Analysis
	of Stability at High
	
	Speed Driving},
  booktitle = {Proc. International Motorcycle Safety Conference},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {479--500},
  month = {May},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hasegawa1980}
}
@inproceedings{Hauser2004,
  author = {Hauser, J. and Saccon, A. and Frezza, R.},
  title = {Achievable motorcycle trajectories},
  booktitle = {Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {4},
  pages = { 3944-3949 Vol.4},
  month = {December},
  abstract = { The authors show that a (simple, nonholonomic) motorcycle can exactly
	track a large class of smooth trajectories in the plane. Instability
	and nontrivial dynamic coupling make the exploration of aggressive
	motorcycle trajectories a rather challenging task. Previously (Hauser
	et al., 2004), we developed optimization techniques for constructing
	a suitable roll trajectory that (approximately) implements the desired
	plane trajectory. In that work, we found that the tracking error
	is usually quite small leading to the natural question: Given a smooth
	trajectory in the plane, does there exist a bounded roll trajectory
	that allows a simple motorcycle model to exactly track the plane
	trajectory? In this paper, we develop a technique for proving that
	such exact tracking is possible and apply it to a number of example
	cases. Our technique is based on the nonlinear system inversion work
	of Devasia and Paden (1998). Indeed, our algorithm is in the class
	that they propose. Unfortunately, we have been unable to directly
	use their results as the motorcycle system does not appear to satisfy
	the specific conditions required.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hauser2004},
  issn = {0191-2216},
  keywords = { motorcycles, optimisation, position control exact tracking, motorcycle
	trajectories, nonholonomic motorcycle, nonlinear system inversion,
	nontrivial dynamic coupling, smooth trajectory tracking, tracking
	error}
}
@article{He2005,
  author = {Qichang He and Xiumin Fan and Dengzhe Ma},
  title = {Full Bicycle Dynamic Model for Interactive Bicycle Simulator},
  journal = {Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {373--380},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#He2005},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2121749},
  keywords = {bicycles; digital simulation; mechanical engineering computing; interactive
	systems; vibrations; vehicle dynamics},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?CIS/5/373/1}
}
@techreport{Herfkens1949,
  author = {Herfkens},
  title = {The stability of the bicycle},
  institution = {Instituut voor Rijwielontwikkeling},
  year = {1949},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Herfkens1949}
}
@unpublished{Hespanha2007,
  author = {Hespanha, Jo{\~a}o P.},
  title = {Undergraduate Lecture Notes on LQG/LQR controller design},
  note = {Course lecture notes},
  month = {April},
  year = {2007},
  address = {at http://www.ece.ucsb.edu/~hespanha/published},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hespanha2007},
  day = {1},
  howpublished = {On the WWW}
}
@article{Hess1995,
  author = {Hess, R.A.},
  title = {Modeling the effects of display quality upon human pilot dynamics
	and perceived vehicle handling qualities},
  journal = {Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {338-344},
  number = {2},
  month = {February},
  abstract = {A model-based technique addressing the effect of display or visual
	scene quality upon human pilot dynamics is introduced. The technique
	builds upon a methodology proposed for the preliminary assessment
	of flight simulator fidelity which uses a structural model of the
	human pilot. This model is incorporated in what is termed the primary
	control loop(s) for the task at hand. It is shown that the measured
	effects of degradations in display quality upon human pilot dynamics
	can be modeled by simple reductions in the gains associated with
	error and proprioceptive signals in the structural model. A control
	theoretic rationale for these gain reductions is presented. The effect
	of display quality upon perceived handling qualities is discussed
	and demonstrated in a simple example. Although the research had its
	genesis in flight simulator fidelity studies, the modeling procedure
	is applicable to any continuous control task involving degraded visual
	conditions},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1995},
  doi = {10.1109/21.364831},
  issn = {0018-9472},
  keywords = {aerospace simulation, aircraft control, aircraft displays, human factors,
	man-machine systemsdisplay quality, flight simulator fidelity, human
	factor, human pilot dynamics, model-based technique, perceived vehicle
	handling, primary control loop, proprioceptive signals}
}
@article{Hess1990c,
  author = {Hess, Ronald},
  title = {A Model of the Human's Use of Motion Cues in Vehicular Control},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {476--482},
  month = {May--June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1990c}
}
@article{Hess1987,
  author = {Ronald Hess},
  title = {A Qualitative Model of Human Interaction with Complex Dynamic Systems},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Sytems, Man, and Cybernetics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {SMC-17},
  pages = {33-51},
  number = {1},
  month = {January/February},
  abstract = {Abstract-A qualitative model describing human interaction with complex
	dynamic systems is developed. The model is hierarchical in nature
	and consists of three parts: a behavior generator, an internal model,
	and a sensory information processor. The behavior generator is responsible
	for action decomposition, turning higher level goals or missions
	into physical action at the human-machine interface. The internal
	model is an internal representation of the environment which the
	human is assumed to possess and is divided into four submodel categories.
	The sensory information processor is responsible for sensory composition.
	All three parts of the model act in consort to allow anticipatory
	behavior on the part of the human in goal-directed interaction with
	dynamic systems. Human workload and error are interpreted in this
	framework, and the familiar example of an automobile commute is used
	to illustrate the nature of the activity in the three model elements.
	Finally, with the qualitative model as a guide, verbal protocols
	from a manned simulation study of a helicopter instrument landing
	task are analyzed with particular emphasis on the effect of automation
	on human-machine performance.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1987}
}
@inbook{Hess1990d,
  chapter = {Identification of Pilot Dynamics From Simulation and Flight Test},
  pages = {151--176},
  title = {Control and Dynamic Systems},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  year = {1990},
  editor = {C. T. Leondes},
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  volume = {33},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1990d}
}
@inbook{Hess1990e,
  chapter = {Methodology for the Analytical Assessment of Aircraft Handling Qualities},
  pages = {129-149},
  title = {Control and Dynamic Systems},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  year = {1990},
  editor = {C. T. Leondes},
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  volume = {33},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1990e}
}
@inbook{Hess1996,
  chapter = {Human-in-the-Loop Control},
  title = {CRC Control Handbook},
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  year = {1996},
  editor = {W. S. Levine},
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  number = {80},
  address = {Boca Raton, FL},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1996}
}
@inbook{Hess1985,
  chapter = {A Model-Based Theory for Analyzing Human Control Behavior},
  pages = {129--175},
  title = {Advances in Man-Machine Systems Research},
  publisher = {JAI Press},
  year = {1985},
  editor = {W. B. Rouse},
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  volume = {2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1985}
}
@inbook{Hess1997,
  chapter = {Feedback Control Models: Manual Control and Tracking},
  pages = {1249--1294},
  title = {Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {1997},
  editor = {Gavriel Salvendy},
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  number = {38},
  address = {New York},
  edition = {Second},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1997}
}
@inbook{Hess1987a,
  chapter = {Feedback Control Models},
  pages = {1212--1242},
  title = {Handbook of Human Factors},
  publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons},
  year = {1987},
  editor = {Salvendy, Gavriel},
  author = {Hess, Ronald A.},
  edition = {First},
  month = {January},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1987a}
}
@inbook{Hess2003,
  chapter = {Pilot Control},
  title = {Principles and Practice of Aviation Psychology},
  publisher = {Erlbaum},
  year = {2003},
  editor = {P. S. Tang and M. A.Vidulich},
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  number = {8},
  address = {Mahwah, NJ},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess2003}
}
@inbook{Hess2003a,
  chapter = {8: Pilot Control},
  pages = {265--310},
  title = {Principles of Aviation Psychology: Human Factors in Transportation},
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  year = {2003},
  editor = {Pamela S. Tang and Michael A. Vidulich},
  author = {Ronald A. Hess},
  address = {New York},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess2003a}
}
@article{Hess2009a,
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  title = {Analytical Assessment of Performance, Handling Qualities and Added
	Dynamics in Rotorcraft Flight Control},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part A, Systems
	and Human},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {SMC-39},
  pages = {262-271},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess2009a}
}
@inproceedings{Hess2006,
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  title = {Simplified Approach for Modelling Pilot Pursuit Control Behaviour
	in Multi-Loop Flight Control Tasks},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal
	of Aerospace Engineering},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {220},
  number = {2},
  pages = {85--102},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess2006},
  doi = {10.1243/09544100JAERO33},
  keywords = {pilot models, handling qualities, manual control}
}
@article{Hess1999,
  author = {Ronald A. Hess},
  title = {Book Review: Advances in Aircraft Flight Control},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {887--889},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1999}
}
@article{Hess1997a,
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  title = {Unified Theory for Aircraft Handling Qualities and Adverse Aircraft-Pilot
	Coupling},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {1141-1148},
  number = {6},
  month = {September},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1997a}
}
@article{Hess1990,
  author = {Ronald A. Hess},
  title = {Identification of Pilot-Vehicle Dynamics from Simulation and Flight
	Test},
  journal = {Control and Dynamic Systems, Advances in Aerospace Systems Dynamics
	and Control Systems},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {151--175},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1990}
}
@article{Hess1989a,
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  title = {A Theory for Handling Qualities Based Upon a Structural Pilot Model},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {792-797},
  number = {6},
  month = {November},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1989a}
}
@article{Hess1983,
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  title = {A Model-Based Investigation of Manipulator Characteristics and Pilot/Vehicle
	Performance},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {348-354},
  number = {5},
  month = {September},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1983}
}
@inproceedings{Hess1982,
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  title = {Prediction of Aircraft Handling Qualities Using Analytical Models
	of the Human Pilot},
  booktitle = {AGARD Conference Proceedings, No. 333, Criteria for Handling Qualities
	of Military Aircraft},
  year = {1982},
  pages = {25-1--25-8},
  month = {April},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1982}
}
@article{Hess1981,
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  title = {Pursuit Tracking and Higher Levels of Skill Development in the Human
	Pilot},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {SMC-11},
  pages = {262-273},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1981}
}
@article{Hess1980,
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  title = {Structural Model of the Adaptive Human Pilot},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {416-423},
  number = {5},
  month = {September},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1980}
}
@article{Hess1978,
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  title = {A Dual-Loop Model of the Human Controller},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {254-260},
  number = {4},
  month = {July-Aug.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1978}
}
@article{Hess1973,
  author = {Hess, R. A.},
  title = {Nonadjectival Rating Scales in Human Response Experiments},
  journal = {Human Factors},
  year = {1973},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {275-280},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1973}
}
@techreport{Hess1972,
  author = {Ronald A. Hess},
  title = {An introduction to human describing function and remnant measurement
	in single loop tracking tasks},
  institution = {Naval Postgraduate School},
  year = {1972},
  number = {AFFDL/FGC-TM-72-9},
  month = {May},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1972}
}
@article{Hess2009,
  author = {Hess, R. A. and Marchesi, F.},
  title = {Analytical Assessment of Flight Simulator Fidelity Using Pilot Models},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance, Dynamics, and Control},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess2009}
}
@article{Hess2001,
  author = {Hess, R. A. and Siwakosit, W.},
  title = {Assessment of Flight Simulator Fidelity in Multiaxis Tasks Including
	Visual Cue Quality},
  journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {607-614},
  number = {4},
  month = {July-Aug.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess2001}
}
@inproceedings{Hess1998,
  author = {R. A. Hess and P. W. Stout},
  title = {Predicting Handling Qualities Levels for Vehicles with Nonlinear
	Dynamics},
  booktitle = {36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit},
  year = {1998},
  number = {AIAA 98-0494},
  address = {Reno, NV, USA},
  month = {January},
  organization = {AIAA},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1998}
}
@article{Hess1974,
  author = {Hess, R. A. and Teichgraber, W. M.},
  title = {Error Quantization Effects in Compensatory Tracking Tasks},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {SMC-4},
  pages = {343-349},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1974}
}
@article{Hess1988,
  author = {Hess, R. A. and Tran, P. M.},
  title = {Pilot/Vehicle Analysis of a Twin-Lift Helicopter Configuration in
	Hover},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {465-472},
  number = {5},
  month = {September},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1988}
}
@article{Hess2002,
  author = {Hess, R. A. and Zeyada, Y. and Heffley, R. K.},
  title = {Modeling and Simulation for Helicopter Task Analysis},
  journal = {Journal of the American Helicopter Society},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {47},
  pages = {243-252},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess2002}
}
@article{Hess1986,
  author = {Hess, R.A. and Mcnally, B.D.},
  title = {Automation Effects in a Multiloop Manual Control System},
  journal = {Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {111-121},
  number = {1},
  month = {January},
  abstract = {An experimental and analytical study was undertaken to investigate
	human interaction with a simple multiloop manual control system in
	which the human's activity was systematically varied by changing
	the level of automation. The system simulated was the longitudinal
	dynamics of a hovering helicopter. The automation-systems-stabilized
	vehicle responses from attitude to velocity to position and also
	provided for display automation in the form of a flight director.
	The control-loop structure resulting from the task definition can
	be considered a simple stereotype of a hierarchical control system.
	The experimental study was complemented by an analytical modeling
	effort which utilized simple crossover models of the human operator.
	It was shown that such models can be extended to the description
	of multiloop tasks involving preview and precognitive human operator
	behavior. The existence of time optimal manual control behavior was
	established for these tasks and the role which internal models may
	play in establishing human-machine performance was discussed.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1986},
  doi = {10.1109/TSMC.1986.289287},
  issn = {0018-9472}
}
@article{Hess1990a,
  author = {Hess, R.A. and Modjtahedzadeh, A.},
  title = {A Control Theoretic Model of Driver Steering Behavior},
  journal = {IEEE Control Systems Magazine},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {3-8},
  number = {5},
  month = {August},
  abstract = {Following well established feedback control design principles, a control
	theoretic model of driver steering behavior is presented. While accounting
	for the inherent manual control limitations of the human, the compensation
	dynamics of the driver are chosen to produce a stable, robust, closedloop
	driver/vehicle system with a bandwidth commensurate with the demands
	of the driving task being analyzed. A technique for selecting driver
	model parameters is a natural by-product of the control theoretic
	modeling approach. Experimental verification shows the ability of
	the model to produce driver/vehicle responses similar to those obtained
	in a simulated lane-keeping driving task on a curving road. A technique
	for selecting driver model parameters is a natural byproduct of the
	control theoretic modeling approach. Experimental verification shows
	the ability of the model to produce driver/vehicle responses similar
	to those obtained in a simulated lane-keeping driving task on a curving
	road.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1990a},
  doi = {10.1109/37.60415},
  keywords = {automobiles, closed loop systems, control system synthesis, feedback,
	man-machine systemsautomobiles, closed loop systems, control theoretic
	model, driver steering behavior, driver-vehicle responses, feedback
	control design, man machine systems}
}
@inproceedings{Hess1989,
  author = {Hess, R.A. and Modjtahedzadeh, A.},
  title = {A preview control model of driver steering behavior},
  booktitle = {Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 1989. Conference Proceedings., IEEE
	International Conference on},
  year = {1989},
  pages = {504-509 vol.2},
  month = {November},
  abstract = {A preview control model of driver steering behavior is introduced
	which is an outgrowth of a model of the human pilot. This model was
	developed to describe the preview control behavior of the human pilot
	in low-level flight tasks. The model describes preview behavior as
	a natural extension of compensatory and pursuit tracking. The preview
	model is exercised in analyzing driving tasks such as lane tracking
	on a cured roadway, and lane change maneuvers},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess1989},
  doi = {10.1109/ICSMC.1989.71347},
  keywords = {behavioural sciences, human factorsdriver steering behavior, human
	pilot, lane change maneuvers, lane tracking, preview control model}
}
@article{Hess2012,
  author = {Ronald Hess and Jason K. Moore and Mont Hubbard},
  title = {Modeling the Manually Controlled Bicycle},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part A: Systems
	and Humans},
  year = {2012},
  note = {Awaiting publication},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hess2012}
}
@article{Higbie1974,
  author = {Higbie, J.},
  title = {The motorcycle as a gyroscope},
  journal = {American Journal of Physics},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {42},
  pages = {701--702},
  number = {8},
  month = {August},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Higbie1974}
}
@inproceedings{Hikichi1995,
  author = {Toichiro Hikichi and Yoshitaka Tezuka},
  title = {Study on improving the motorcycle high speed stability using a rear
	wheel self-steering system},
  booktitle = {SAE International Congress and Exposition},
  year = {1995},
  number = {950198},
  address = {Detroit, Michigan, USA},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hikichi1995}
}
@article{Hinrichs1990,
  author = {Hinrichs, R. N.},
  title = {Adjustments to the segment center of mass proportions of Clauser
	et al. (1969)},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {23},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hinrichs1990}
}
@article{Hoagg2007,
  author = {Hoagg, Jesse B. and Bernstein, Dennis S.},
  title = {Nonminimum-Phase Zeros: Much To Do About Nothing},
  journal = {IEEE Control Systems Magazine},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {45-57},
  month = {June},
  abstract = {In the popular literature there is a certain fascination with the
	concept of zero [1]–[3]. While today the inconspicuous 0 is taken
	for granted, the situation was different in the distant past. For
	example, the Romans had no symbol for 0, a fact memorialized by the
	jump from 1 B.C. to 1 A.D., a convention instituted in 531 A.D. [4,
	p. 91]. In contrast, the Mayans had a symbol for zero, and the first
	day of each Mayan month was day zero [3, p. 18]. The modern zero
	of mathematics slowly earned its membership in the club of numbers
	through Indian mathematics, although this acceptance was achieved
	only through a tortuous process that spanned centuries [3]. A conceptual
	impediment to the acceptance of zero is the difficulty in understanding
	the ratio 1/0. Presumably, this ratio is infinity or ?, a much more
	challenging concept. That 0 and inifinity are close cousins casts
	suspicion on zero as a valid number. Even in modern times, the zero
	appears begrudgingly on your telephone keypad after the 9. In Europe,
	the ground floor in a building is routinely labeled 0, and thus the
	meaning of floor -1 is unambiguous, whereas, in the United States,
	there is no floor 0, and negative floor numbers are rarely used.
	Despite the human reluctance to admit zero as an authentic number,
	it is as difficult to imagine mathematics today without zero as it
	is to imagine technology without the wheel and axle. Although the
	number zero is well known, the system-theoretic concept of a system
	zero is virtually unknown outside of dynamics and control theory.
	The purpose of this article is to illuminate the critical role of
	system zeros in control- system performance for the benefit of a
	wide audience both inside and outside the control systems community.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hoagg2007}
}
@article{Hoffmann1975,
  author = {Hoffmann, Errol R.},
  title = {Human Control of Road Vehicles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics
	and Mobility},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {105--126},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {This paper reviews the present state of knowledge of human control
	of road vehicles. Lateral and longitudinal control of motorcycles
	and automobiles are discussed, whenever information is available.
	Although knowledge has increased greatly in the last decade, the
	major part of this concerns lateral control and most is of an ad
	hoc nature. Adequate mathematical models for longitudinal motion
	of the vehicle are yet to be developed. Their development is a necessary
	step in the attainment of a complete understanding of longitudinal
	control.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hoffmann1975},
  url = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/00423117508968408}
}
@article{Horiuchi2000,
  author = {Shinichiro Horiuchi and Naohiro Yuhara},
  title = {An Analytical Approach to the Prediction of Handling Qualities of
	Vehicles With Advanced Steering Control System Using Multi-Input
	Driver Model},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {122},
  pages = {490-497},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Horiuchi2000},
  doi = {10.1115/1.1286334},
  keywords = {road vehicles; transport control; human factors; user modelling},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/122/490/1}
}
@article{Hou2009,
  author = {Zhi-Chao Hou and Yi ning Lu and Yao xin Lao and Dan Liu},
  title = {A new trifilar pendulum approach to identify all inertia parameters
	of a rigid body or assembly},
  journal = {Mechanism and Machine Theory},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {1270 - 1280},
  number = {6},
  abstract = {An improved approach is presented for using a trifilar pendulum to
	identify 10 inertia parameters of odd-shaped bodies. The parameters
	include the mass, the coordinates of the center of gravity, and the
	moments and products of inertia. Owing to carefully designed procedures
	of distance measurement and coordinate transform, no angular measurement
	is necessary for orientation description in the new approach. Balancing
	weights and load cells are introduced to facilitate the adjustments
	of the location and orientation of the body during tests. In order
	to evaluate the precision of the identified results, tentative error
	indices are suggested for the parameters, respectively. Two examples
	are given to demonstrate the new approach.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hou2009},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2008.07.004},
  issn = {0094-114X},
  keywords = {Trifilar pendulum},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V46-4TB0TYY-1/2/709e85a1fd4f5e146474532db41c6e9c}
}
@inproceedings{Hubbard1994,
  author = {Hubbard, M.},
  title = {Simulating Sensitive Dynamic Control of a Bobsled},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of 2nd Conference on Mathematics and Computers in Sport},
  year = {1994},
  month = {July},
  note = {Bond University, Queensland, Australia},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hubbard1994}
}
@article{Hubbard1980,
  author = {Hubbard, M.},
  title = {Human Control of the Skateboard},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {745-754},
  number = {9},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hubbard1980}
}
@article{Hubbard1979,
  author = {Hubbard, M.},
  title = {Lateral Dynamics and Stability of the Skateboard},
  journal = {ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics},
  year = {1979},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {931-936},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hubbard1979}
}
@article{Hubbard1989b,
  author = {Mont Hubbard and LeRoy W. Alaways},
  title = {Rapid and accurate estimation of release conditions in the javelin
	throw},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {583--595},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hubbard1989b}
}
@inproceedings{Hubbard1979a,
  author = {Hubbard, M. and Glass, S. K.},
  title = {Optimal Human Control of an Unstable Vehicle in a Simple Tracking
	Task},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Thirteenth Asilomar Conference on Circuits, Systems
	and Computers},
  year = {1979},
  pages = {60-64},
  address = {Pacific Grove, CA},
  month = {November},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hubbard1979a}
}
@inproceedings{Hubbard1989,
  author = {Hubbard, M. and Kallay, M. and Joy, K. and Reus, J. and Rowhani,
	P.},
  title = {Simulation of Vehicle and Track Performance in the Bobsled},
  booktitle = {Proceedings 3rd ASME/ASCE Mechanics Symposium},
  year = {1989},
  address = {San Diego, CA},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hubbard1989}
}
@article{Hubbard1989a,
  author = {Hubbard, M. and Kallay, M. and Rowhani, P.},
  title = {Three Dimensional Bobsled Turning Dynamics},
  journal = {International Journal of Sport Biomechanics},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {222-237},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hubbard1989a}
}
@inproceedings{Huffman1996,
  author = {Huffman, K. and Hubbard, M.},
  title = {A Motion-Based Virtual Reality Training Simulator for Bobsled Drivers},
  booktitle = {The Engineering of Sport},
  year = {1996},
  editor = {S. Haake},
  pages = {195-203},
  address = {Balkema, Rotterdam},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Huffman1996}
}
@conference{Huffman1993,
  author = {Huffman, R.K. and Hubbard, M. and Reus, J.},
  title = {Use of an Interactive Bobsled Simulator in Driver Training},
  booktitle = {Advances in Bioengineering},
  year = {1993},
  address = {New York},
  month = {November},
  organization = {ASME},
  publisher = {ASME},
  note = {presented at ASME Winter Annual Meeting , New Orleans},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Huffman1993}
}
@article{Hull1990,
  author = {M.L. Hull and Andrew Beard and Hemant Varma},
  title = {Goniometric measurement of hip motion in cycling while standing},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {687 - 689, 691-703},
  number = {7},
  abstract = {The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for quantifying
	the motion of the hip relative to the bicycle while cycling in the
	standing position. Because of the need to measure hip motion on the
	road as well as in the laboratory, a goniometer which locates the
	hip using spherical coordinates was designed. The goniometer is presented
	first, followed by the development of the equations that enable the
	distance from the joint center to the pedal spindle to be determined.
	The orientation of this line segment is specified by calculating
	two angles referenced to the frame. Also outlined are the procedures
	used to both calibrate the goniometer and perform an accuracy check.
	The results of this check indicate that the attachment point of the
	goniometer to the rider can be located to within 2.5 mm of the true
	position. The goniometer was used to record the hip movement patterns
	of six subjects who cycled in the standing position on a treadmill.
	Representative results from one test subject who cycled at 6% grade
	and 25 km h-1 are presented. Results indicate that the bicycle is
	leaned from side to side with the frequency of leaning equal to the
	frequency of pedalling. Extreme lean angles are ±6°. The distance
	from the hip to the pedal varies approximately sinusoidally with
	frequency equal to pedalling rate and amplitude somewhat less than
	crank arm length. The absolute elevation of the hip, however, exhibits
	two cycles for each crank cycle. Asymmetry in the plot of elevation
	over a single crank cycle indicates that the pelvis rocks from side
	to side and that the elevation of the pelvis midpoint changes. Extreme
	values of the pelvis rocking angle are ±12°. Highest pelvis midpoint
	elevations, however, do not occur at the same crank angles as those
	angles at which the pelvis rocking is extreme. It appears that the
	vertical motion of the hips affects pedalling mechanics when cycling
	in the standing position.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hull1990},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(90)90168-3},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C0MS5T-GM/2/7472e9f4c8a8804c69b47c72d73e1b25}
}
@article{Hull1981,
  author = {M.L. Hull and R.R. Davis},
  title = {Measurment of pedal loading in bicycling: I. Instrumentation},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {843 - 855},
  number = {12},
  abstract = {This paper presents a new instrumentation system to precisely measure
	pedal loads and pedal position. A pedal/dynamometer unit implementing
	four octagonal strain rings measures all six load components between
	the foot and pedal. To study the relationship between foot position
	and loading, the pedal/dynamometer offers three degree-of-freedom
	adjustability. Pedal position along the pedal arc is precisely described
	by measuring crank arm angle and relative angle between pedal and
	crank arm. Linear, continuous rotation potentiometers measure the
	two angles. Transducer signals are sampled by a digital computer
	which calculates resultant loads and pedal position as functions
	of crank arm angle. Transducers are designed to mount on most bicycles
	without modification. Test subjects ride their own bicycles unconstrained
	on rollers so that loading data is representative of actual cycling.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hull1981},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(81)90012-9},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4BYSFKJ-11/2/0c82e14a0f823d81c28336e0c4d5c5fb}
}
@article{Hull1988,
  author = {M.L. Hull and H. Gonzalez},
  title = {Bivariate optimization of pedalling rate and crank arm length in
	cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {839 - 849},
  number = {10},
  abstract = {The contribution of this paper is a bivariate optimization of cycling
	performance. Relying on a biomechanical model of the lower limb,
	a cost function derived from the joint moments developed during cycling
	is computed. At constant average power, both pedalling rate (i.e.
	rpm) and crank arm length are systematically varied to explore the
	relation between these variables and the cost function. A crank arm
	length of 170 mm and pedalling rate of 100 rpm correspond closely
	to the cost function minimum. In cycling situations where the rpm
	deviates from 100 rpm, however, crank arms of length other than 170
	mm yield minimum cost function values. In addition, the sensitivity
	of optimization results to both increased power and anthropometric
	parameter variations is examined. At increased power, the cost function
	minimum is more strongly related to the pedalling rate, with higher
	pedalling rates corresponding to the minimum. Anthropometric parameter
	variations influence the results significantly. In general it is
	found that the cost function minimum for tall people occurs at longer
	crank arm lengths and lower pedalling rates than the length and rate
	for short people.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hull1988},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(88)90016-4},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C00GS2-K5/2/b02738b5e35acf492de6978275a3fe6b}
}
@article{Hull1988a,
  author = {Maury Hull and Hiroko Gonzalez and Rob Redfield},
  title = {Optimization of pedaling rate in cycling using a muscle stress-based
	objective function},
  journal = {International Journal Of Sports Biomechanics},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {1--20},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hull1988a}
}
@article{Hull1985,
  author = {M.L. Hull and M. Jorge},
  title = {A method for biomechanical analysis of bicycle pedalling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {631 - 644},
  number = {9},
  abstract = {This paper reports a new method, which enables a detailed biomechanical
	analysis of the lower limb during bicycling. The method consists
	of simultancously measuring both the normal and tangential pedal
	forces, the EMGs of eight leg muscles, and the crank arm and pedal
	angles. Data were recorded for three male subjects of similar anthropometric
	characteristics. Subjects rode under different pedalling conditions
	to explore how both pedal forces and pedalling rates affect the biomechanics
	of the pedalling process. By modelling the leg-bicycle as a five
	bar linkage and driving the linkage with the measured force and kinematic
	data, the joint moment histories due to pedal forces only (i.e. no
	motion) and motion only (i.e. no pedal forces) were generated. Total
	moments were produced by superimposing the two moment histories.
	The separate moment histories, together with the pedal forces and
	EMG results, enable a detailed biomechanical analysis of bicycle
	pedalling. Inasmuch as the results are similar for all three subjects,
	the analysis for one subject is discussed fully. One unique insight
	gained via this new method is the functional role that individual
	leg muscles play in the pedalling process.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hull1985},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(85)90019-3},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4BYSG1D-6N/2/b29149297b997ea92153f068e7ad7543}
}
@article{Hull1991,
  author = {M.L. Hull and Steve Kautz and Andrew Beard},
  title = {An angular velocity profile in cycling derived from mechanical energy
	analysis},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {577 - 586},
  number = {7},
  abstract = {The contributions of this article are twofold. One is a procedure
	for determining the angular velocity profile in seated cycling that
	maintains the total mechanical energy of both legs constant. A five-bar
	linkage model (thigh, shank, foot, crank and frame) of seated (fixed
	hip) cycling served for the derivation of the equations to compute
	potential and kinetic energies of the leg segments over a complete
	crank cycle. With experimentally collected pedal angle data as input,
	these equations were used to compute the total combined mechanical
	energy (sum of potential and kinetic energies of the segments of
	both legs) for constant angular velocity pedalling at 90 rpm. Total
	energy varied indicating the presence of internal work. Motivated
	by a desire to test the hypothesis that reducing internal work in
	cycling will reduce energy expenditure, a procedure was developed
	for determining the angular velocity profile that eliminated any
	change in total energy. Using data recorded from five subjects, this
	procedure was used to determine a reference profile for an average
	equivalent cadence of 90 rpm. The pahse of this profile is such that
	highest and lowest angular velocities occur when the cranks are near
	vertical and horizontal respectively. The second contribution is
	the testing of the hypothesis that the reference angular velocity
	profile serves to effectively reduce internal work for the subjects
	whose data were used to develop this profile over the range of pedalling
	rates (80-100 rpm) naturally preferred. In this range, the internal
	work was decreased a minimum of 48% relative to the internal work
	associated with constant angular velocity pedalling. The acceptance
	of this hypothesis has relevance to the protocol for future experiments
	which explore the effect of reduced internal work on energy expenditure
	in cycling.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hull1991},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(91)90290-4},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C35T2X-8N/2/93938d00ad73625d1027757ed7551254}
}
@article{Hull1996,
  author = {Tom Boyd M. L. Hull and D. Wootten},
  title = {An improved accuracy six-load component pedal dynamometer for cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {1105 - 1110},
  number = {8},
  abstract = {This paper describes a new six-load component pedal dynamometer designed
	for study of knee overuse injury in cycling. A unique capability
	of the dynamometer is the ability to interface with multiple pedal
	platforms of varying height while maintaining a desired elevation
	of the foot above the pedal spindle axis. The dynamometer was designed
	using a concept described in an earlier article by Quinn and Mote
	(1991, Exp. Mech.30, 40-48) which measures shear strain across multiple,
	thin cross-sections. An optimal design technique was used for choosing
	dimensions of the load measuring cross-sections. A dynamometer was
	designed and built using the optimal results. Calibration, accuracy
	results, and sample data are presented. A comparison of accuracy
	reveals that the new dynamometer is more accurate than previously
	reported instruments.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hull1996},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(95)00177-8},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  keywords = {Six-load component},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-3W0NDMG-G/2/41898427782d5623951a690792587ffe}
}
@inproceedings{Hurt1973,
  author = {Hurt, H. H.},
  title = {Motorcycle Handling and Collision Avoidance: Anatomy of a Turn},
  booktitle = {Second International Congress on Automotive Safety},
  year = {1973},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hurt1973}
}
@inproceedings{Hurt1977,
  author = {Hurt, H. H. and C. J. DuPont},
  title = {Human Factors in Motorcycle Accidents},
  booktitle = {SAE International Automotive Engineering Congress and Expo},
  year = {1977},
  number = {770103},
  month = {February},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hurt1977}
}
@article{Huston1984,
  author = {Ronald L. Huston},
  title = {Unicycle Dynamics and Stability},
  journal = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  year = {1984},
  month = {February},
  abstract = {Governing equations of motion for a unicycle with a rider are presented.
	The system is assumed to be moving on a flat horizontal surface.
	Two specific cases are investigated: straight-line rolling and stationary
	positioning. Criteria for stability are explored. It is shown that
	stability can be obtained through active pedal monitoring by the
	rider.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Huston1984}
}
@inproceedings{Huyge2005,
  author = {Kevin Huyge and Jorge Ambr\'{o}sio and Manuel Pereira},
  title = {A control strategy for the dynamics of a motorcycle},
  booktitle = {ENOC},
  year = {2005},
  address = {Eindhoven, Netherlands},
  month = {August},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Huyge2005}
}
@article{Hwang2011,
  author = {Hwang, Chih-Lyang and Wu, Hsiu-Ming and Shih, Ching-Long},
  title = {An autonomous dynamic balance of an electrical bicycle in motion
	using variable structure under-actuated control},
  journal = {Asian Journal of Control},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {240--254},
  number = {2},
  abstract = {Based on previous studies, two strategies, the controls of the center
	of gravity (CG) and the angle of steering handle, are employed to
	stabilize the bicycle in motion. In general, a pendulum is applied
	to adjust the CG of the bicycle. An additional factor is the inclination
	with respect to gravitational direction of the bicycle in motion
	(i.e., lean angle). As a whole, the system produces three outputs
	that will affect the dynamic balance of the electric bicycle: the
	angles of the pendulum, the lean, and the steering. The proposed
	control method used to generate the handle and pendulum torques is
	named variable structure under-actuated control (VSUAC), possessing
	the number of control inputs smaller than the system output. The
	purpose of using the VSUAC is the huge uncertainties of a bicycle
	system, often encountered with irregularities in ground conditions
	and gusts of wind. Merely using the ordinary proportional-derivative-integral
	(PID) control or other linear control methods usually do not show
	good robust performance when the aforementioned conditions are present.
	Finally, the simulations of the electrical bicycle in motion using
	ordinary PID control, modified proportional-derivative control (MPDC),
	and VSUAC are compared to judge the effectiveness and efficiency
	of the proposed control.Copyright © 2010 John Wiley and Sons Asia
	Pte Ltd and Chinese Automatic Control Society},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hwang2011},
  doi = {10.1002/asjc.303},
  issn = {1934-6093},
  keywords = {Electrical bicycle, dynamic balance, variable structure under actuated
	control, modified proportional-derivative control, Lyapunov stability},
  publisher = {John Wiley and Sons Asia Pte Ltd},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asjc.303}
}
@inproceedings{Hwang2008,
  author = {Chih-Lyang Hwang and Hsiu-Ming Wu and Ching-Long Shih},
  title = {Fuzzy sliding-mode under-actuated control for autonomous dynamic
	balance of an electrical bicycle},
  booktitle = {Fuzzy Systems, 2008. FUZZ-IEEE 2008. (IEEE World Congress on Computational
	Intelligence). IEEE International Conference on},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {251 -257},
  month = {June},
  abstract = {The purpose of this paper is to stabilize the running motion of an
	electrical bicycle. In order to do so, two strategies are employed
	in this paper. One is to control the bikepsilas center of gravity
	(CG), and the other is to control the angle of the bikepsilas steering
	handle. In addition, the proposed system produces three outputs that
	will affect the dynamic balance of an electrical bicycle: the bikepsilas
	pendulum angle, lean angle, and steering angle. Based on the data
	of input-output, two scaling factors are employed to normalize the
	sliding surface and its derivative. According to the concept of if-then
	rule, an appropriate rule table for the ith subsystem is obtained.
	Then the output scaling factor based on Lyapunov stability is determined.
	The proposed control method used to generate the handle torque and
	pendulum torque is called fuzzy sliding-mode under-actuated control
	(FSMUAC). The purpose of using the FSMUAC is the huge uncertainties
	of a bicycle system often caused by different ground conditions and
	gusts of wind; merely ordinary proportional-derivative-integral (PID)
	control method or other linear control methods usually do not show
	good robust performance in such situations.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hwang2008},
  doi = {10.1109/FUZZY.2008.4630373},
  issn = {1098-7584},
  keywords = {Lyapunov stability;angle control;autonomous dynamic balance;bike center
	of gravity;bike lean angle;bike pendulum angle;bike steering handle;electrical
	bicycle system;fuzzy sliding-mode under-actuated control;handle torque;if-then
	rule;output scaling factor;pendulum torque;rule table for;running
	motion stabilization;sliding surface;Lyapunov methods;angular velocity
	control;bicycles;fuzzy control;variable structure systems;}
}
@article{Henaff1987,
  author = {le H{\'{e}}naff, Y.},
  title = {Dynamical stability of the bicycle},
  journal = {European Journal of Physics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {207--210},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Henaff1987}
}
@article{Imaizumi1998,
  author = {Imaizumi and Hirohide and Fujioka and Takehiko},
  title = {Motorcycle-rider system dynamics by multibody dynamics analysis:
	Effects of the rear load on wobble motions and the control assembly},
  journal = {JSAE Review},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {54--57},
  number = {1},
  month = {January},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Imaizumi1998},
  keywords = {dynamics, man machine systems, oscillations, loads, computer simulation,
	vehicle suspensions, motion control}
}
@article{Imaizumi1996,
  author = {Hirohide Imaizumi and Takehiko Fujioka and Manabu Omae},
  title = {Rider model by use of multibody dynamics analysis},
  journal = {JSAE Review},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {65--77},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Imaizumi1996}
}
@misc{NorthernDigitalIncorporated2009,
  author = {Northern Digital Incorporated},
  title = {Optotrak Certus Motion Capture System},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#NorthernDigitalIncorporated2009},
  organization = {Northern Digital Incorporated},
  url = {http://www.ndigital.com/}
}
@inproceedings{Indiveri1999,
  author = {Indiveri, G.},
  title = {Kinematic time-invariant control of a 2D nonholonomic vehicle},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control},
  year = {1999},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Indiveri1999}
}
@book{Irving1961,
  title = {Motorcycle Engineering},
  publisher = {Temple Press},
  year = {1961},
  author = {Irving, P. E.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Irving1961}
}
@inproceedings{Iuchi2006,
  author = {Iuchi, K. and Murakami, T.},
  title = {An Approach to fusion control of stabilization control and human
	input in Electric Bicycle},
  booktitle = {32nd Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {3211--3216},
  address = {Paris, France},
  abstract = {As well know, a bicycle is a high efficiency vehicle and is suitable
	for aging society in the future. In the practical use, however, the
	bicycle is not always stable and the motion stabilization is required
	for a widespread application. This paper focuses on the instability
	of the bicycle. There are few researches which realize the control
	system supporting driver's operation because human input is regarded
	as disturbance and make system unstable. This paper realizes the
	posture control of the electric bicycle which is able to accept human
	input. Estimating human input from motor reaction torque, control
	system is constructed without force sensor},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Iuchi2006},
  doi = {10.1109/IECON.2006.347498}
}
@inproceedings{Iuchi2005,
  author = {Iuchi, K. and Niki, H. and Murakami, T.},
  title = {Attitude control of bicycle motion by steering angle and variable
	COG control},
  booktitle = {Industrial Electronics Society, 2005. IECON 2005. 31st Annual Conference
	of IEEE},
  year = {2005},
  pages = { 6 pp.-},
  month = {November},
  abstract = { As well know, a bicycle is a high efficiency vehicle and is suitable
	for aging society in the future. In the practical use, however, the
	bicycle is not always stable and the motion stabilization is required
	for a widespread application. In an electric bicycle, two strategies
	are taken up to stabilize the running motion of a bicycle. One is
	center of gravity (COG) control of bicycle, and the other is a control
	of steering angle of handle. In the past research, there are few
	researches that consider an autonomous control of bicycle by using
	both steering and COG position control. To address this issue, this
	paper describes a strategy that realizes autonomous motion of bicycle
	with the use of steering and COG control. Numerical and experimental
	results are shown to verify the validity of the proposed strategy.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Iuchi2005},
  doi = {10.1109/IECON.2005.1569222},
  keywords = { attitude control, electric vehicles, position control, steering systems
	COG position control, attitude control, autonomous control, center
	of gravity control, electric bicycle, motion stabilization, steering
	angle control}
}
@unpublished{Jackson1998,
  author = {A. W. Jackson and M. Dragovan},
  title = {An experimental investigation of bicycle dynamics},
  year = {1998},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jackson1998},
  keywords = {steer torque, no hands, experiements, instrumented bicycle}
}
@article{James2005,
  author = {James, Stephen R},
  title = {Lateral dynamics of motorcycles towing single-wheeled trailers},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics
	and Mobility},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {581--599},
  number = {8},
  abstract = {A motorcycle towing a single-wheel trailer may provide useful transport
	for light cargo on narrow tracks and off-road use, particularly in
	rural areas of developing countries. Four designs of such trailers
	are described. Linear models are derived for the lateral dynamics
	of an off-road motorcycle towing this type of trailer straight ahead
	at constant speed. The trailers were tested behind an instrumented
	motorcycle. Linear autoregressive models were fitted to the experimental
	data using system identification techniques. Analytical and experimentally
	derived models largely agreed on frequency, damping and shape of
	the weave, wobble and trailer sway normal modes. The trailers made
	the motorcycle’s steering heavier but the analytical models did
	not predict this. The location of the articulation axes between the
	motorcycle and the trailer were found to be critical for stability.
	The best trailer design handled well with loads up to 200 kg and
	speeds up to 70 km/h.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#James2005},
  doi = {10.1080/00423110412331289862},
  url = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/00423110412331289862}
}
@article{James2002,
  author = {James, Stephen R.},
  title = {Lateral dynamics of an offroad motorcycle by system identification},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {1--22},
  number = {1},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#James2002},
  doi = {10.1076/vesd.38.1.1.3520}
}
@phdthesis{Jansen2011,
  author = {Arjen Jansen},
  title = {Human Power: Empirically Explored},
  school = {Delft University of Technology},
  year = {2011},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jansen2011}
}
@inproceedings{Jayasuriya1984,
  author = {Jayasuriya, S. and Hubbard, M. and Hrovat, D.},
  title = {A Control Scheme for a Pole-Vaulter Derived From an Optimal Aiming
	Strategy},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of 1984 American Control Conference},
  year = {1984},
  address = {San Diego, CA},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jayasuriya1984}
}
@inproceedings{Jennings1974,
  author = {Jennings, G.},
  title = {A Study of Motorcycle Suspension Damping Characteristics},
  booktitle = {SAE West Coast Automotive Meeting},
  year = {1974},
  month = {August},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jennings1974}
}
@article{Jex1967,
  author = {Jex, H.R.},
  title = {Two Applications of a Critical-Instability Task to Secondary Work
	Load Research},
  journal = {Human Factors in Electronics, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {1967},
  volume = {HFE-8},
  pages = { 279-282},
  number = {4},
  month = {December},
  abstract = {Secondary (or ``auxiliary,'' or ``subsidiary'') tasks have often been
	used to load or to stress an operator while he performs a primary
	manual control task. As discussed in Poulton,[1]the secondary task
	should measurably stress the operator's parameter being tested, without
	rendering the primary task behavior meaningless. This problem has
	given rise to several types of secondary tasks, which fall into two
	categories. In the first category are secondary tasks that do not
	involve the same form of manual control activity as the primary task,
	such as: mental arithmetic, verbal report of warning light detection,
	verbal repetition of heard number sequences, etc.[2]-[4]In the second
	category are secondary tasks involving similar psychomotor activity
	as the primary task, such as: tracking in a second degree-of-freedom,
	two-handed tracking, monitoring, and extinguishing warning lights,
	etc.[5]In the latter case, the distinctions between a secondary task
	and a multiloop control situation are not sharp and depend primarily
	on the relative emphasis placed on secondary task performance, specified
	by the procedures or practiced by the operator.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jex1967},
  issn = {0096-249X}
}
@book{Jolliffe2002,
  title = {Principal Component Analysis},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2002},
  author = {Jolliffe, I.T.},
  series = {Springer Series in Statistics},
  address = {New York},
  edition = {2nd},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jolliffe2002}
}
@book{Jolliffe1986,
  title = {Principal Component Analysis},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {1986},
  author = {I. T. Jolliffe},
  series = {Springer Series in Statistics},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jolliffe1986}
}
@article{Jones1942,
  author = {Arthur Taber Jones},
  title = {Physics and Bicycles},
  journal = {American Journal of Physics},
  year = {1942},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {332--333},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jones1942}
}
@article{Jones2006,
  author = {David E. H. Jones},
  title = {The Stability of the Bicycle},
  journal = {Physics Today},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {51--56},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jones2006}
}
@article{Jones1970,
  author = {David E. H. Jones},
  title = {The Stability of the Bicycle},
  journal = {Physics Today},
  year = {1970},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {34--40},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jones1970}
}
@article{Jorge1986,
  author = {M. Jorge and M.L. Hull},
  title = {Analysis of EMG measurements during bicycle pedalling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {683 - 694},
  number = {9},
  abstract = {Activity of eight leg muscles has been monitored for six test subjects
	while pedalling a bycycle on rollers in the laboratory. Each electromyogram
	(EMG) data channel was digitized at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by a
	minicomputer. Data analysis entailed generating plots of both EMG
	activity regions and integrated EMG (IEMG). For each test subject,
	data were recorded for five cases of pedalling conditions. The different
	pedalling conditions were defined to explore a variety of research
	hypotheses. This exploration has led to the following conclusions:
	1. (1) Muscular activity levels of the quadriceps are influenced
	by the type of shoes worn and activity levels increase with soft
	sole shoes as opposed to cycling shoes with cleats and toeclips.
	2. (2) EMG activity patterns are not strongly related to pedalling
	conditions (i.e. load, seat height and shoe type). The level of muscle
	activity, however, is significantly affected by pedalling conditions.
	3. (3) Muscular activity bears a complex relationship with seat height
	and quadriceps activity level decreases with greater seat height.
	4. (4) Agonist (i.e. hamstrings) and antagonist (i.e. quadriceps)
	muscles of the hip/knee are active simultaneously during leg extension.
	Regions of peak activity levels, however, do not overlap. The lack
	of significant cocontraction of agonist/antagonist muscles enables
	muscle forces during pedalling action to be computed by solving a
	series of equilibrium problems over different regions of the crank
	cycle. Regions are defined and a solution procedure is outlined.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jorge1986},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(86)90192-2},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C4869J-F/2/14a64200848b6390bf42d12b4f4ff120}
}
@techreport{Juniper1983,
  author = {R. G. Juniper and M. C. Good},
  title = {Braking, Stability and Handling of Motorcycles},
  institution = {Office of Road Safety, Department of Transport, Australia},
  year = {1983},
  number = {Cr 29},
  month = {August},
  abstract = {A review of the literature relating to braking stability and handling
	of motorcycles was undertaken. Evidence of relationshops between
	motorcycle characteristics and accidents was sought. Anecdotal evidence
	of operational problems published in user magazines was also reviewed.
	Experimental and analytical investigations of motorcycle dynamics,
	and the effects of accessories, tyres and machine modifcations was
	surveyed. Problem areas were identified and priorities for further
	research recommended.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Juniper1983}
}
@article{Kageyama1995,
  author = {I. Kageyama},
  title = {The relationship between rider and two-wheeled vehicle: a view to
	handling and safety},
  journal = {IATSS Research},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {37--42},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kageyama1995}
}
@article{Kageyama1985,
  author = {Kageyama, Ichiro and Kogo, Akihiko},
  title = {Human Factors in the Steering System of Two-wheeled Vehicles},
  journal = {Bulletin of JSME},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {1233-1239},
  number = {240},
  abstract = {This study analyzes the role of human factors in the steering system
	of two-wheeled vehicles, using equivalent mechanical elements as
	the first step toward systems analysis of the man/vehicle relationship.
	This steering system, including human factors, has approximately
	one torsional degree of freedom. These factors can be obtained by
	the frequency response of a steering bench model with a rider. First,
	the repeatability and linearity of human factors are checked. Then,
	the human factor values are shown to change accordingly as the rider's
	handle grip and press forces vary. Finally, an equation for two-wheeled
	vehicle motion is derived, and the result of these calculations makes
	it clear that human factors play a major role in the behavior of
	two-wheeled vehicles.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kageyama1985},
  issn = {00213764},
  publisher = {The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  url = {http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110002357845/en/}
}
@article{Kageyama2004,
  author = {Kageyama, Ichiro and Miyagishi, Shun'ichi and Baba, Masayuki and
	Uchiyama, Hajime},
  title = {Construction of Rider Robot for Motorcycle},
  journal = {Journal of the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {58},
  pages = {67--73},
  abstract = {This paper deals with the construction of a rider robot for motorcycle.
	The robot which controls vertical stability and the direction control
	of the motorcycle is constructed as a tool for evaluation of the
	two-wheeled vehicle behavior. The control algorithm of the system
	is constructed based on control action of the human rider. For the
	lateral control, the system identifies white lane marker using a
	CCD camera. Sub-handle system which simulates the rider arms is adopted
	with damper and spring, and it is controlled by servo-motor. As a
	result, it is shown that the rider robot follows the white lane marker.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kageyama2004}
}
@inproceedings{Kageyama1996a,
  author = {I. Kageyama and Y. Owada},
  title = {An analysis of a riding control algorithm for two wheeled vehicles
	with a neural network modeling},
  booktitle = {The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and on Tracks. Proceedings of 14th
	IAVSD-symposium.},
  year = {1996},
  editor = {Sauvage, G.},
  pages = {317--326},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kageyama1996a}
}
@article{Kageyama1996,
  author = {Kageyama, I. and Owada, Y.},
  title = {An Analysis of a Riding Control Algorithm for two wheeled vehicles
	with a neural network modeling},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {317--326},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kageyama1996}
}
@inproceedings{Kageyama1992,
  author = {I. Kageyama and H. B. Pacejka},
  title = {On a new driver model with fuzzy control},
  booktitle = {The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and on Tracks. Proceedings of 12th
	IAVSD-symposium.},
  year = {1992},
  editor = {Sauvage, G.},
  pages = {314--324},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kageyama1992}
}
@article{Kageyama2002,
  author = {Kageyama, Ichiro and Tagami, Nozomu},
  title = {Development of a riding simulator for two-wheeled vehicles},
  journal = {JSAE Review},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {347--352},
  abstract = {This paper describes the development of a riding simulator for two-wheeled
	vehicles, which use to analyze the human factor of
	
	riders. We have already produced longitudinal motion of the simulator
	system. Therefore, in this study, we constructed a model for
	
	lateral motion of simulator system using transfer function from the
	equations of motion and scale factor from the results
	
	of experiments. And finally, we confirmed the total simulator system
	using riders’ heart rate when they control the riding simulator.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kageyama2002}
}
@article{Kageyama1959,
  author = {Katumi Kageyama and Hiroyasu Fu},
  title = {Experiments on Control Characteristics of a Motor-cycle in Steady
	Turning, Especially on the Effects of Lean in and Lean out},
  journal = {Jour. SAE Japan},
  year = {1959},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {41--45},
  number = {10},
  note = {596009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kageyama1959}
}
@article{Kageyama1962,
  author = {Kageyama, Katumi and Fu, Hiroyasu and Kosa, Fumio},
  title = {Experimental Study on the Standing Stability of the Motorcycle},
  journal = {JSME Bulletin},
  year = {1962},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {202--209},
  number = {17},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kageyama1962}
}
@article{Kamata2003,
  author = {Yutaka Kamata and Hidekazu Nishimura},
  title = {System identification and attitude control of motorcycle by computer-aided
	dynamics analysis},
  journal = {JSAE Review},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {411 - 416},
  number = {4},
  abstract = {System identification of the motorcycle model constructed by computer-aided
	dynamics analysis is introduced to design a control system for attitude
	stabilization of the motorcycle. The identified model can be reduced
	to the coupled mode system between the roll and the front steering.
	The front-steering control system using the roll angle is designed
	by H∞ control theory, based on the reduced-order model and the full-order
	model, respectively. It is verified from simulation results that
	the motorcycle attitude against disturbance is stabilized by the
	H∞ controller, and that the reduced-order controller exhibits efficient
	stabilization performance in comparison with the full-order controller.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kamata2003},
  doi = {10.1016/S0389-4304(03)00071-7},
  issn = {0389-4304},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0389430403000717}
}
@article{Kamman1984,
  author = {J. W. Kamman and R. L. Huston},
  title = {Dynamics of Constrained Multibody Systems},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mechanics},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {899-903},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kamman1984},
  doi = {10.1115/1.3167743},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AMJ/51/899/1}
}
@inproceedings{Kane1978,
  author = {Kane, Thomas R.},
  title = {The Effect of Frame Flexibility on High Speed Weave of Motorcycles},
  booktitle = {SAE Paper 780306},
  year = {1978},
  pages = {33-40},
  organization = {SAE},
  abstract = {The effect of frame flexibility on the stability of constant speed,
	straight line motions of amotorycle is studied by reference to linearized
	differential equations governing the behavior of a system of five
	rigid bodies, two of which are connect to each other with a hinge,
	a spring, and a damper, and are intended to represent a flexible
	frame, while the rest represent the front forke and wheels of the
	vehicle. Alth the configuration of the system is characterized by
	seven generalized coordinates, it is shown that the stability information
	of interest can be deduced from four first-order differential equations.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kane1978}
}
@article{Kane1977,
  author = {Thomas R. Kane},
  title = {Kinematical Implications of Side Slip for Single-Track Vehicles},
  journal = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  year = {1977},
  month = {February},
  note = {SAE Paper 770056},
  abstract = {The fact that single-track vehicles do not necessarily roll without
	slipping must be taken into account in the analysis of certain motions
	of such vehicles. This paper deals with kinematical questions arising
	under these circumstances. Constraint equations are formulated for
	motions involving side slip unaccompanied by longitudinal slip, expressions
	for side slip velocities are developed, and comparisons are drawn
	between the kinematical consequences of assuming rolling without
	slip and rolling with side slip},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kane1977}
}
@inproceedings{Kane1977a,
  author = {Kane, Thomas R.},
  title = {Steady Turning of Single-Track Vehicles},
  booktitle = {International Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition},
  year = {1977},
  number = {770057},
  address = {Detroit, {MI}},
  month = {February--March},
  organization = {SAE},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kane1977a}
}
@article{Kane1975,
  author = {Kane, Thomas R.},
  title = {Fundamental kinematical relationships for single-track vehicles},
  journal = {International Journal for Mechanical Sciences},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {499--504},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kane1975}
}
@article{Kane1962,
  author = {Kane, Thomas R. and Huston, R.L.},
  title = {An Addition to the Theory of Gyroscopic Stabilization},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mechanics},
  year = {1962},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {214-215},
  month = {March},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kane1962}
}
@book{Kane2000,
  title = {Dynamics Online: Theory and Implementation with AUTOLEV},
  publisher = {Online Dynamics, Inc.},
  year = {2000},
  author = {Kane, T. R. and Levinson, D. A},
  address = {Sunnyvale, CA},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kane2000}
}
@book{Kane1985,
  title = {Dynamics: Theory and Applications},
  publisher = {McGraw Hill},
  year = {1985},
  author = {Kane, Thomas R. and Levinson, David A.},
  address = {New York, NY},
  abstract = {This textbook is intended to provide a basis for instruction in dynamics.
	Its purpose is not only to equip students with the skills they need
	to deal effectively with present-day dynamics problems, but also
	to bring them into position to interact smoothly with those trained
	more conventionally.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kane1985},
  isbn = {0070378460}
}
@article{Kane1983,
  author = {Kane, Thomas R. and Levinson, David A.},
  title = {The Use of Kane's Dynamical Equations in Robotics},
  journal = {The International Journal of Robotics Research},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {3-21},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {Extensive experience has shown that the use of general- purpose, multibody-dynamics
	computer programs for the numerical formulation and solution of equations
	of motion of robotic devices leads to slow evaluation of actuator
	forces and torques and slow simulation of robot motions. In this
	paper, it is shown how improvements in computational efficiency can
	be effected by using Kane's dynamical equations to formulate explicit
	equations of motion. To these ends, a detailed analysis of the Stanford
	Arm is presented in such a way that each step in the analysis serves
	as an illustrative example for a general method of attack on problems
	of robot dynamics. Simulation results are reported and are used as
	a basis for discussing questions of computational efficiency.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kane1983},
  doi = {10.1177/027836498300200301},
  eprint = {http://ijr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/2/3/3.pdf},
  url = {http://ijr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/2/3/3}
}
@article{Kane1982,
  author = {Thomas R. Kane and David A. Levinson},
  title = {Realistic mathematical modeling of the rattleback},
  journal = {International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {175 - 186},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {The rattleback (also called a Celt or wobblestone) is an object which,
	when placed on a horizontal surface and caused to rotate about a
	vertical axis, sometimes begins to oscillate, stops turning, and
	then starts rotating in the direction opposite to that associated
	with the original motion. Earlier analyses dealing with this phenomenon
	have been based on a variety of assumptions. In the present work,
	it is shown by means of numerical solutions of full, non-linear equations
	of motion that one can construct a realistic mathematical model by
	assuming rolling without slipping and employing a torque proportional
	to angular velocity to provide for energy dissipation.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kane1982},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0020-7462(82)90017-8},
  issn = {0020-7462},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJ2-46V0F2N-2T/2/a9637de033954b219d85077f4787d764}
}
@book{Kane1983a,
  title = {Spacecraft Dynamics},
  publisher = {McGraw Hill Book Company},
  year = {1983},
  editor = {Diane D. Heiberg and Madelaine Eichber},
  author = {Thomas R. Kane and Peter W. Likins and Davis A. Levinson},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kane1983a}
}
@article{Karchin2002,
  author = {Karchin, A. and Hull, M.L.},
  title = {Experimental optimization of pivot point height for swing-arm type
	rear suspensions in off-road bicycles},
  journal = {Transactions of the ASME. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {124},
  pages = {101-6},
  number = {1},
  month = {February},
  abstract = {Towards the ultimate goal of designing dual suspension off-road bicycles
	which decouple the suspension motion from the pedaling action, this
	study focused on determining experimentally the optimum pivot point
	height for a swing-arm type rear suspension such that the suspension
	motion was minimized. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the
	effect of interaction between the front and rear suspensions on the
	optimal pivot point height, (2) to investigate the sensitivity of
	the optimal height to the pedaling mechanics of the rider in both
	the seated and standing postures, (3) to determine the dependence
	of the optimal height on the rider posture. Eleven experienced subjects
	rode a custom-built adjustable dual suspension off-road bicycle,
	{[}Needle, S., and Hull, M. L., 1997, ``An Off-Road Bicycle With
	Adjustable Suspension Kinematics,{''} Journal of Mechanical Design
	/b 119/, pp. 370-375], on an inclined treadmill. The treadmill was
	set to a constant 6 percent grade at a constant velocity of 24.8
	km/hr. With the bicycle in a fixed gear combination of 38{*}14, the
	corresponding cadence was 84 rpm. For each subject, the pivot point
	height was varied randomly while the motions across both the front
	and rear suspension elements were measured. Subjects rode in both
	the seated and standing postures and with the front suspension active
	and inactive. It was found that the power loss from the rear suspension
	at the optimal pivot point height was not significantly dependent
	on the interaction between the front and rear suspensions. In the
	seated posture, the optimal pivot point height was 9.8 cm on average
	and had a range of 8.0-12.3 cm. The average optimal pivot point height
	for the seated posture corresponded to an average power loss for
	the rear suspension that was within 10 percent of the minimum power
	loss for each subject for 8 of the 11 subjects. In the standing posture,
	the average height was 5.9 cm and ranged from 5.1-7.2 cm. The average
	height for the standing posture was within 10 percent of the minimum
	power loss for each subject for 9 of the 11 subjects. While the optimum
	height was relatively insensitive to pedaling mechanics in both the
	seated and standing postures, the choice of the optimal pivot point
	height in production bicycles necessitates some compromise in performance
	given the disparity in the averages between the seated and standing
	postures.},
  address = {USA},
  affiliation = {Karchin, A.; Biomed. Eng. Program, California Univ., Davis, CA, USA.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Karchin2002},
  identifying-codes = {[A2002-08-8745-030],[0148-0731(200202)124:1L.101:EOPP;1-8],[S0148-0731(02)01501-7],[10.1115/1.1427701]},
  issn = {0148-0731},
  keywords = {Experimental/ biomechanics; mechanical engineering; sport/ optimum
	pivot point height; front suspensions; sensitivity; pedaling mechanics;
	rider; seated postures; standing postures; optimal height; custom-built
	adjustable dual suspension off-road bicycle; inclined treadmill;
	constant velocity; fixed gear combination; cadence; active front
	suspension; swing-arm type rear suspensions; off-road bicycles; design;
	dual suspension off-road bicycles; suspension motion; pedaling action;
	inactive front suspension; power loss; average height; production
	bicycles; experimental optimization; 24.8 km/h; 9.8 cm; 5.9 cm; 8.0
	to 12.3 cm; 5.1 to 7.2 cm/ A8745D Physics of body movements/ velocity
	6.89E+00 m/s; size 9.8E-02 m; size 5.9E-02 m; size 8.0E-02 to 1.23E-01
	m; size 5.1E-02 to 7.2E-02 m},
  language = {English},
  number-of-references = {8},
  publication-type = {J},
  publisher = {ASME},
  type = {Journal Paper},
  unique-id = {INSPEC:7203366}
}
@book{Karnopp2004,
  title = {Vehicle Stability},
  publisher = {Marcel Dekker, Inc.},
  year = {2004},
  author = {Dean Karnopp},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Karnopp2004}
}
@article{Karnopp2002,
  author = {Karnopp, Dean},
  title = {Tilt Control for Gyro-Stabilized Two-Wheeled Vehicles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {145--156},
  number = {2},
  abstract = { Fully enclosed motorcycles could form the basis for extremely fuel
	and space efficient vehicles, but their inherent instability upon
	encountering even a momentary loss of traction renders them unsuitable
	for general use. It will be shown that a relatively simple tilt control
	system using a gyroscope to provide a tilt control moment is capable
	of stabilizing the vehicle at still stand or at speed on a very low
	traction surface. Furthermore, the system can achieve a coordinated
	turn on high traction surfaces. Since the gyro is an energy storage
	device, it can be used also in a hybrid system to provide extra power
	for acceleration and to recover some energy during braking. This
	relatively old idea should be reconsidered in light of the improved
	electromechanical devices, which have been developed recently for
	hybrid electric vehicles. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Karnopp2002},
  doi = {10.1076/vesd.37.2.145.3535},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1076/vesd.37.2.145.3535},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1076/vesd.37.2.145.3535}
}
@inproceedings{Karthikeyan2003,
  author = {S. Karthikeyan and M. Dighole and T. S. Nellainayagam and R. Venkatesan},
  title = {Stability and Control Analysis of a Scooter},
  booktitle = {2003 SAE/JSAE Small Engine Technology Conference \& Exhibition},
  year = {2003},
  number = {2003-32-0057/20034357},
  address = {Madison, Wisconsin, USA},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {In India, scooters are now being increasingly used by young women
	because of its lesser weight and ease of riding. Prevalent riding
	conditions demand higher stability and maneuverability at low speeds,
	which could be achieved by an in-depth study. A virtual handling
	model of the scooter has been developed using multibody analysis
	software for studying the stability and maneuverability. Realizing
	the role of tire properties on the stability characteristics of two-wheelers,
	a new tire model that can simulate combined slip conditions has been
	developed and used in the scooter model. A robust steering controller
	has been used for maintaining the desired path of the scooter. The
	virtual model has been analyzed under linear and non-linear conditions
	for both straight running and cornering maneuvers. The stability
	characteristics of the scooter have been studied by root locus and
	eigenvector analysis. The consistency of the model has been verified
	by a brief plausibility study. Vibrational modes of the scooter have
	been identified and studied. A very important design criterion has
	been identified and its effect on rider?s perception of the scooter
	recognized. Predicted results were found to match with experimental
	data and rider perception.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Karthikeyan2003}
}
@article{KatayamaAokiNishimi1988,
  author = {Katayama, T. and Aoki, A. and Nishimi, T.},
  title = {Control Behaviour of Motorcycle Riders},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {211-229},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#KatayamaAokiNishimi1988}
}
@article{Katayama1997,
  author = {Katayama, T. and Nishimi, T. and Okayama, T. and Aoki, A.},
  title = {A simulation model for motorcycle rider’s control behaviors},
  journal = {Transactions of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {137--142},
  number = {3},
  note = {in Japanese with English summary},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Katayama1997},
  doi = {10.1016/S0389-4304(03)00071-7}
}
@article{Kautz1995,
  author = {S. A. Kautz and M. L. Hull},
  title = {Dynamic optimization analysis for equipment setup problems in endurance
	cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {1391 - 1401},
  number = {11},
  abstract = {The goals of the work reported by this article are two-fold. The first
	is to develop a dynamic optimization framework for analysis of equipment
	setup problems in endurance cycling. The second is to illustrate
	the application of the approach by determining an optimal chainring
	shape. To achieve these goals, a mathematical model of the pedaling
	motion for given trajectories of the net joint moments and the rate
	of change of the chainring radius was derived, and chainring optimization
	was posed as an optimal control problem. The cost functional produced
	a chainring shape that reduced the cost of endurance cycling at 250
	W and 90 rpm, apparently by taking advantage of mechanical interactions
	that arise as a natural consequence of the movement. However, the
	predicted joint moments required larger peak values during phases
	of significantly increased joint velocity. Thus, the [`]optimal'
	performance predicted by the cost functional appears opposed to expectations
	based on muscle mechanics and illustrates the need for further analysis
	of endurance cycling with a physiologically based cost functional.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kautz1995},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(95)00007-5},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-3YGTSWJ-X/2/0d89f3a99f876cedbe16d83a9c71571d}
}
@article{Kautz1993,
  author = {S.A. Kautz and M.L. Hull},
  title = {A theoretical basis for interpreting the force applied to the pedal
	in cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {155 - 165},
  number = {2},
  abstract = {This article presents an analytical technique for decomposing the
	pedal force in cycling into a muscular component due directly to
	the net intersegmental moments and a nonmuscular component due to
	gravitational and inertial effects. The decomposition technique uses
	the Newton-Euler system of dynamic equations for the leg segments
	to solve for the two components, given the planar segmental kinematics
	and the intersegmental moments. Applications of the technique to
	cycling studies of muscle function, pedalling effectiveness, and
	optimization analyses based on inverse dynamics are discussed. While
	this article focuses on the pedal force in cycling, the decomposition
	method can be directly applied to analyze the reaction forces during
	a general planar movement of the leg when the segmental kinematics
	and intersegmental moments are specified. This article also demonstrates
	the significance of the nonmuscular component relative to the muscular
	component by performing the decomposition of the pedal forces of
	an example subject who pedalled at three different cadences against
	a common work load. The key results were that the nonmuscular components
	increased in magnitude as the cadence increased, whereas the magnitude
	of the muscular component remained relatively constant over the majority
	of the crank cycle. Also, even at the slowest pedalling rate of 70
	rpm, the magnitude of the nonmuscular component was substantial.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kautz1993},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(93)90046-H},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4BYSH8F-RK/2/950cfdea07bf9c01577d4d01f7e4706f}
}
@article{Kautz1994,
  author = {S.A. Kautz and M.L. Hull and R.R. Neptune},
  title = {A comparison of muscular mechanical energy expenditure and internal
	work in cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {1459 - 1467},
  number = {12},
  abstract = {The hypothesis that the sum of the absolute changes in mechanical
	energy (internal work) is correlated with the muscular mechanical
	energy expenditure (MMEE) was tested using two elliptical chainrings,
	one that reduced and one that increased the internal work (compared
	to circular). Upper and lower bounds were put on the extra MMEE (work
	done by net joint torques in excess of the external work) with respect
	to the effect of intercompensation between joint torques due to biarticular
	muscles. This was done by having two measures of MMEE, one that allowed
	no intercompensation and one that allowed complete intercompensation
	between joints spanned by biarticular muscles. Energy analysis showed
	no correlation between internal work and the two measures of MMEE.
	When compared to circular, the chainring that reduced internal work
	increased MMEE, and phases of increased crank velocity associated
	with the elliptical shape resulted in increased power absorbed by
	the upstroke leg as it was accelerated against gravity. The resulting
	negative work necessitated additional positive work. Thus, the hypothesis
	that the internal work is correlated with MMEE was found to be invalid,
	and the total mechanical work done cannot be estimated by summing
	the internal and external work. Changes in the dynamics of cycling
	caused by a non-circular chainring may affect performance and must
	be considered during the non-circular chainring design process.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kautz1994},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(94)90195-3},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C0MTHG-12M/2/d042535d4fb07f3a7c822f2b12b98382}
}
@article{Kelly2000,
  author = {Kelly, A. and Hubbard, M.},
  title = {Design and Construction of a Bobsled Driver Training Simulator},
  journal = {Sports Engineering},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {13-24},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kelly2000}
}
@inproceedings{Keo2008,
  author = {Keo, Lychek and Masaki, Yamakita},
  title = {Trajectory control for an autonomous bicycle with balancer, Paper
	4601741},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {676--681},
  address = {Xi'an, China},
  month = {July},
  organization = {IEEE/ASME},
  abstract = {In this paper, we propose a new trajectory tracking and balancing
	control for an unmanned bicycle with a balancer using a simplified
	model. The bicycle with the balancer dynamics is derived from Lagrangian
	and nonholonomic constraints with respect to translation and rotation
	relative to the ground plane. The trajectory tracking control is
	derived by an input-output linearization approach and an output-zeroing
	control is applied to the balancer for balancing the bicycle. The
	proposed control algorithm is guaranteed to maintain bicycle stability
	even when the linear velocity is zero without requiring a secondary
	controller. Numerical simulation show the effectiveness of the proposed
	control system.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Keo2008},
  doi = {10.1109/AIM.2008.4601741},
  keywords = {Autonomous Bicycle,Balance Control, Output Zeroing, Trajectory Tracking}
}
@inproceedings{Keo2010,
  author = {Lychek Keo and Sirichai Pornsarayouth and Masaki Yamakita and Kazuhiro
	Ito},
  title = {Stabilization of an Unmanned Bicycle with Flywheel Balancer},
  booktitle = {8th IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems},
  year = {2010},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Keo2010}
}
@article{Keo2011,
  author = {Keo, Lychek and Yamakita, Masaki},
  title = {Control of an Autonomous Electric Bicycle with both Steering and
	Balancer Controls},
  journal = {Advanced Robotics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {1--22},
  month = {January},
  abstract = {In this paper, we propose a new cooperation control algorithm for
	stabilizing and trajectory tracking of an unmanned electric bicycle.
	The simplified model of the bicycle with the balancer is derived
	from Lagrangian and non-holonomic constraints with respect to translation
	and rotation relative to the ground plane. The stabilizing control
	and trajectory control of an autonomous bicycle are derived independently
	based on the simplified model. The balancing control is derived based
	on the output-zeroing controller. The steering and balancer for stabilizing
	the bicycle are used when the linear velocity is zero or the system
	starts up. It is shown that a balancing control using both the steering
	and the balancer has a better performance than conventional ones
	with only balancer or steering. The trajectory tracking control is
	derived by an input-output linearization approach to track the path
	in the ground plane. The steering and the back wheel are used to
	design the trajectory control. The coupling of the steering between
	the balancing control and the trajectory control are set by weighting
	gain. The balancing and the trajectory control have been implemented
	with the real bicycle by using MATLAB XPC-TARGET. An autonomous electric
	bicycle can be controlled remotely via a host PC. Numerical
	simulation and experimental results are shown to verify the effectiveness
	of the proposed control strategy.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Keo2011},
  doi = {doi:10.1163/016918610X538462},
  url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/vsp/arb/2011/00000025/F0020001/art00001}
}
@book{Khalil2002,
  title = {Nonlinear Systems},
  publisher = {Prentice Hall},
  year = {2002},
  author = {Khalil, Hassan K.},
  edition = {3rd},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Khalil2002}
}
@mastersthesis{Kim2006,
  author = {Jeong Woo Kim},
  title = {Geometric Design of Bicycle Linkage Suspension},
  school = {UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE},
  year = {2006},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kim2006}
}
@article{Kirshner1980,
  author = {Daniel Kirshner},
  title = {Some nonexplanations of bicycle stability},
  journal = {American Journal of Physics},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {36-38},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kirshner1980},
  doi = {10.1119/1.12246},
  publisher = {AAPT},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AJP/48/36/1}
}
@misc{Klein2009,
  author = {Klein, R.},
  title = {Lose the Training Wheels},
  howpublished = {http://www.losethetrainingwheels.org/},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Klein2009},
  organization = {Lose the Training Wheels},
  url = {http://www.losethetrainingwheels.org/}
}
@inproceedings{Klein1991,
  author = {Klein, R.E.},
  title = {The bicycle project approach-a vehicle to relevancy and motivation
	},
  booktitle = {Frontiers in Education Conference, 1991. Twenty-First Annual Conference.
	'Engineering Education in a New World Order.' Proceedings.},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {47-52},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {The author's pedagogical experience with the bicycle project approach
	at the University of Illinois where open-ended projects are used
	to supplement lecture mode course material is presented. The focus
	is on the stable single track trailer (SSTT) design challenge. The
	SSTT design challenge was to achieve a towed riderless bicycle which
	will follow, steer, and balance of its own accord behind a lead bicycle.
	Design constraints included using a tow linkage that would not transmit
	a torque. The project design approach permitted students to come
	to grips with an unstructured problem, one for which the answer was
	not readily available at the back of the text. Problem clarification,
	synthesis, visualization of spatial mechanisms, stability of mechanisms,
	report writing, success, and failure were all inherent in the design
	challenge},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Klein1991},
  doi = {10.1109/FIE.1991.187432},
  keywords = {education, project engineering Illinois University, bicycle project,
	mechanisms stability, open-ended projects, problem clarification,
	report writing, spatial mechanisms visualisation, stable single track
	trailer, tow linkage, towed riderless bicycle, pedagodgy}
}
@article{Klein1989,
  author = {Klein, R.E.},
  title = {Using bicycles to teach system dynamics},
  journal = {Control Systems Magazine, IEEE},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {4-9},
  number = {3},
  month = {April},
  abstract = {The author reports on an innovative approach, based on open-ended
	design questions related to bicycles, for the teaching of dynamic
	systems concepts in an undergraduate mechanical engineering environment.
	He outlines needs for improved classroom learning, pedagogical methods
	and underlying philosophy, how the bicycle was introduced as a main
	portion of the instruction, how the class was managed, supporting
	materials used, and a summary of major benefits achieved. The results
	to date show that: (1) the notion of using the bicycle in the classroom
	as a teaching tool and research topic is feasible; (2) the associated
	economics are attractive; (3) students are able to apply the abstract
	notions of systems theory to a concrete problem; (4) the professor
	can improve his or her expertise in a designated area (such as two-wheeled
	vehicle dynamics); (5) the percentage and quality of students electing
	follow-up courses in the systems area increase; and (6) students
	improve their professional confidence},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Klein1989},
  doi = {10.1109/37.24804},
  issn = {0272-1708},
  keywords = {dynamics, educational aids, mechanical engineering, system theory,
	teachingbicycles, concepts, educational aids, mechanical engineering,
	system dynamics, systems theory, teaching}
}
@inproceedings{Klein1990,
  author = {Klein, R. E.},
  title = {Simulation of bicycle lateral dynamics: an opportunity in dynamic
	systems education},
  booktitle = {Simulation in Engineering Education Including Supplemental Papers.
	Proceedings of the SCS Multiconference on Modeling and Simulation
	on Microcomputers},
  year = {1990},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Klein1990}
}
@inproceedings{Klein1988,
  author = {Klein, R. E.},
  title = {Novel systems and dynamics teaching techniques using bicycles},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1988 American Control Conference},
  year = {1988},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Klein1988}
}
@article{Knight2008,
  author = {Randy Knight},
  title = {The Bicyclist's Paradox},
  journal = {The Physics Teacher},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {275--279},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Knight2008}
}
@phdthesis{Koenen1983,
  author = {Koenen, C.},
  title = {The dynamic behaviour of a motorcycle when running straight ahead
	and when cornering},
  school = {Delft University of Technology},
  year = {1983},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Koenen1983}
}
@techreport{Koenen1977,
  author = {C. Koenen and H.B. Pacejka and D.A. Timan and J.A. Zwaan},
  title = {Beweging van motorrijwielen verstoord door wegdek onregelmatigheden},
  institution = {Technische Hogeschool Delft Laboratorium voor Voertuigtechniek.},
  year = {1977},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Koenen1977}
}
@book{Kondo1962,
  title = {Dynamics of Single-Track Vehicles},
  publisher = {Foundation Bicycle Technical Research},
  year = {1962},
  author = {Kondo, M.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kondo1962}
}
@article{Kondo1955,
  author = {Kondo, M.},
  title = {Experimental Study on the Stability and Control of Single-Track Vehicles},
  journal = {JSME},
  year = {1955},
  volume = {58},
  pages = {827--833},
  number = {442},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kondo1955}
}
@article{Kondo1963,
  author = {Kondo, M. and A. Nagaoka and F. Yoshimura},
  title = {Theoretical Study on the Running Stability of the Two-Wheelers},
  journal = {Trans. SAE Japan},
  year = {1963},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {8},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kondo1963}
}
@mastersthesis{Kooijman2006,
  author = {J. D. G. Kooijman},
  title = {Experimental Validation of a Model for the Motion of an Uncontrolled
	Bicycle},
  school = {Delft University of Technology},
  year = {2006},
  type = {{MS}c Thesis},
  abstract = {Recently a model of the motion of an uncontrolled bicycle was benchmarked.
	In this model, many physical aspects of the real bicycle are considered
	negligible, such as the fexibility of the frame and wheels, play
	in the bearings, and precise tire characteristics. Apart from fexibility
	and play, in this model the most un- certain aspect, that had to
	be verifed was the replacement of the tires by ideal rolling, knife-edge
	wheels. The admissibility of these assumptions was checked by comparing
	experimental results with numerical simulation results. The experimental
	system consisted of an instrumented bicycle without rider. Sensors
	were installed on the bicycle for measuring the lean rate and the
	yaw rate, the steering angle and the rear wheel rotation. Sidewheels
	were added to the bicycle to prevent it from completely falling over
	under unstable conditions. All twenty five parameters of the instrumented
	bicycle required for the lin- earised model were measured. The lengths
	were measured with a tape measure, angles with an integrated protractor
	and spirit-level and the mass of the different parts with scales
	accurate to 0.01kg. For the measurement of the mass moment of inertia
	of the front frame, rear frame, front wheel and rear wheel a torsion
	pendulum was constructed. Measurements were recorded for the case
	in which the bicycle coasted freely on a level surface. From the
	measured data, eigenvalues for the bicycle were extracted by means
	of curve fitting. These eigenvalues were then compared with the results
	from the linearised equations of motion of the model. The experimental
	results show a very good agreement with the results as ob- tained
	by the linearised analysis of the dynamic model of an uncontrolled
	bicycle. This shows that the tire slip and frame and fork compliance
	are not important for the lateral dynamics of the bicycle in the
	speed range up to 6 m/s.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kooijman2006}
}
@inproceedings{Kooijman2008a,
  author = {J. D. G. Kooijman and A. L. Schwab},
  title = {Some Observations on Human Control of a Bicycle},
  booktitle = {11th mini Conference on Vehicle System Dynamics, Identification and
	Anomalies (VSDIA2008), Budapest, Hungary},
  year = {2008},
  editor = {I. Zobory},
  pages = {8},
  month = {November},
  publisher = {Budapest University of Technology and Economincs},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kooijman2008a}
}
@inproceedings{Kooijman2011a,
  author = {J. D. G. Kooijman and A. L. Schwab},
  title = {A review on handling aspects in bicycle and motorcycle control},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Design Engineering Technical
	Conferences \& Computers and Information in Engineering Conference.
	IDETC/CIE},
  year = {2011},
  number = {DETC2011-47963},
  address = {Washington, DC, USA},
  month = {August},
  abstract = {This paper gives an overview on handling aspects in bicycle and motorcycle
	control, from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Parallels
	are drawn with the literature on aircraft handling. The paper concludes
	with the open ends and promising directions for future work in the
	field of handling and control of single track vehicles.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kooijman2011a}
}
@inproceedings{Kooijman2009,
  author = {J. D. G. Kooijman and A. L. Schwab},
  title = {Experimental Validation of the Lateral Dynamics of a Bicycle on a
	Treadmill},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical
	Conferences \& Computers and Information in Engineering Conference,
	IDETC/CIE 2009},
  year = {2009},
  number = {DETC2009-86965},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kooijman2009}
}
@article{Kooijman2008,
  author = {J. D. G. Kooijman and A. L. Schwab and J. P. Meijaard},
  title = {Experimental validation of a model of an uncontrolled bicycle},
  journal = {Multibody System Dynamics},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {115-132},
  month = {May},
  abstract = {In this paper, an experimental validation of some modelling aspects
	of an uncontrolled bicycle is presented. In numerical models, many
	physical aspects of the real bicycle are considered negligible, such
	as the flexibility of the frame and wheels, play in the bearings,
	and precise tire characteristics. The admissibility of these assumptions
	has been checked by comparing experimental results with numerical
	simulation results. The numerical simulations were performed on a
	three-degree-of-freedom benchmarked bicycle model. For the validation
	we considered the linearized equations of motion for small perturbations
	of the upright steady forward motion. The most dubious assumption
	that was validated in this model was the replacement of the tires
	by knife-edge wheels rolling without slipping (non-holonomic constraints).
	The experimental system consisted of an instrumented bicycle without
	rider. Sensors were present for measuring the roll rate, yaw rate,
	steering angle, and rear wheel rotation. Measurements were recorded
	for the case in which the bicycle coasted freely on a level surface.
	From these measured data, eigenvalues were extracted by means of
	curve fitting. These eigenvalues were then compared with the results
	from the linearized equations of motion of the model. As a result,
	the model appeared to be fairly accurate for the low-speed low-frequency
	behaviour.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kooijman2008},
  doi = {10.1007/s11044-007-9050-x},
  keywords = {Bicycle dynamics, Experiments, Instrumentation, Multibody dynamics,
	Non-holonomic constraints}
}
@inproceedings{Kooijman2009a,
  author = {J. D. G. Kooijman and A. L. Schwab and Jason K. Moore},
  title = {Some Observations on Human Control of a Bicycle},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design and Engineering
	Technical Conferences \& Computers and Information in Engineering
	Conference},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kooijman2009a},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@article{Koon1997,
  author = {Wang Sang Koon and Marsden, J. E.},
  title = {The Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Approaches to the Dynamics of Nonholonomic
	Systems},
  journal = {Reports on Mathematical Physics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {21--62},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Koon1997}
}
@article{Krauss2007,
  author = {Ryan W. Krauss and Wayne J. Book},
  title = {A Python Software Module for Automated Identification of Systems
	Modeled With the Transfer Matrix Method},
  journal = {ASME Conference Proceedings},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {2007},
  pages = {1573-1582},
  number = {43033},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Krauss2007},
  doi = {10.1115/IMECE2007-42319},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/ASMECP/v2007/i43033/p1573/s1}
}
@inproceedings{Kuleshov2008,
  author = {Alexander Kuleshov},
  title = {Nonlinear Dynamics of a Simplified Skateboard Model},
  booktitle = {The Engineering of Sport 7},
  year = {2008},
  editor = {Margaret Estivalet and Pierre Brisson},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {135-142},
  month = {August},
  organization = {ISEA},
  publisher = {Springer Paris},
  abstract = {In this paper the further investigation and development for the simplified
	mathematical model of a skateboard with a rider are obtained. This
	model was first proposed by Mont Hubbard (Hubbard 1979, Hubbard 1980).
	It is supposed that there is no rider’s control of the skateboard
	motion. To derive equations of motion of the skateboard the Gibbs-Appell
	method is used. The problem of integrability of the obtained equations
	is studied and their stability analysis is fulfilled. The effect
	of varying vehicle parameters on dynamics and stability of its motion
	is examined.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kuleshov2008},
  doi = {10.1007/978-2-287-09411-8_16},
  keywords = {Skateboard Nonholonomic Constraints Integrability Stability of Motion}
}
@article{Kuleshov2007,
  author = {Kuleshov, A.~S.},
  title = {Mathematical model of a skateboard with one degree of freedom},
  journal = {Physics - Doklady},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {283-286},
  month = {May},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007DokPh..52..283K},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kuleshov2007},
  doi = {10.1134/S1028335807050102},
  keywords = {45.50.Dd}
}
@techreport{Kunkel1976,
  author = {D. T. Kunkel},
  title = {Bicycle dynamics: simulated bicycle/rider system performance in a
	turning maneuver Calspan technical report},
  institution = {Schwinn Bicycle Company},
  year = {1976},
  note = {Calspan Corp.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kunkel1976}
}
@techreport{Kunkel1975,
  author = {Dennis T. Kunkel},
  title = {Simulation Study of Motorcycle Response to Pavement Grooving},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1975},
  number = {ZN-5740-V-1},
  month = {October},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kunkel1975}
}
@techreport{Kunkel1973,
  author = {D. T. Kunkel and R. D. Roland},
  title = {A Comparitive Evaluation of the Schwinn Continental and Continental-Based
	Sprint Bicycles},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1973},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kunkel1973}
}
@article{Kuriyama2005,
  author = {Kuriyama, Takeyuki and Kageyama, Ichiro and Baba, Masayuki and Miyagishi,
	Shunichi},
  title = {2102 Control System Design and Construction of Rider Robot for Two-wheel
	Vehicle},
  journal = {The Transportation and Logistics Conference},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {207--210},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kuriyama2005},
  publisher = {The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  url = {http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110006189595/en/}
}
@inproceedings{Kuroiwa1995,
  author = {Kuroiwa, Osamu and Baba, Masayuki and Nakata, Noriaki},
  title = {Study of motorcycle handling characteristics and rider feeling during
	lane change},
  booktitle = {SAE International Congress and Exposition},
  year = {1995},
  number = {950200},
  address = {Detroit, Michigan, USA},
  month = {February},
  organization = {SAE},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kuroiwa1995}
}
@misc{Kvale1981,
  author = {Chris Kvale and John Corbett},
  title = {A Fresh Look at Steering Geometry},
  month = {December},
  year = {1981},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kvale1981}
}
@article{Kwak2001,
  author = {Kwak, B. and Park, Y.},
  title = {Vehicle states observer using adaptive tire-road friction estimator},
  journal = {JSME INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL SERIES C-MECHANICAL SYSTEMS MACHINE ELEMENTS
	AND MANUFACTURING},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {44},
  pages = {668-675},
  number = {3},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {Vehicle stability control system is a new idea which can enhance the
	vehicle stability and handling in the emergency situation. This system
	requires the information of the yaw rate, sideslip angle and road
	friction in order to control the traction and braking forces at the
	individual wheels. This paper proposes an observer for the vehicle
	stability control system. This observer consisted of the state observer
	for vehicle motion estimation and the road condition estimator for
	the identification of the coefficient of the road friction. The state
	observer uses 2 degrees-of-freedom bicycle model and estimates the
	system variables based on the Kalman filter. The road condition estimator
	uses the same vehicle model and identifies the coefficient of the
	tire-road friction based on the recursive least square method. Both
	estimator,,; make use of each other information. We show the effectiveness
	and feasibility of the proposed scheme under various road conditions
	through computer simulations of a fifteen degree-of-freedom non-linear
	vehicle model.},
  address = {SHINANOMACHI-RENGAKAN BLDG, SHINANOMACHI 35, SHINJUKU-KU, TOKYO,
	160-0016, JAPAN},
  affiliation = {Kwak, B (Reprint Author), Mando Corp, Cent R\&D Ctr, Sci Town, Taejon
	305701, South Korea. Mando Corp, Cent R\&D Ctr, Taejon 305701, South
	Korea. Korea Adv Inst Sci \& Technol, Dept Mech Engn, Ctr Noise \&
	Vibrat Control, NoViC, Taejon 305701, South Korea.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kwak2001},
  doc-delivery-number = {486KQ},
  issn = {1340-8062},
  journal-iso = {JSME Int. J. Ser. C-Mech. Syst. Mach. Elem. Manuf.},
  keywords = {stability control; extended Kalman filter; tire road friction; recursive
	least square method},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {9},
  publisher = {JAPAN SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Manufacturing; Engineering, Mechanical},
  times-cited = {1},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000171817300012}
}
@inproceedings{Kwon2001,
  author = {Dong-Soo Kwon and Gi-Hun Yang and Chong-Won Lee and Jae-Cheol Shin
	and Youngjin Park and Byungbo Jung and Doo Yong Lee and Kyungno Le
	and Sunmin Kim and Soonhung Han and Byoung-Hyun Yoo and Kwangyun
	Wohn and Jung-Hyun Ahn},
  title = {KAIST interactive bicycle simulator},
  booktitle = {Proceedings 2001 ICRA. IEEE International Conference on Robotics
	and Automation},
  year = {2001},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kwon2001}
}
@inproceedings{Kwon2002,
  author = {Dong-Soo Kwon and Gi-Hun Yang and Youngjin Park and Sunmin Kim and
	Chong-Won Lee and Jae-Cheol Shin and Soonhung Han and Jonghwan Lee
	and Kwangyun Wohn and Sehoon Kim and Doo Yong Lee and Kyungno Lee
	and Jae-Heon Yang and Yun-Mook Choi},
  title = {KAIST interactive bicycle racing simulator: the 2nd version with
	advanced features},
  booktitle = {Intelligent Robots and System, 2002. IEEE/RSJ International Conference
	on},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {3},
  pages = { 2961-2966 vol.3},
  abstract = {This paper presents the KAIST interactive bicycle racing simulator
	system, which consists of a pair of bicycle simulators. The rider
	on the racing simulator experiences realistic sensations of motion,
	while being able to see the other bicycle simulator and having the
	audio-visual experience of riding in a velodrome or on the KAIST
	campus. The 2nd bicycle of the racing simulator system consists of
	a bicycle, a 4-DOF platform, a handlebar and a pedal resistance system
	to generate motion feelings; a real-time visual simulator a HMD and
	beam projection system; and a 3D sound system. The system has an
	integrating control network with an AOIM (Area Of Interest Management)
	based network structure for multiple simulators.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kwon2002},
  doi = {10.1109/IRDS.2002.1041722},
  issn = { },
  keywords = { digital simulation, sport, virtual reality AOIM, KAIST, handlebar,
	interactive bicycle racing simulator, motion feelings, pedal resistance,
	racing simulator}
}
@techreport{Kyle1996,
  author = {Chester R. Kyle},
  title = {Abbreviated Tire Test Report, U. S. Cycling Team},
  institution = {General Motors},
  year = {1996},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kyle1996}
}
@techreport{Kyle1996a,
  author = {Chester R. Kyle},
  title = {Coast down tests in a university hallway using an instrumented and
	weighted tricycle},
  institution = {University of California, Long Beach`},
  year = {1996},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kyle1996a}
}
@techreport{Kyle1995,
  author = {Chester R. Kyle},
  title = {GM test of tire characteristics on a flat track slow speed steel
	band},
  institution = {General Motors},
  year = {1995},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kyle1995}
}
@inbook{Kyle1988,
  chapter = {3-3: The Sunraycer, Wheels, Tires and Brakes},
  title = {GM Sunraycer case history},
  publisher = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  year = {1988},
  author = {Kyle, Chester R.},
  number = {M-101},
  address = {Warrendale, PA, USA},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kyle1988}
}
@techreport{Kyle1987,
  author = {Chester R. Kyle},
  title = {GM Tire Test Report on 17" Moulton Tires},
  institution = {General Motors},
  year = {1987},
  month = {April},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kyle1987}
}
@article{Kallstrom1981,
  author = {C.G. KÀllström and K.J. Åström},
  title = {Experiences of system identification applied to ship steering},
  journal = {Automatica},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {187 - 198},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {Different system identification methods have been applied to determine
	ship steering dynamics from full-scale experiments. The techniques
	used include output error, maximum likelihood and more general prediction
	error methods. Different model structures have been investigated
	ranging from input-output models in difference equation form to the
	equations of motion in their natural form. Effects of disturbances,
	errors and dynamics in sensors and actuators have been considered.
	Programs for interactive system identification have been used extensively.
	The experiments have been performed both under open loop and closed
	loop conditions. Both linear and nonlinear models have been considered.
	The paper summarizes the experiences obtained from applying system
	identification methods to many different ships. The results have
	been applied both to investigate steering properties and to design
	autopilots for ship steering. Insight into ship steering dynamics
	and identification methodology has been obtained.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Kallstrom1981},
  doi = {10.1016/0005-1098(81)90094-7},
  issn = {0005-1098},
  keywords = {Computer-aided design},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0005109881900947}
}
@article{Lai2003,
  author = {Hsien-Chung Lai and Jing-Sin Liu and D. T. Lee and Li-Sheng Wang},
  title = {Design parameters study on the stability and perception of riding
	comfort of the electrical motorcycles under rider leaning},
  journal = {Mechatronics},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {49 - 76},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lai2003},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/S0957-4158(01)00082-4},
  issn = {0957-4158},
  keywords = {Electrical motorcycles},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V43-44PVJ91-1/2/4a5467587fd2860cb983a04ee9efee81}
}
@article{Lam2011,
  author = {Pom Yuan Lam and Tan Kian Sin},
  title = {Gyroscopic Stabilization of a Self-Balancing Robot Bicycle},
  journal = {International Journal of Automation Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {916--923},
  abstract = {This paper reports the design and development of a self-balancing
	bicycle using off-the-shelf electronics. A self-balancing bicycle
	is an unstable nonlinear system similar to an inverted pendulum.
	Experimental results show the robustness and efficiency of the proportional
	plus derivative controller balancing the bicycle. The system uses
	a control moment gyroscope as an actuator for balancing.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lam2011}
}
@mastersthesis{Lange2011,
  author = {de Lange, Peter},
  title = {Rider Identification in Bicycling: A preliminary analysis},
  school = {Delft University of Technology},
  year = {2011},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lange2011}
}
@inproceedings{Lee2002,
  author = {Lee, Sangduck and Ham, Woonchul},
  title = {Self stabilizing strategy in tracking control of unmanned electric
	bicycle with mass balance, Paper 1041594},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {3},
  pages = { 2200-2205},
  address = {Lausanne, Switzerland},
  month = {September--October},
  organization = {IEEE/RSJ},
  abstract = { Ingyu Park et al. (2001) investigated an unmanned bicycle system
	but did not consider the lateral motion of mass. In this paper, we
	derive a simple kinematic and dynamic formulation of an unmanned
	electric bicycle with load mass balance system which, plays important
	role in stabilization. We propose a control algorithm for the self
	stabilization of unmanned bicycle by using nonlinear control based
	on the sliding patch and stuck phenomena. In deriving the above control
	algorithm, we assume that the load mass is located in the middle
	of the mass balance system. We then propose a control strategy to
	turn the bicycle system left or right by moving the center of load
	mass left and right respectively. In the computer simulations, we
	adopt a low pass filter for the real implementation of the proposed
	control law which bring. about the chattering problem. From the computer
	simulation results, we can show the effectiveness of the proposed
	control strategy.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lee2002},
  doi = {10.1109/IRDS.2002.1041594},
  keywords = { electric vehicles, low-pass filters, mobile robots, nonlinear control
	systems, robot dynamics, robot kinematics, stability, tracking chattering
	problem, dynamic formulation, kinematic formulation, lateral mass
	motion, low-pass filter, mass balance, nonlinear control, self stabilization,
	self-stabilizing strategy, sliding patch phenomenon, stuck phenomenon,
	tracking control, unmanned electric bicycle}
}
@inproceedings{Lenkeit1995,
  author = {John F. Lenkeit},
  title = {A servo rider for the automatic and remote path control of a motorcycle},
  booktitle = {SAE International Congress and Exposition},
  year = {1995},
  number = {950199},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lenkeit1995}
}
@article{Lesser1992,
  author = {Lesser, Martin},
  title = {A geometrical interpretation of Kane's Equations},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering
	Sciences},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {436},
  pages = {69--87},
  number = {1896},
  month = {January},
  abstract = {The method for the development of the equations of motion for systems
	of constrained particles and rigid bodies, developed by T. R. Kane
	and called Kane's Equations, is discussed from a geometric viewpoint.
	It is shown that what Kane calls partial velocities and partial angular
	velocities may be interpreted as components of tangent vectors to
	the system's configuration manifold. The geometric picture, when
	attached to Kane's formalism shows that Kane's Equations are projections
	of the Newton-Euler equations of motion onto a spanning set of the
	configuration manifold's tangent space. One advantage of Kane's method,
	is that both non-holonomic and non-conservative systems are easily
	included in the same formalism. This easily follows from the geometry.
	It is also shown that by transformation to an orthogonal spanning
	set, the equations can be diagonalized in terms of what Kane calls
	the generalized speeds. A further advantage of the geometric picture
	lies in the treatment of constraint forces which can be expanded
	in terms of a spanning set for the orthogonal complement of the configuration
	tangent space. In all these developments, explicit use is made of
	a concrete realization of the multidimensional vectors which are
	called K-vectors for a K-component system. It is argued that the
	current presentation also provides a clear tutorial route to Kane's
	method for those schooled in classical analytical mechanics.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lesser1992},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1992.0005}
}
@inproceedings{Leva1993,
  author = {de Leva, P.},
  title = {Validity and accuracy of four methods for locating the center of
	mass of young male and female athletes},
  booktitle = {International Society of Biomechanics XIVth Congress-Abstracts},
  year = {1993},
  editor = {Bouisset, S. and Metral, S. and Monod, H.},
  pages = {318-319},
  address = {France},
  organization = {Universite Paris-Sud},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Leva1993}
}
@article{Leva1996,
  author = {de Leva, P.},
  title = {Joint center longitudinal positions computed from a selected subset
	of Chandler’s data},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {29},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Leva1996}
}
@article{Lew2008,
  author = {Lew, E.~S. and Orazov, B. and O'Reilly, O.~M.},
  title = {The dynamics of Charles Taylor's remarkable one-wheeled vehicle},
  journal = {Regular and Chaotic Dynamics},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {257-266},
  month = {August},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008RCD....13..257L},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lew2008},
  doi = {10.1134/S1560354708040035}
}
@techreport{Lewis1973,
  author = {Lewis, G.D.},
  title = {The manoeuvrability and braking performance of small-wheeled bicycles
	when ridden by children.},
  institution = {Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL), Department of Environment,
	Crawthorne, Berkshire},
  year = {1973},
  number = {LR 500},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lewis1973}
}
@article{Li1990,
  author = {Li, Z. and Canny, J.},
  title = {Motion of two rigid bodies with rolling constraint},
  journal = {Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {62-72},
  number = {1},
  month = {February},
  abstract = {The motion of two rigid bodies under rolling constraint is considered.
	In particular, the following two problems are addressed: (1) given
	the geometry of the rigid bodies, determine the existence of an admissible
	path between two contact configurations; and (2) assuming that an
	admissible path exists, find such a path. First, the configuration
	space of contact is defined, and the differential equations governing
	the rolling constraint are derived. Then, a generalized version of
	Frobenius's theorem, known as Chow's theorem, for determining the
	existence of motion is applied. Finally, an algorithm is proposed
	that generates a desired path with one of the objects being flat.
	Potential applications of this study include adjusting grasp configurations
	of a multifingered robot hand without slipping, contour following
	without dissipation or wear by the end-effector of a manipulator,
	and wheeled mobile robotics},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Li1990},
  doi = {10.1109/70.88118},
  issn = {1042-296X},
  keywords = {differential equations, matrix algebra, robotsChow's theorem, Frobenius's
	theorem, admissible path, configuration space, contact configurations,
	contour following, differential equations, end-effector, matrix algebra,
	multifingered robot hand, rigid bodies, rolling constraint, wheeled
	mobile robotics}
}
@inproceedings{Liang2006,
  author = {Liang, Chi-Ying and Lin, Wai-Hon and Chang, Bruce},
  title = {Applying fuzzy logic control to an electric bicycle},
  booktitle = {First International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information
	and Control},
  year = {2006},
  editor = {Pan, J.-S. and Shi, P. and Zhao, Y.},
  pages = {513--516},
  address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA},
  month = {September},
  organization = {IEEE; ICIC Int.; National Natural Sci. Found. of China; Beijing Jiaotong
	Univ.; Kaosiung Univ. of Appl. Sci},
  publisher = {IEEE Comput. Soc},
  note = {First International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information
	and Control, 30 August-1 September 2006, Beijing, China},
  abstract = {Bicycles are used virtually everywhere, and for many applications;
	transportation, recreation and exercise. Their dynamic behavior is
	statically unstable like the inverted pendulum. In this paper, we
	developed an intelligent electric bicycle based on fuzzy logic and
	single chip approach. We chose the PSoC (programmable system-on-chips)
	as the microprocessor. The key point is to adjust the PWM (pulse
	width modulation) signal to control the speed of the bicycle, automatically.
	With this method we hope one can ride the bicycle easily, whether
	the road is level or steep.},
  affiliation = {Chi-Ying Liang; Dept. of Electron. Eng., Wu Feng Inst. of Technol.,
	Taiwan.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Liang2006},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICICIC.2006.54},
  identifying-codes = {[0-7695-2616-0/06/\$20.00]},
  isbn = {0 7695 2616 0},
  keywords = {Practical/ bicycles; electric vehicles; fuzzy control; intelligent
	control; system-on-chip; velocity control/ fuzzy logic control; intelligent
	electric bicycle; transportation; dynamic behavior; inverted pendulum;
	single chip approach; programmable system-on-chip; PSoC; microprocessor;
	PWM control; speed control/ B8520 Transportation; B1265F Microprocessors
	and microcomputers; C3360B Road-traffic system control; C1340F Fuzzy
	control; C3120E Velocity, acceleration and rotation control; C5130
	Microprocessor chips},
  language = {English},
  number-of-references = {9},
  publication-type = {C},
  type = {Conference Paper},
  unique-id = {INSPEC:9132237}
}
@article{Liesegang1978,
  author = {Liesegang, J. and Lee, A.~R.},
  title = {Dynamics of a bicycle: Nongyroscopic aspects},
  journal = {American Journal of Physics},
  year = {1978},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {130-132},
  month = {February},
  adsnote = {Provided by the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System},
  adsurl = {http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978AmJPh..46..130L},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Liesegang1978},
  doi = {10.1119/1.11370}
}
@techreport{Lignoski2002,
  author = {Brad Lignoski},
  title = {Bicycle Stability, Is the Steering Angle Proportional to the Lean?},
  institution = {The College of Wooster},
  year = {2002},
  month = {May},
  abstract = {If the steering of a bicycle is proportional to the lean angle, then
	the motion of the center of mass of the bike can be modeled as a
	damped simple harmonic oscillator. This would in part explain why
	a bicycle is stable. An experiment was performed to determine weather
	or not the steering angle is proportional to the lean. Due to noisy
	data, the proportionality was not conclusively verified, but evidence
	does suggest that the steer angle is proportional to the lean angle
	for small angles. The constant of proportionality was determined
	to be k=2.40±0.15. Improvements for future versions of this investigation
	are suggested.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lignoski2002}
}
@inproceedings{Limebeer2008,
  author = {Limebeer, D.J.N. and Sharma, A.},
  title = {The dynamics of the accelerating bicycle},
  booktitle = {Communications, Control and Signal Processing, 2008. ISCCSP 2008.
	3rd International Symposium on},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {237-242},
  month = {March},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Limebeer2008},
  doi = {10.1109/ISCCSP.2008.4537226},
  keywords = {acceleration, braking, mechanical stability, vehicle dynamics, wheelsaccelerating
	bicycle, bicycle dynamics, braking, cornering, d Alemberts principle,
	forces of inertia, machine dynamics, road wheels, roll angle, stability}
}
@article{Limebeer2001,
  author = {D.J.N. Limebeer and R.S. Sharp and S. Evangelou},
  title = {The stability of motorcycles under acceleration and braking},
  journal = {J. Mech. Eng. Sci},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {215},
  pages = {1095–1109},
  number = {9},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Limebeer2001}
}
@article{Limebeer2006,
  author = {Limebeer, David J.N. and Sharp, Robert S.},
  title = {Bicycles, motorcycles, and models},
  journal = {IEEE Control Systems Magazine},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {26},
  pages = { 34-61},
  number = {5},
  month = {October},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Limebeer2006},
  issn = {0272-1708}
}
@article{Liu1995,
  author = {C. Q. Liu and R. L. Huston},
  title = {An Energy Theorem for Developing Testing Functions for Numerical
	Simulations of Dynamic Systems},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {117},
  pages = {193-198},
  number = {2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Liu1995},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2835179},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/117/193/1}
}
@article{Liu1992,
  author = {C. Q. Liu and R. L. Huston},
  title = {Another Look at Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates in Kinematic and
	Dynamic Analyses},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mechanics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {59},
  pages = {1033-1035},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Liu1992},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2894021},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AMJ/59/1033/1}
}
@article{Liu2006,
  author = {C. Q. Liu and Fang Li and R. L. Huston},
  title = {Dynamics of a Basketball Rolling Around the Rim},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {128},
  pages = {359-364},
  number = {2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Liu2006},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2194073},
  keywords = {sport; differential equations; integration; rolling friction; mechanical
	contact},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/128/359/1}
}
@article{Liu1992a,
  author = {Liu, T.S. and Chen, J.S.},
  title = {Nonlinear analysis of stability for motorcycle-rider systems},
  journal = {International Journal Of Vehicle Design},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {276--294},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Liu1992a}
}
@article{Liu1991,
  author = {Liu, T.S. and Hsiao, I.H},
  title = {Taguchi method applied to motorcycle handling},
  journal = {International Journal Of Vehicle Design},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {345--356},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Liu1991}
}
@article{Liu1993,
  author = {Liu, T.S. and Wu, J.C.},
  title = {A model for a rider-motorcycle system using fuzzy control},
  journal = {Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {267--276},
  number = {1},
  month = {January},
  abstract = {A rider-motorcycle system is a representative man-machine system in
	view of the major role that the rider plays in determining the performance
	of the integrated system. The handling property of motorcycles influences
	safety during riding. In the study, a motorcycle model subjected
	to fuzzy control representing rider's perception and action is investigated
	to facilitate motorcycle design. A mathematical model of three-dimensional
	(3D) multibody dynamics is constructed, which accounts for not only
	motorcycle structures but also the rider's posture change. The fuzzy
	controller based on control rules and fuzzy reasoning methods plays
	the role of the rider in a rider-motorcycle system. The fuzzy control
	is facilitated by the construction of look-up tables. A rider-motorcycle
	system undergoing circular motion is simulated. The study provides
	a viable means for computer-aided design of a representative man-machine
	control system},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Liu1993},
  doi = {10.1109/21.214787},
  issn = {0018-9472},
  keywords = {fuzzy control, model-based reasoning, road vehicles3D multibody dynamics,
	circular motion, control rules, fuzzy control, fuzzy reasoning methods,
	look-up tables, man-machine system, motorcycle structures, posture
	change, rider-motorcycle system, safety}
}
@article{Liu2010,
  author = {Yan Bin Liu and Qing Hua Ji and Xiao Chao Sun and Jian Hai Han},
  title = {Kinematics and Trajectory Tracking Motion Plan of an Unmanned Bicycle},
  journal = {Advanced Materials Research},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {152 - 153},
  pages = {341-345},
  month = {October},
  abstract = {Kinematics and ground plane trajectory tracking motion plan of an
	unmanned bicycle were researched in this paper. For the unmanned
	bicycle controlled by a steering torque, a pedaling toque and a tilting
	torque, rigorous kinematics model was set up and discussed, and when
	the ground plane trajectories and the bicycle tilting angular trajectory
	were given, by use of Back-stepping design means, the steering angular
	velocity, the rear wheel rotation angular velocity and the other
	motion parameters trajectories of the unmanned bicycle were planned
	and discussed, the simulation results showed that the kinematics
	model built was accurate and rigorous, all above motion parameter
	plans were reasonable.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Liu2010},
  doi = {10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.152-153.341},
  keywords = {Kinematic, Motion Plan, Trajectory Tracking, Unmanned Bicycle}
}
@inbook{Ljung1995a,
  chapter = {58},
  pages = {1033--1054},
  title = {System Identification},
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  year = {1995},
  editor = {William S. Levine},
  author = {Lennart Ljung},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ljung1995a}
}
@inproceedings{Ljung2008,
  author = {Lennart Ljung},
  title = {Perspectives of System Identification},
  booktitle = {IFAC Congress},
  year = {2008},
  address = {Seoul, South Korea},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ljung2008}
}
@techreport{Ljung1995,
  author = {Lennart Ljung},
  title = {System Identification},
  institution = {Link\"{o}ping University},
  year = {1995},
  address = {Link\"{o}ping, Sweden},
  month = {May},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ljung1995}
}
@article{Ljung1994,
  author = {Ljung, Lennart and Glad, Torkel},
  title = {On Global Identifiability of Arbitrary Model Parameterizations},
  journal = {Automatica},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {265--276},
  number = {2},
  month = {February},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ljung1994}
}
@article{Lobas1987,
  author = {Lobas, L. G.},
  title = {Controllability, Stabilizability and observability of the motion
	of wheeled vehicles},
  journal = {Prikladnaya Mekhanika},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {93-98},
  number = {4},
  note = {Translated from the Russian: UDC 62-50:629.113},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lobas1987}
}
@article{Loduha1995,
  author = {T. A. Loduha and B. Ravani},
  title = {On First-Order Decoupling of Equations of Motion for Constrained
	Dynamical Systems},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mechanics},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {62},
  pages = {216-222},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Loduha1995},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AMJ/62/216/1}
}
@article{Lorenzo1999,
  author = {de Lorenzo, D.S. and Hull, M.L.},
  title = {Quantification of structural loading during off-road cycling},
  journal = {Transactions of the ASME. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {121},
  pages = {399-405},
  number = {4},
  month = {August},
  abstract = {To provide data for fatigue life prediction and testing of structural
	components in off-road bicycles, the objective of the research described
	herein was to quantify the loads input to an off-road bicycle as
	a result of surface-induced loads. A fully instrumented test bicycle
	was equipped with dynamometers at the pedals, handlebars, and hubs
	to measure all in-plane structural loads acting through points of
	contact between the bicycle and both the rider and the ground. A
	portable data acquisition system carried by the standing rider allowed,
	for the first time, this loading information to be collected during
	extended off-road testing. In all, 7 experienced riders rode a downhill
	trail test section with the test bicycle in both front-suspension
	and full-suspension configurations. The load histories were used
	quantitatively to describe the bad components through the computation
	of means, standard deviations amplitude probability density functions,
	and power spectral density functions. For the standing position,
	the coefficients of variation for the load components normal to the
	ground were greater than 1.2 for handlebar forces and 0.3 and 0.5-0.6
	for the pedal and hub forces, respectively. Thus the relative contribution
	of the dynamic loading was much greater than the static loading at
	the handlebars but less so at the pedals and hubs. As indicated by
	the rainflow count, high amplitude loading was developed approaching
	3 and 5 times the weight of the test subjects at the front and rear
	wheels, respectively. The power spectral densities showed that energy
	was concentrated in the band 0-50 Hz. Through stress computations
	and knowledge of material properties, the data can be used analytically
	to predict the fatigue life of important structural components such
	as those for steering. The data can also be used to develop a fatigue
	testing protocol for verifying analytical predictions of fatigue
	life.},
  address = {USA},
  affiliation = {de Lorenzo, D.S.; Hull, M.L.; Dept. of Mech. Eng., California Univ.,
	Davis, CA, USA.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lorenzo1999},
  identifying-codes = {[A1999-24-8745-029],[0148-0731/99/\$3.00],[0148-0731(199908)121:4L.399:QSLD;1-I]},
  issn = {0148-0731},
  keywords = {Practical, Experimental/ biomechanics; fatigue testing; sport/ fatigue
	life prediction; structural components testing; surface-induced loads;
	pedals; handlebars; hubs; in-plane structural loads; portable data
	acquisition system; experienced riders; downhill trail test section;
	bad components; amplitude probability density functions; power spectral
	density functions; standing position; static loading; 0 to 50 Hz/
	A8745D Physics of body movements/ frequency 0.0E+00 to 5.0E+01 Hz},
  language = {English},
  number-of-references = {11},
  publication-type = {J},
  publisher = {ASME},
  type = {Journal Paper},
  unique-id = {INSPEC:6401357}
}
@mastersthesis{Lorenzo1997,
  author = {de Lorenzo, David S.},
  title = {Quantification of Structural Loading During Off-road Cycling},
  school = {Univeristy of California, Davis},
  year = {1997},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lorenzo1997}
}
@unpublished{Lorenzo1996,
  author = {de Lorenzo, D. S. and Hubbard, Mont},
  title = {Dynamic Bicycle Stability of a Flexibly Coupled Rider},
  note = {Internal report UC Davis},
  year = {1996},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lorenzo1996},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@article{Lot2004,
  author = {Lot, Roberto},
  title = {A Motorcycle Tire Model for Dynamic Simulations: Theoretical and
	Experimental Aspects},
  journal = {Meccanica},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {39},
  pages = {207--220},
  number = {3},
  month = {June},
  abstract = {This paper describes a model for motorcycle tires based on a physical
	interpretation of experimental data. In this model the real shape
	of the tire carcass is accurately described and its deformability
	is taken into account. The actual position of the contact point,
	that is, the center of the contact patch, is calculated. The concept
	of instantaneous slip is defined by calculating the longitudinal
	slip and sideslip angles using the velocity of the actual contact
	point, which moves with respect to the rim. Tire forces and torques
	are applied on the actual contact point and calculated according
	to Pacejka’s magic formula. The coupling of sliding properties
	with elastic ones and the use of the instantaneous slip concept make
	it possible to properly describe both steady state and transient
	behavior using the same relations, thus avoiding the use of any auxiliary
	equations.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lot2004},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:MECC.0000022842.12077.5c}
}
@article{Lowell1982,
  author = {J. Lowell and H. D. McKell},
  title = {The Stability of Bicycles},
  journal = {American Journal of Physics},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {1106--1112},
  number = {12},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lowell1982}
}
@article{Lucia2001,
  author = {Lucia, ALEJANDRO and HOYOS, JESÚS and CHICHARRO and JOSÉ L.},
  title = {Preferred pedalling cadence in professional cycling},
  journal = {Medicine \& Science in Sports \& Exercise},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {1361--1366},
  number = {8},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lucia2001}
}
@book{Luke2004,
  title = {Multilevel Modeling},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {2004},
  editor = {Michael S. Lewis-Beck},
  author = {Douglas A. Luke},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Luke2004}
}
@inproceedings{Lunteren1973,
  author = {van Lunteren, A. and H. G. Stassen},
  title = {Parameter Estimation in Linear Models of the Human Operator in a
	Closed Loop with Application of Deterministic Test Signals},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference on Manual Control},
  year = {1973},
  month = {May},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lunteren1973}
}
@techreport{Lunteren1970,
  author = {van Lunteren, A. and H. G. Stassen},
  title = {Investigations on the Bicycle Simulator},
  institution = {Delft University of Technology, Laboratory for Measurement and Control},
  year = {1970},
  type = {{C}hapter {III} of {A}nnual {R}eport 1969 of the {M}an-{M}achine
	{S}ystems {G}roup},
  number = {WTHD21},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lunteren1970}
}
@inproceedings{Lunteren1970a,
  author = {van Lunteren,A. and H. G. Stassen},
  title = {On the Influence of Drugs on the Behavior of a Bicycle Rider},
  booktitle = {Sixth Annual Conference on Manual Control},
  year = {1970},
  address = {Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lunteren1970a}
}
@inproceedings{Lunteren1970b,
  author = {van Lunteren, A. and H. G. Stassen},
  title = {On the Variance of the Bicycle Rider's Behavior},
  booktitle = {Procedings of the 6th Annual Conference on Manual Control},
  year = {1970},
  address = {Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio},
  month = {April},
  abstract = {The behavior of a rider stabilizing a bicycle simulator has been studied.
	THe simulater used deomonstrates a reasonable similarity to a normal
	bicycle; the forward motion is missing, however, its effects on the
	dynamics of the simulator are take into account.\\The behavior of
	the cyclist has been described by the describing functions between
	the input of the rider, viz. the frame angle, and the outputs, viz.
	the rotations of handle bar and upper body. The parameters of he
	model in this way obtained were determined using an on-line open
	loop parameter estimation method. For low values of teh remnants
	the bias due to teh use of an open loop method in a closed loop system
	is small.\\It has been found that the behavior of the rider is time-independent
	over at least five minutes. Futhermore, if $\sigma_a$ is the mean
	value of the standard deviation of the parameters for one subject
	within one test, if $\sigma_b$ is the mean value of the standard
	deviation for one subject over a number of tests, and if $\sigma_c$
	is teh mean value of the standard deviation for a group of subjects,
	then the relation between these quantities can be approximated by
	$\sigma_a:\sigma_b\:\sigma_c=1:2:3:$.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lunteren1970b}
}
@inproceedings{Lunteren1969,
  author = {van Lunteren, A. and H. G. Stassen},
  title = {On-Line Parameter Estimation of the Human Transfer in a Man-Bicycle
	System},
  booktitle = {Technical sessions, 4th congress of IFAC},
  year = {1969},
  number = {70.3},
  pages = {41--55},
  address = {Warsaw, Poland},
  month = {June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lunteren1969}
}
@inproceedings{Lunteren1967,
  author = {van Lunteren, A. and H. G. Stassen},
  title = {Investigations on the Characteristics of a Human Operator Stabilizing
	a Bicycle Model},
  booktitle = {International Symposium on Ergonomics in Machine Design},
  year = {1967},
  address = {Prague},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lunteren1967}
}
@article{Lupu2011,
  author = {Mircea F. Lupu and Mingui Sun and Zhi-Hong Mao},
  title = {Information Transmission in Human Manual Control of Unstable Systems},
  year = {2011},
  abstract = {The complexity of human-machine interaction
	
	(HMI) is growing rapidly in modern medical, industrial, and
	
	military systems. Human operators are often challenged by
	
	control of high-order systems or unstable systems near the limits
	
	of controllability. However, there is no quantitative indication
	
	of human performance and cognitive workload in these difficult
	
	HMI tasks. Here, we characterize HMI as information flows mea-
	
	sured in bits per second (b/s). We derive that for a normal human
	
	operator to stabilize highly unstable systems the information-
	
	transmission rate of manual control with one degree of freedom
	
	ranges between 3 and 4 b/s. This result reveals the potential
	
	and limitation of human manual control and is instructive to
	
	the design of HMI interfaces that may maximally utilize human
	
	control commands.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lupu2011},
  keywords = {Information transmission, manual control, un-stable systems}
}
@inproceedings{Lynch1972,
  author = {James P. Lynch and R. Douglas Roland},
  title = {Computer animation of a bicycle simulation},
  booktitle = {Fall Joint Computer Conference},
  year = {1972},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Lynch1972}
}
@inproceedings{Maakaroun2011,
  author = {Salim Maakaroun and Philippe Chevrel and Maxime Gautier and Wisama
	Khalil},
  title = {Modelling and Simulation of a Two wheeled vehicle with suspensions
	by using Robotic Formalism},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 18th World Congress The International Federation
	of Automatic Control},
  year = {2011},
  address = {Milano, Italy},
  month = {September},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Maakaroun2011}
}
@techreport{MacAdam1988,
  author = {Charles C. MacAdam},
  title = {Development of Driver/Vehicle Steering Interaction Models For Dynamics
	Analysis},
  institution = {University of Michigan},
  year = {1988},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#MacAdam1988}
}
@article{Maggio2008,
  author = {Maggio, Fabiano and Cossalter, Vittore},
  title = {How a rear steering system may improve motorcycle dynamics},
  journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF VEHICLE DESIGN},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {46},
  pages = {328--346},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {This research investigates how motorcycle dynamics may be improved
	by applying a steering system on the rear wheel. The study is carried
	out using a widely validated multi-body model of motorcycle and rider.
	Two types of rear steering systems are compared: a self-steering
	wheel coupled with a spring-damper assembly and a controlled steering
	wheel, whose steering angle is governed accordingly to a first-order
	relationship between front and rear steering angle. In general, any
	rear steering system transfers energy from weave mode to wobble mode.
	Thus, both solutions stabilise high-speed weave, but increase instability
	when braking. The passive system shows unexpected reactions when
	accelerating in cornering condition, whereas the active system is
	almost neutral.},
  address = {WORLD TRADE CENTER BLDG, 29 ROUTE DE PRE-BOIS, CASE POSTALE 896,
	CH-1215 GENEVA, SWITZERLAND},
  affiliation = {Cossalter, V (Reprint Author), Univ Padua, Dept Mech Engn, Via Venezia
	1, I-35131 Padua, Italy. {[}Maggio, Fabiano; Cossalter, Vittore]
	Univ Padua, Dept Mech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.},
  author-email = {fabiano.maggio@gmail.com Vittore.Cossalter@unipd.it},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Maggio2008},
  doc-delivery-number = {319NO},
  issn = {0143-3369},
  journal-iso = {Int. J. Veh. Des.},
  keywords = {motorcycle stability; weave; wobble; 2WS motorcycle; steering system},
  keywords-plus = {STABILITY; MODEL; FLEXIBILITY; SIMULATIONS; VEHICLES},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {35},
  publisher = {INDERSCIENCE ENTERPRISES LTD},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Mechanical; Transportation Science \& Technology},
  times-cited = {0},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000257170900004}
}
@inproceedings{Malewicki1974,
  author = {Malewicki, D. J.},
  title = {The Dynamics and Aerodynamics of Jump Motorcycles},
  booktitle = {Second AIAA Symposium on Aerodynamics of Sports and Competition Automobiles},
  year = {1974},
  address = {Los Angeles},
  month = {May},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Malewicki1974}
}
@inproceedings{Mammar2005,
  author = {Mammar, S. and Espie, S. and Honvo, C.},
  title = {Motorcycle modelling and roll motion stabilization by rider leaning
	and steering torque},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Conference on Control Applications,
	Toronto Canada, August 28-31, 2005},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {1421-1426},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Mammar2005}
}
@inproceedings{Man1979,
  author = {Man, Guy K. and Kane, Thomas R.},
  title = {Steady Turning of Two-Wheeled Vehicles, Paper 790187},
  booktitle = {Dynamics of Wheeled Recreational Vehicles},
  year = {1979},
  pages = {55-75},
  address = {Detroit, {MI}},
  month = {February--March},
  organization = {SAE},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Man1979}
}
@techreport{Manning1951,
  author = {Manning, J. R.},
  title = {The Dynamical Stability of Bicycles},
  institution = {Road Research Lab, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research},
  year = {1951},
  number = {RN/1605/JRM},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Manning1951}
}
@article{Marumo2003,
  author = {Marumo, Yoshitaka and Katayama, Tsuyoshi},
  title = {Energy Flow Method for Studying Motorcycle Straight-Running Stability
	Effects of Rider's Vibration Characteristics on Weave Mode},
  journal = {JARI Research Journal},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {283--286},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Marumo2003}
}
@article{Marumo2007,
  author = {Marumo, Y. and Nagai, M.},
  title = {Steering control of motorcycles using steer-by-wire system},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics
	and Mobility},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {445--458},
  number = {5},
  abstract = {This study proposes a steering control method to improve motorcycle
	handling and stability. Steer-by-wire (SBW) technology is applied
	to the motorcycle's steering system to remove characteristic difficulties
	of vehicle maneuvers. By examining computer simulation using a simplified
	motorcycle model, the actual rolling angle of the SBW motorcycle
	is controlled to follow the desired rolling angle intended by the
	rider. A state feedback control such as linear quadratic control
	gives the SBW vehicle a good follow-through performance compared
	with proportional-derivative control because it can decouple rolling
	motion from the other motions, which affect the rolling motion in
	the strongly coupled motorcycle system.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Marumo2007},
  doi = {10.1080/00423110701200194}
}
@book{McCullagh1977,
  title = {Pedal Power: In Work, Leisure, and Transportation},
  publisher = {Rodale Press},
  year = {1977},
  editor = {James C. McCullagh},
  author = {James C. McCullagh and David Gordon Wilson and Stuart S. Wilson and
	John McGeorge and Mark Blossom and Diana Branch},
  pages = {133},
  address = {Emmaus, PA},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#McCullagh1977}
}
@article{McKenna2002,
  author = {S. P. McKenna and M. R. Hill and M. L. Hull},
  title = {A single loading direction for fatigue life prediction and testing
	of handlebars for off-road bicycles},
  journal = {International Journal of Fatigue},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {1149 - 1157},
  number = {11},
  abstract = {Components for off-road bicycles including handlebars continue to
	be recalled with regularity because of problems with structural failure
	as a result of high cycle fatigue in the off-road environment. The
	objectives of this study were to 1) devise a method for determining
	the point on the handlebar cross section that experiences the maximum
	cumulative damage when the handlebar is subjected to loads applied
	by the rider's hands that vary randomly in both magnitude and direction,
	2) use this method with an existing database of handlebar loads (DeLorenzo
	and Hull, J Biomech Eng, 1999) to determine a single loading direction
	to be used in design and testing of the handlebar, and 3) determine
	the sensitivity of the point of maximum cumulative damage to structural
	and material properties of the handlebar. The load database was generated
	by seven subjects who rode a rough downhill course in the standing
	posture and provided a total of 28 trials for analysis. For each
	of the 28 trials, the stress histories at 1-degree increments around
	the handlebar circumference were determined. The cumulative damage
	at each of the 360 points for each of the 28 trials was computed
	using rainflow counting in conjunction with Walker's equation to
	represent the S-N diagram for the handlebar material. The maximum
	cumulative damage varied by more than six orders of magnitude between
	trials and the location of the point of maximum damage ranged from
	110° to 343° (angle measured from horizontal axis pointing forward
	with positive counterclockwise rotation viewed from the right side
	of the bicycle). The median location was 142°. To create a tensile
	stress in bending at 142°, a load would have to be applied at 322°
	(322° = 142°+180°). Thus, 322° was found to be the single loading
	direction representative of the variable-direction load database.
	This direction did not change for a handlebar with different structural
	and material properties and coincided approximately with a vector
	drawn along the line of the arms of the rider. This loading direction
	can be used in conjunction with information on the effects of assembly
	of the handlebar with a stem to analytically predict the high cycle
	fatigue life of a particular stem/handlebar assembly. Furthermore,
	this loading direction can also be used to experimentally determine
	the expected in-service fatigue life of a particular stem/handlebar
	assembly.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#McKenna2002},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/S0142-1123(02)00028-2},
  issn = {0142-1123},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V35-45JPG5N-2/2/6d37bf518cc9119c8d031a21cee171c0}
}
@techreport{McRuer1976,
  author = {McRuer, D. and Klein, R.},
  title = {Effects of Automobile Steering Characteristics on Driver Vehicle
	System Dynamics in Regulation Tasks},
  institution = {SAE},
  year = {1976},
  month = {October},
  note = {SAE Paper No. 760778},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#McRuer1976}
}
@article{McRuer1969,
  author = {McRuer, D. and Weir, D.H.},
  title = {Theory of Manual Vehicular Control},
  journal = {Man-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {1969},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {257-291},
  number = {4},
  month = {December},
  abstract = {The analytical basis of manual vehicular control theory is a combination
	of feedback systems analysis and mathematical models for human operators
	engaged in control tasks. Simplified representations for the operator-system
	combination are provided by the 'crossover model', which is described
	in detail. The system dynamics and average performance of the crossover
	model system are developed. With these as bases, case studies are
	presented to illustrate the types of result which can be obtained
	from application of the operator-vehicle control theory. Two aircraft
	control examples illustrate the use of the theory and its empirical
	correlates to estimate operator dynamic characteristics, system performance,
	pilot ratings, pilot commentary, design implications, and some experimental
	guidelines. A driver automobile example is presented to illustrate
	the use of the theory in structuring the key guidance and control
	features of the driver's visual field. A comprehensive bibliography
	of operator-vehicle system analysis applications is also provided.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#McRuer1969},
  doi = {10.1109/TMMS.1969.299930},
  issn = {0536-1540}
}
@article{McRuer1980,
  author = {D. T. McRuer},
  title = {Human dynamics in man-machine systems},
  journal = {Automatica},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {237--253},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#McRuer1980}
}
@article{McRuer1967,
  author = {Duane T. McRuer and Dunstan Graham and Ezra S. Krendel},
  title = {Manual control of single-loop systems: Part I},
  journal = {Journal of the Franklin Institute},
  year = {1967},
  volume = {283},
  pages = {1 - 29},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {The c. 1959 mathematical model for human operator control dynamics
	has been validated and extended to produce a practically complete
	mathematical description of manual control dynamics for single-loop
	systems. This model is essential to the analytical design of closed-loop
	man-machine systems, and it facilitates understanding of the human
	as a control device. An extensive number of selected experiments
	using 9 subjects, 4 forms of plant dynamics of general applicability,
	and 3 principal forcing functions, yielded definitive describing
	function data over a frequency range of two decades including system
	crossover. Models were constructed at three levels of detail: 1)
	a crossover model which is easily and usefully applied; 2) an extended
	crossover model which accounts more adequately for low frequency
	lags and plant dynamics; and 3) a precision model which provides
	a description so detailed that inferences can be drawn about neuromuscular
	functions. The resulting adaptive, optimalizing c. 1965 human operator
	mathematical model is presented, with a detailed summary of its adjustments
	for proper application.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#McRuer1967},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0016-0032(67)90112-3},
  issn = {0016-0032},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V04-49WKD3P-N5/2/2b6903b0beb6ab8981684e554d5673de}
}
@article{McRuer1967a,
  author = {Duane T. McRuer and Dunstan Graham and Ezra S. Krendel},
  title = {Manual control of single-loop systems: Part II},
  journal = {Journal of the Franklin Institute},
  year = {1967},
  volume = {283},
  pages = {145 - 168},
  number = {2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#McRuer1967a},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0016-0032(67)90231-1},
  issn = {0016-0032},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V04-49WH4C8-2H0/2/1a46a45da202420478c227ccd8a6ec34}
}
@techreport{McRuer1974,
  author = {McRuer, D. T. and Krendel, E. S.},
  title = {Mathematical models of human pilot behavior},
  institution = {Systems Technology, Inc.},
  year = {1974},
  type = {Technical Report},
  number = {STI-P-146},
  address = {Hawthorne, CA, USA},
  note = {AGARD AG 188},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#McRuer1974}
}
@article{McRuer1968,
  author = {McRuer, D. T. and Magdaleno, R. E. and Moore, G. P.},
  title = {A Neuromuscular Actuation System Model},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {61-71},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#McRuer1968}
}
@article{McRuer1969a,
  author = {McRuer, D. T. and Weir, D. H.},
  title = {Theory of Manual Vehicular Control},
  journal = {Ergonomics},
  year = {1969},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {599-633},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#McRuer1969a}
}
@article{Meijaard2006a,
  author = {Meijaard, J. and Popov, A.},
  title = {Numerical continuation of solutions and bifurcation analysis in multibody
	systems applied to motorcycle dynamics},
  journal = {NONLINEAR DYNAMICS},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {97-116},
  number = {1-2},
  month = {January},
  abstract = {It is shown how the equations of motion for a multibody system can
	be generated in a symbolic form and the resulting equations can be
	used in a program for the analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems.
	Stationary and periodic solutions are continued when a parameter
	is allowed to vary and bifurcations are found. The variational or
	linearized equations and derivatives with respect to parameters are
	also provided to the analysis program, which enhances the efficiency
	and accuracy of the calculations. The analysis procedure is firstly
	applied to a rotating orthogonal double pendulum, which serves as
	a test for the correctness of the implementation and the viability
	of the approach. Then, the procedure is used for the analysis of
	the dynamics of a motorcycle. For running straight ahead, the nominal
	solution undergoes Hopf bifurcations if the forward velocity is varied,
	which lead to periodic wobble and weave motions. For stationary cornering,
	wobble instabilities are found at much lower speeds, while the maximal
	speed is limited by the saturation of the tyre forces.},
  address = {VAN GODEWIJCKSTRAAT 30, 3311 GZ DORDRECHT, NETHERLANDS},
  affiliation = {Meijaard, J (Reprint Author), Univ Nottingham, Sch Mech Mat \& Mfg
	Engn, Univ Pk, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England. Univ Nottingham, Sch
	Mech Mat \& Mfg Engn, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England.},
  author-email = {jaap.meijaard@nottingham.ac.uk},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Meijaard2006a},
  doc-delivery-number = {012DN},
  doi = {10.1007/s11071-006-0753-y},
  issn = {0924-090X},
  journal-iso = {Nonlinear Dyn.},
  keywords = {bifurcations; continuation; double pendulum; motorcycle dynamics;
	multibody dynamics},
  keywords-plus = {PERIODIC-SOLUTIONS; STABILITY; PATH},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {39},
  publisher = {SPRINGER},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Mechanical; Mechanics},
  times-cited = {9},
  type = {Proceedings Paper},
  unique-id = {ISI:000235318500008}
}
@article{Meijaard2007,
  author = {Meijaard, J. P. and Papadopoulos, Jim M. and Ruina, Andy and Schwab,
	A. L.},
  title = {Linearized dynamics equations for the balance and steer of a bicycle:
	A benchmark and review},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering
	Sciences},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {463},
  pages = {1955--1982},
  number = {2084},
  month = {August},
  abstract = {We present canonical linearized equations of motion for the Whipple
	bicycle model consisting of four rigid laterally symmetric ideally
	hinged parts: two wheels, a frame and a front assembly. The wheels
	are also axisymmetric and make ideal knife-edge rolling point contact
	with the ground level. The mass distribution and geometry are otherwise
	arbitrary. This conservative non-holonomic system has a seven-dimensional
	accessible configuration space and three velocity degrees of freedom
	parametrized by rates of frame lean, steer angle and rear wheel rotation.
	We construct the terms in the governing equations methodically for
	easy implementation. The equations are suitable for e.g. the study
	of bicycle self-stability. We derived these equations by hand in
	two ways and also checked them against two nonlinear dynamics simulations.
	In the century-old literature, several sets of equations fully agree
	with those here and several do not. Two benchmarks provide test cases
	for checking alternative formulations of the equations of motion
	or alternative numerical solutions. Further, the results here can
	also serve as a check for general purpose dynamic programs. For the
	benchmark bicycles, we accurately calculate the eigenvalues (the
	roots of the characteristic equation) and the speeds at which bicycle
	lean and steer are self-stable, confirming the century-old result
	that this conservative system can have asymptotic stability.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Meijaard2007},
  doi = {10.1098/rspa.2007.1857},
  tags = {bicycle,Whipple,linear},
  url = {http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/463/2084/1955.abstract}
}
@inproceedings{Meijaard2006,
  author = {J. P. Meijaard and A. L. Schwab},
  title = {Linearized Equations for and Extended Bicycle Model},
  booktitle = {III European Conference on Computational Mechanics Solids, Structures
	and Coupled Problems in Engineering},
  year = {2006},
  editor = {C. A. Mota Soares},
  address = {Lisbon, Portugal},
  month = {June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Meijaard2006}
}
@inproceedings{Metz2004,
  author = {L. D. Metz},
  title = {What Constitutes Good Handling?},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2004 SAE Motorsports Engineering Conference and
	Exhibition},
  year = {2004},
  number = {2004-01-3532},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Metz2004}
}
@unpublished{Michini2006,
  author = {B. Michini and S. Torrez},
  title = {Autonomous Stability Control of a Moving bicycle},
  note = {nothing},
  year = {2006},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Michini2006}
}
@techreport{Milliken1975,
  author = {Bill Milliken},
  title = {Suggested Research Studies on the Rational Design and Specification
	of Motorcycle Tires},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1975},
  number = {85-662},
  month = {October},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Milliken1975}
}
@inproceedings{Mirnateghi2006,
  author = {Mirnateghi, N. and Peterson, D.L. and Paden, B.E.},
  title = {Systems with Friction: Performance Limitations and Range Deficiency},
  booktitle = {Decision and Control, 2006 45th IEEE Conference on},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {6099-6103},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Mirnateghi2006},
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2006.377247},
  keywords = {differential equations, friction, sampled data systems, trackingdifferential
	equations, discontinuous right-hand side, friction, tracking limitations}
}
@techreport{Mitchell1992,
  author = {Mitchell, D. G. and Aponso, B. L. and Klyde, D. H.},
  title = {Effects of Cockpit Lateral Stick Characteristics on Handling Qualities
	and Pilot Dynamics},
  institution = {NASA},
  year = {1992},
  number = {CR 4443},
  month = {June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Mitchell1992}
}
@article{Mitiguy1996,
  author = {Mitiguy, Paul and Kane, Thomas R.},
  title = {Motion Variables Leading to Efficient Equations of Motion},
  journal = {The International Journal of Robotics Research},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {522--532},
  number = {5},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Mitiguy1996}
}
@article{Mitiguy2001,
  author = {Mitiguy, Paul C. and Reckdahl, Keith J.},
  title = {Efficient dynamical equations for gyrostats},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {1144-1156},
  number = {6},
  month = {November},
  abstract = {To formulate equations of motion, the analyst must choose constants
	that characterize the mass distribution of system components. Traditionally,
	one chooses as constants the mass of each particle and the mass and
	central inertia scalars of each rigid body. However, this characterization
	of the mass distribution leads to inefficient equations of motion
	for gyrostats and necessitates the determination of an unnecessary
	large number of mass and inertia scalars. For gyrostats, there exist
	special formulas and a methodology for characterizing mass distribution
	that lead to efficient dynamic equations. In this context, efficient
	refers to relative simplicity, ease of manipulation for purposes
	of designing automatic control systems, and minimal consumption of
	computer time during numerical solution.},
  address = {1801 ALEXANDER BELL DRIVE, STE 500, RESTON, VA 22091 USA},
  affiliation = {Mitiguy, PC (Reprint Author), MSC Software, 66 Bovet Rd, San Mateo,
	CA 94206 USA. MSC Software, San Mateo, CA 94206 USA. Space Syst Loral,
	Dynam \& Controls Anal, Palo Alto, CA 94303 USA.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Mitiguy2001},
  doc-delivery-number = {493LH},
  issn = {0731-5090},
  journal-iso = {J. Guid. Control Dyn.},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {16},
  publisher = {AMER INST AERONAUT ASTRONAUT},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Aerospace; Instruments \& Instrumentation},
  times-cited = {2},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000172223900009}
}
@article{Miura2007,
  author = {Miura, Yumiko and Tokutake, Hiroshi and Fukui, Katsuhiko},
  title = {Handling qualities evaluation method based on actual driver characteristics},
  journal = {VEHICLE SYSTEM DYNAMICS},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {807-817},
  number = {9},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {The present study proposes an objective handling qualities evaluation
	method using driver-in-the-loop analysis. The driving simulator experiments
	were performed for various driving conditions, drivers and vehicle
	dynamics. The response characteristics of the driver model and the
	closed-loop system were analyzed. The analysis revealed the driving
	strategies clearly, indicating the importance of closed-loop analysis.
	Using the identified driver model and its strategies, a cost function
	of the handling qualities was constructed. The cost function can
	be used to estimate the handling qualities analytically from the
	vehicle dynamics. The proposed method was validated by comparison
	with the handling qualities evaluation rated by the driver's comments.},
  address = {325 CHESTNUT ST, SUITE 800, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106 USA},
  affiliation = {Tokutake, H (Reprint Author), Osaka Prefecture Univ, Dept Aerosp Engn,
	1-1 Gakuen Cho, Sakai, Osaka 5998531, Japan. Osaka Prefecture Univ,
	Dept Aerosp Engn, Sakai, Osaka 5998531, Japan. Toyota Cent Res \&
	Dev Labs Inc, Vehicle Safety ITS Ctr, Vehicle Dynam Lab, Nagakute,
	Aichi 4801192, Japan.},
  author-email = {tokutake@aero.osakafu-u.ac.jp},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Miura2007},
  doc-delivery-number = {205PF},
  doi = {10.1080/00423110601127810},
  issn = {0042-3114},
  journal-iso = {Veh. Syst. Dyn.},
  keywords = {handling qualities evaluation; driver model; driver-in-the-loop analysis;
	driving simulator experiments},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {10},
  publisher = {TAYLOR \& FRANCIS INC},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Mechanical},
  times-cited = {0},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000249126400002}
}
@inproceedings{Miyagishi2006,
  author = {Miyagishi, Shun'ichi and Baba, Masayuki and Uchiyama, Hajime and
	Kageyama, Ichiro and Kuriyama, Takeyuki},
  title = {Construction of Rider Robot Proto2 for Motorcycles},
  booktitle = {Proceedings. JSAE Annual Congress},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {Preliminary researches on the rider robot control algorithm and its
	system configuration have been conducted for evaluating quantitatively
	of motorcycle dynamic characteristics. Consequently, it has been
	confirmed that the control is possible by using the control algorithm.
	However, some problems remained to be resolved. Taking the above-mentioned
	into considerations, the prototype 2 has been developed with targets
	at vehicle weight reduction etc. While the already-developed algorithm
	is applied to the prototype 2, its effectiveness was reviewed using
	simulation. As for the simulation model, the vehicle part is expressed
	based on Prof. Sharp's 12 DOF model, and the control part uses MATLAB/Simulink.
	Consequently, validity of the algorithm was confirmed.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Miyagishi2006}
}
@article{Miyagishi2003,
  author = {Shunichi Miyagishi and Ichiro Kageyama and Kouhei Takama and Masayuki
	Baba and Hajime Uchiyama},
  title = {Study on construction of a rider robot for two-wheeled vehicle},
  journal = {JSAE Review},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {321 - 326},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {In this study, we constructed a fully autonomous two-wheeled vehicle
	(the Rider Robot) which was used for evaluation of dynamics. As the
	first step of the study, we constructed the control algorithms and
	the control system.
	
	The control algorithms consist of the standing stability control which
	keeps the perpendicular motion, and the directional control which
	follows the target course. These algorithms were determined based
	on human rider's behavior. The system was constructed using some
	actuators and sensors.
	
	The results show that Rider Robot could follow the target course while
	keeping the standing stability. Consequently, there is considerable
	validly in these constructed algorithms and the system.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Miyagishi2003},
  doi = {10.1016/S0389-4304(03)00045-6},
  issn = {0389-4304},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0389430403000456}
}
@article{Miyagishi2001,
  author = {Miyagishi, Shunichi and Kageyama, Ichiro and Takama, Kouhei and Baba,
	Masayuki and Uchiyama, Hajime},
  title = {1411 A Study On a Rider Robot for Two Wheeled Vehicle},
  journal = {The Transportation and Logistics Conference},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {125--128},
  abstract = {In this study, we constructed autonomous two wheeled vehicle (the
	Rider Robot) which use for evaluation of two wheeled vehicle dynamics.
	The Rider Robot consist electromechanical device and operate by the
	control algorithm without the need for a human rider. We consider
	the control algorithm was separated directory and standing control.
	The model of standing control was constructed for the model using
	the data based on maneuver of the rider using multiple regression
	analysis. And direction control was giving the purpose of dynamic
	roll angle, which from purpose turning radius that acquired the difference
	between image analysis and second order prediction model.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Miyagishi2001},
  publisher = {The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  url = {http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110002490780/en/}
}
@article{Modjtahedzadeh1993,
  author = {Modjtahedzadeh, A. and Hess, R. A.},
  title = {A Model of Driver Steering Control Behavior for Use in Assessing
	Vehicle Handling Qualities},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamics, Systems, Measurement. and Control},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {115},
  pages = {456-464},
  abstract = {A control theoretic model of driver steering control behavior is presented.
	The resulting model is shown capable of producing driver/vehicle
	steering responses which compare favorably with those obtained from
	driver simulation. The model is simple enough to be used by engineers
	who may not be manual control specialists. The model contains both
	preview and compensatory steering dynamics. An analytical technique
	for vehicle handling qualities assessment is briefly discussed. Driver/vehicle
	responses from two driving tasks evaluated in a driver simulator
	are used to evaluate the overall validity of the driver/vehicle model.
	Finally, the model is exercised in predictive fashion in the computer
	simulation of a lane keeping task on a curving roadway where the
	simulated vehicle possessed one of three different steering systems:
	a conventional two-wheel steering system and a pair of four-wheel
	steering systems.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Modjtahedzadeh1993}
}
@inproceedings{Moore2008,
  author = {Jason Moore and Mont Hubbard},
  title = {Parametric Study of Bicycle Stability},
  booktitle = {The Engineering of Sport 7},
  year = {2008},
  editor = {Margaret Estivalet and Pierre Brisson},
  volume = {2},
  organization = {International Sports Engineering Association},
  publisher = {Springer Paris},
  abstract = {Bicycles are inherently dynamically stable and this stability can
	be beneficial to handling qualities. A dynamical model can predict
	the self-stability. Previous models determined the sensitivity of
	stability to changes in parameters, but have often used idealized
	parameters occurring in the equations of motion that were not possible
	to realistically change independently. A mathematical model of a
	bicycle is developed and verified. The model is used together with
	a physical parameter generation algorithm to evaluate the dependence
	of four important actual design parameters on the self-stability
	of a bicycle.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Moore2008},
  doi = {10.1007/978-2-287-99056-4_39},
  keywords = {bicycle, stability, parametric, dynamics, linear}
}
@unpublished{Moore2009,
  author = {Jason K. Moore},
  title = {A comparison of bicycle dynamics, on and off the treadmill},
  note = {Unpublished internal report, UC Davis},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Moore2009}
}
@unpublished{Moore2006,
  author = {Moore, Jason K.},
  title = {Low Speed Bicycle Stability: Effects of Geometric Parameters},
  note = {For course MAE 223, UC Davis, Winter 2006},
  month = {August},
  year = {2006},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Moore2006}
}
@inproceedings{Moore2010,
  author = {Jason K. Moore and Mont Hubbard and Dale L. Peterson and A. L. Schwab
	and J. D. G. Kooijman},
  title = {An Accurate Method of Measuring and Comparing a Bicycle's Physical
	Parameters},
  booktitle = {Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics: Symposium on the Dynamics and Control
	of Single Track Vehicles},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Delft, Netherlands},
  month = {October},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Moore2010},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@article{Moore2010a,
  author = {Jason K. Moore and Mont Hubbard and A. L. Schwab and J. D. G. Kooijman
	and Dale L. Peterson},
  title = {Statistics of bicycle rider motion},
  journal = {Procedia Engineering},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {2937--2942},
  number = {2},
  note = {The Engineering of Sport 8 - Engineering Emotion},
  abstract = {An overview of bicycle and rider kinematic motions from a series of
	experimental treadmill tests is presented. The full kinematics of
	bicycles and riders were measured with an active motion capture system.
	Motion across speeds are compared graphically with box and whiskers
	plots. Trends and ranges in amplitude are shown to characterize the
	system motion. This data will be used to develop a realistic biomechanical
	model and control model for the rider and for future experimental
	design.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Moore2010a},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2010.04.091},
  issn = {1877-7058},
  keywords = {Bicycle dynamics},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B9869-508WXJK-37/2/a5dd5a57c5ab57f73a1ccd739068f4ae}
}
@inproceedings{Moore2009a,
  author = {Jason K. Moore and J. D. G. Kooijman and Mont Hubbard and A. L. Schwab},
  title = {A Method for Estimating Physical Properties of a Combined Bicycle
	and Rider},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical
	Conferences \& Computers and Information in Engineering Conference,
	IDETC/CIE 2009},
  year = {2009},
  address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
  month = {August--September},
  organization = {ASME},
  abstract = {A method is presented to estimate and measure the geometry, mass,
	centers of mass and the moments of inertia of a typical bicycle and
	rider. The results are presented in a format for ease of use with
	the benchmark bicycle model [1]. Example numerical data is also presented
	for a typical male rider and city bicycle.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Moore2009a},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@inproceedings{Moore2009b,
  author = {Moore, J. K. and Kooijman, J. D. G. and Schwab, A. L.},
  title = {Rider motion identification during normal bicycling by means of principal
	component analysis},
  booktitle = {Multibody Dynamics 2009, ECCOMAS Thematic Conference},
  year = {2009},
  editor = {K. Arczewski and J. Fr\c{a}czek, M. Wojtyra},
  address = {Warsaw, Poland},
  month = {June-July},
  abstract = {Recent observations of a bicyclist riding through town and on a treadmill
	show that the rider uses the upper body very little when performing
	normal maneuvers and that the bicyclist may in fact primarily use
	steering input for control. They also revealed that other motions
	such as lateral movement of the knees were used in low speed stabilization.
	In order to validate the hypothesis that there is little upper body
	motion during casual cycling, an in-depth motion capture analysis
	was performed on the bicycle and rider system. We used motion capture
	technology to record the motion of three similar young adult male
	riders riding two different city bicycles on a treadmill. Each rider
	rode each bicycle while performing stability trials at speeds ranging
	from 2 km/h to 30 km/h: stabilizing while pedaling normally, stabilizing
	without pedaling, line tracking while pedaling, and stabilizing with
	nohands. These tasks were chosen with the intent of examining differences
	in the kinematics at various speeds, the effects of pedaling on the
	system, upper body control motions and the differences in tracking
	and stabilization. Principal component analysis was used to transform
	the data into a manageable set organized by the variance associated
	with the principal components. In this paper, these principal components
	were used to characterize various distinct kinematic motions that
	occur during stabilization with and without pedaling. These motions
	were grouped on the basis of correlation and conclusions were drawn
	about which motions are candidates for stabilization related control
	actions.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Moore2009b},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@article{Moore2011,
  author = {Moore, Jason K. and Kooijman, J. D. G. and Schwab, A. L. and Hubbard,
	Mont},
  title = {Rider motion identification during normal bicycling by means of principal
	component analysis},
  journal = {Multibody System Dynamics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {225--244},
  note = {10.1007/s11044-010-9225-8},
  abstract = {Recent observations of a bicyclist riding through town and on a treadmill
	show that the rider uses the upper body very little when performing
	normal maneuvers and that the bicyclist may, in fact, primarily use
	steering input for control. The observations also revealed that other
	motions such as lateral movement of the knees were used in low speed
	stabilization. In order to validate the hypothesis that there is
	little upper body motion during casual cycling, an in-depth motion
	capture analysis was performed on the bicycle and rider system. We
	used motion capture technology to record the motion of three similar
	young adult male riders riding two different city bicycles on a treadmill.
	Each rider rode each bicycle while performing stability trials at
	speeds ranging from 2 km/h to 30 km/h: stabilizing while pedaling
	normally, stabilizing without pedaling, line tracking while pedaling,
	and stabilizing with no-hands. These tasks were chosen with the intent
	of examining differences in the kinematics at various speeds, the
	effects of pedaling on the system, upper body control motions and
	the differences in tracking and stabilization. Principal component
	analysis was used to transform the data into a manageable set organized
	by the variance associated with the principal components. In this
	paper, these principal components were used to characterize various
	distinct kinematic motions that occur during stabilization with and
	without pedaling. These motions were grouped on the basis of correlation
	and conclusions were drawn about which motions are candidates for
	stabilization-related control actions.},
  affiliation = {Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis,
	One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-5294, USA},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Moore2011},
  issn = {1384-5640},
  issue = {2},
  keyword = {Engineering},
  publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11044-010-9225-8}
}
@inproceedings{Moore2007,
  author = {Jason K. Moore and Dale L. Peterson and Mont Hubbard},
  title = {Influence of rider dynamics on the Whipple bicycle model},
  booktitle = {11th International Symposium on Computer Simulation in Biomechanics},
  year = {2007},
  address = {Tainan, Taiwan},
  month = {June},
  organization = {ISB},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Moore2007},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@inproceedings{Morchin1993,
  author = {Morchin, William C. and Oman, Henry},
  title = {Power control for electric bicycles},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {251--258},
  address = {Atlanta, GA, USA},
  month = {August},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Morchin1993}
}
@inproceedings{Moreno2008,
  author = {Moreno, D. and Talaia, P. and Cuyper, J. De and Lozano, M.S.},
  title = {MYMOSA - A virtual motorcycle rider for closed-loop simulation of
	motorcycles},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ISAM 2008},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {MYMOSA - Integrated motorcycle safety},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Moreno2008}
}
@techreport{Mortimer1973,
  author = {R. G. Mortimer and P. A. Domas and R. E. Dewar},
  title = {The relationship of bicycle maneuverability to handlebar configuration},
  institution = {Highway Safety Research Institute, University of Michigan,},
  year = {1973},
  number = {UM-HSRI-HF-TM-73-5},
  address = {Univeristy of Michigan, Huron Parkway \& Baxter Road, Ann Arbor,
	Michigan 48105},
  month = {June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Mortimer1973}
}
@techreport{Muhich2004,
  author = {Christopher M. Muhich and Christopher D. Wagner},
  title = {Design of a bicycle stabilizer},
  institution = {University of Notre Dame},
  year = {2004},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Muhich2004}
}
@article{Muhlfeld1951,
  author = {Muhlfeld, A.},
  title = {Die Lenkung des Kraftrades},
  journal = {Automob. Tech. Z.},
  year = {1951},
  volume = {53},
  pages = {249-252},
  number = {10},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Muhlfeld1951}
}
@mastersthesis{Muraoka2002,
  author = {D. Muraoka},
  title = {Stable Running Control of Autonomous Bicycle Robot},
  school = {Keio University},
  year = {2002},
  note = {in Japanese},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Muraoka2002}
}
@misc{Murata2009,
  author = {Murata},
  title = {Murata Boy},
  howpublished = {http://www.murataboy.com/},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Murata2009},
  url = {http://www.murataboy.com/}
}
@inproceedings{Murayama2007,
  author = {Murayama, Akihiro and Yamakita, Masaki},
  title = {Development of autonomous bike robot with balancer, Paper 4601741},
  booktitle = {Annual Conference},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {1048--1052},
  address = {Kagawa, Japan},
  month = {September},
  organization = {SICE},
  abstract = {Recently it is expected to develop robots which can work in dissastered
	area or places where human can not approach. In dissasterd area,
	it is considered that a bike type robot which has narrower body and
	has high manuvability is more efficient than vehicles with four wheels.
	In the literatures, bike type robots with stabilizing mechanism with
	wheel or steerling control have been proposed. In this paper we discuss
	a development of bike type robot with a balancer and show experimental
	result in an open field.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Murayama2007},
  doi = {10.1109/SICE.2007.4421139},
  isbn = {978-4-907764-27-2},
  keywords = {Output Zeroing Control,underactuated}
}
@inproceedings{Nadpurohit1983,
  author = {R.N. Nadpurohit and S. Suryanarayan},
  title = {Some experimental studies on the influence of wheel base and trail
	on the dynamic stability of the bicycle-rider system},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Sixth World Congress on Theory of Machines and
	MEchanisms},
  year = {1983},
  pages = {705--708},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Nadpurohit1983}
}
@article{Nagai1983,
  author = {Nagai, M.},
  title = {Analysis of Rider and Single-track-vehicle System; Its Application
	to Computer-controlled Bicycles},
  journal = {Automatica},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {737--740},
  number = {6},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Nagai1983}
}
@inproceedings{Nakano1997,
  author = {Y. Nakano and H. Iwasaki and S. Iwane},
  title = {Stabilizing Control of un-manned bicycle with piezoelectric micro-gyroscope},
  booktitle = {Proceeding of SICE Conference},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {343--344},
  note = {in Japanese},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Nakano1997}
}
@article{Narasimha2003,
  author = {Roddam Narasimha},
  title = {How two bicycle mechanics achieved the world's first powered flight},
  journal = {Resonance},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {61--75},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Narasimha2003}
}
@article{Needle1997,
  author = {S. A. Needle and M. L. Hull},
  title = {An off-road bicycle with adjustable suspension kinematics},
  journal = {Transactions of the ASME},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {370--375},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Needle1997}
}
@inproceedings{Nehaoua2010,
  author = {Lamri Nehaoua and Amine Khettat and Hichem Arioui and Hocine Imine
	and Stephane Espie},
  title = {Rider Steer Torque Estimation for Motorcycle Riding Simulator},
  booktitle = {5th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Cambridge, MA, USA},
  month = {September},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Nehaoua2010}
}
@article{Neptune1999,
  author = {R. R. Neptune and M. L. Hull},
  title = {A theoretical analysis of preferred pedaling rate selection in endurance
	cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {409 - 415},
  number = {4},
  abstract = {One objective of this study was to investigate whether neuromuscular
	quantities were associated with preferred pedaling rate selection
	during submaximal steady-state cycling from a theoretical perspective
	using a musculoskeletal model with an optimal control analysis. Specific
	neuromuscular quantities of interest were the individual muscle activation,
	force, stress and endurance. To achieve this objective, a forward
	dynamic model of cycling and optimization framework were used to
	simulate pedaling at three different rates of 75, 90 and 105 rpm
	at 265 W. The pedaling simulations were produced by optimizing the
	individual muscle excitation timing and magnitude to reproduce experimentally
	collected data. The results from these pedaling simulations indicated
	that all neuromuscular quantities were minimized at 90 rpm when
	summed across muscles. In the context of endurance cycling, these
	results suggest that minimizing neuromuscular fatigue is an important
	mechanism in pedaling rate selection. A second objective was to determine
	whether any of these quantities could be used to predict the preferred
	pedaling rate. By using the quantities with the strongest quadratic
	trends as the performance criterion to be minimized in an optimal
	control analysis, these quantities were analyzed to assess whether
	they could be further minimized at 90 rpm and produce normal pedaling
	mechanics. The results showed that both the integrated muscle activation
	and average endurance summed across all muscles could be further
	minimized at 90 rpm indicating that these quantities cannot be used
	individually to predict preferred pedaling rates.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Neptune1999},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9290(98)00182-1},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  keywords = {Muscle force},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-40CRN5R-8/2/8b2cec226ac4d3ed917a60208e7ac807}
}
@article{Neptune1998,
  author = {R. R. Neptune and M. L. Hull},
  title = {Evaluation of Performance Criteria for Simulation of Submaximal Steady-State
	Cycling Using a Forward Dynamic Model},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanical Engineering},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {120},
  pages = {334-341},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Neptune1998},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2797999},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JBY/120/334/1}
}
@article{Neptune1995,
  author = {R. R. Neptune and M. L. Hull},
  title = {Accuracy assessment of methods for determining hip movement in seated
	cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {423 - 437},
  number = {4},
  abstract = {The goal of this research was to examine the accuracy of three methods
	used to indicate the hip joint center (HJC) in seated steady-state
	cycling. Two of the methods have been used in previous studies of
	cycling biomechanics and included tracking a marker placed over the
	superior aspect of the greater trochanter, a location that estimates
	the center of rotation of the hip joint, and assuming that the hip
	is fixed. The third method was new and utilized an anthropometric
	relationship to determine the hip joint location from a marker placed
	over the anterior-superior iliac spine. To perform a comparative
	analysis of errors inherent in the three methods, a standard method
	which located the true hip joint center was developed. The standard
	method involved establishing a pelvis-fixed coordinate system using
	a triad of video markers attached to an intracortical pin. Three-dimensional
	motion analysis quantified the true hip joint center position coordinates.
	To provide data for the comparative analysis, the intracortical pin
	was anchored to a single subject who pedaled at nine cadence-workrate
	combinations while data for all four methods were simultaneously
	recorded. At all cadence-workrate combinations the new method was
	more accurate than the trochanter method with movement errors lower
	by a factor of 2 in the vertical direction and a factor of 3 in the
	horizontal direction. Relative to the errors introduced by the fixed
	hip assumption, the new method was also generally more accurate by
	at least a factor of 2 in the horizontal direction and had comparable
	accuracy in the vertical direction. For computed kinetic quantities,
	the new method most accurately indicated hip joint force power but
	the fixed hip method most accurately indicated the work produced
	by the hip joint force over the crank cycle.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Neptune1995},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(94)00080-N},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-3YGTT1R-3R/2/a6b5bf404cc402fed5ad053540eea192}
}
@article{Neptune1997,
  author = {R. R. Neptune and S. A. Kautz and M. L. Hull},
  title = {The effect of pedaling rate on coordination in cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {1051 - 1058},
  number = {10},
  abstract = {To further understand lower extremity neuromuscular coordination in
	cycling, the objectives of this study were to examine the effect
	of pedaling rate on coordination strategies and interpret any apparent
	changes. These objectives were achieved by collecting electromyography
	(EMG) data of eight lower extremity muscles and crank angle data
	from ten subjects at 250 W across pedaling rates ranging from 45
	to 120 RPM. To examine the effect of pedaling rate on coordination,
	EMG burst onset and offset and integrated EMG (iEMG) were computed.
	In addition, a phase-controlled functional group (PCFG) analysis
	was performed to interpret observed changes in the EMG patterns in
	the context of muscle function. Results showed that the EMG onset
	and offset systematically advanced as pedaling rate increased except
	for the soleus which shifted later in the crank cycle. The iEMG results
	revealed that muscles responded differently to increased pedaling
	rate. The gastrocnemius, hamstring muscles and vastus medialis systematically
	increased muscle activity as pedaling rate increased. The gluteus
	maximus and soleus had significant quadratic trends with minimum
	values at 90 RPM, while the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris
	showed no significant association with pedaling rate. The PCFG analysis
	showed that the primary function of each lower extremity muscle remained
	the same at all pedaling rates. The PCFG analysis, which accounts
	for muscle activation dynamics, revealed that the earlier onset of
	muscle excitation produced muscle activity in the same region of
	the crank cycle. Also, while most of the muscles were excited for
	a single functional phase, the soleus and rectus femoris were excited
	during two functional phases. The soleus was classified as an extensor-bottom
	transition muscle, while the rectus femoris was classified as a top
	transition-extensor muscle. Further, the relative emphasis of each
	function appeared to shift as pedaling rate was increased, although
	each muscle remained bifunctional.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Neptune1997},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9290(97)00071-7},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  keywords = {Muscle coordination},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-3RKYTRX-6/2/5dfb414a7fd6a754458d761385a91050}
}
@article{Newmiller1988,
  author = {Jeff Newmiller and M.L. Hull and F.E. Zajac},
  title = {A mechanically decoupled two force component bicycle pedal dynamometer},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {375 - 379, 381-386},
  number = {5},
  abstract = {A design is presented for a bicycle pedal dynamometer that measures
	both normal and tangential forces (i.e. driving forces). Mechanical
	decoupling is used to reduce the cross-sensitivity of the dynamometer
	to loads doing no work to propel the bicycle. This obviates the need
	to measure all six loads for accurate data reduction. A compact strain
	ring is the transducer element, and a monolithic design eliminates
	mechanical hysteresis between the strain ring and the dynamometer
	frame. The angular orientation of the dynamometer with respect to
	the crank arm is determined with a continuous-rotation potentiometer.
	Design criteria and design implementation are discussed, sample data
	are presented, and the performance of the dynamometer is evaluated.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Newmiller1988},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(88)90144-3},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C35SW6-4F/2/5e840160d48f1595a0e90ad1ee45f96d}
}
@inproceedings{Niki2005,
  author = {Hiroshi Niki and Toshiyuki Murakami},
  title = {An Approach to Stable Standing Motion of Electric Bicycle},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of 2005 CACS Automatic Control Conference},
  year = {2005},
  address = {Tainan, Taiwan},
  month = {November},
  abstract = {Recently bicycles are widely used as a convenient transportation tool.
	A mechanical design of bicycle has improved well and it has ability
	to self-stabilize, but it is essentially unstable and a driving skill
	of bicycle users is required for a realization of its stable motion.
	From a viewpoint of wide use for the future aging society, the assist
	control of the bicycle that makes a bicycle motion more stable independently
	of the environment condition is expected. As well known, the power
	assistance bicycle has been developed. And stable running assistance
	bicycle has been reported. However, stable standing assistance bicycle
	has not been realized. On the other hand, bicycle accidents (falling
	down) in the act of stopping are reported a lot. Stable standing
	assistance bicycle is expected to prevent these accidents. So the
	purpose of this research is to develop a stable standing assistance
	bicycle. In this paper, stabilization control by steering angle and
	square of velocity is proposed. Steering angle and square of velocity
	are controlled to stabilize the standing bicycle. The feasibility
	of this method is verified by numerical result.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Niki2005}
}
@article{Niki2005a,
  author = {H. Niki and T. Murakami},
  title = {An Approach to Self Stabilization of Bicycle Motion by Handle Controller},
  journal = {IEEJ Transactions on Industry Applications},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {125-D},
  pages = {779--785},
  number = {8},
  abstract = {Recently bicycles are widely used as a convenient transportation tool.
	A mechanical design of bicycle has improved well and it has an ability
	to self-stabilize, but it is essentially unstable and a driving skill
	of bicycle users is required for a realization of its stable motion.
	From a view point of wide use for the future aging society, the assist
	control of the bicycle that makes a bicycle motion more stable independently
	of the environment condition is expected. As well known, the power
	assistance of a bicycle has been used, but a practical assistance
	of bicycle motion, in particular, the stable control of bicycle configuration
	has not been developed. In this paper, the two handle control algorithms
	for autonomous stable running are proposed with the aim of developing
	a stable human assistance bicycle. The proposed algorithms are verified
	by numerical and experimental results.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Niki2005a},
  keywords = {bicycle, stabilization, autonomous runnning, handle control}
}
@article{Noguchi2004,
  author = {Akira Noguchi and Kosuke Yamawaki and Toshiro Yamamoto and Tomoaki
	Toratani},
  title = {Development of a Steering Angle and Torque Sensor of Contact-type},
  journal = {Furukawa Review},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {36--41},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Noguchi2004}
}
@article{Nordquist2007,
  author = {Josh Nordquist and M. L. Hull},
  title = {Design and Demonstration of a New Instrumented Spatial Linkage for
	Use in a Dynamic Environment: Application to Measurement of Ankle
	Rotations During Snowboarding},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanical Engineering},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {129},
  pages = {231-239},
  number = {2},
  abstract = {Joint injuries during sporting activities might be reduced by understanding
	the extent of the dynamic motion of joints prone to injury during
	maneuvers performed in the field. Because instrumented spatial linkages
	(ISLs) have been widely used to measure joint motion, it would be
	useful to extend the functionality of an ISL to measure joint motion
	in a dynamic environment. The objectives of the work reported by
	this paper were to (i) design and construct an ISL that will measure
	dynamic joint motion in a field environment, (ii) calibrate the ISL
	and quantify its static measurement error, (iii) quantify dynamic
	measurement error due to external acceleration, and (iv) measure
	ankle joint complex rotation during snowboarding maneuvers performed
	on a snow slope. An ᅵelbow-typeᅵ ISL was designed to measure
	ankle joint complex rotation throughout its range (ᅵ30 deg for
	flexion/extension, ᅵ15 deg for internal/external rotation, and
	ᅵ15 deg for inversion/eversion). The ISL was calibrated with a
	custom six degree-of-freedom calibration device generally useful
	for calibrating ISLs, and static measurement errors of the ISL also
	were evaluated. Root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) were 0.59 deg for
	orientation (1.7% full scale) and 1.00 mm for position (1.7% full
	scale). A custom dynamic fixture allowed external accelerations (5
	g, 0ᅵ50 Hz) to be applied to the ISL in each of three linear directions.
	Maximum measurement deviations due to external acceleration were
	0.05 deg in orientation and 0.10 mm in position, which were negligible
	in comparison to the static errors. The full functionality of the
	ISL for measuring joint motion in a field environment was demonstrated
	by measuring rotations of the ankle joint complex during snowboarding
	maneuvers performed on a snow slope.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Nordquist2007},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2486107},
  keywords = {sport; biomechanics; biomedical measurement; biomedical equipment;
	motion measurement; calibration; measurement errors},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JBY/129/231/1}
}
@article{Norgia2009,
  author = {M. Norgia and I. Boniolo and M. Tanelli and S.M. Savaresi and C.
	Svelto},
  title = {Optical Sensors for Real-Time Measurement of Motorcycle Tilt Angle},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {58},
  pages = {1640-1649},
  number = {5},
  month = {May},
  abstract = {This paper addresses the analysis and design of an optical sensor
	for the real-time measurement of the tilt angle in hypersport motorcycles.
	The aim of this paper is to design a compact, reliable, and low-cost
	optical triangulator that is capable of accurate in-field measurements
	in the harsh environment of sport motorcycles. An analytical computation
	of the required system sensitivity and achievable accuracy is carried
	out. The detrimental effects of solar interference are also described
	and discussed. The proposed instrumentation, which is realized with
	ad hoc laser emitters, is shown to have superior performance with
	respect to a previous solution based on light-emitting diode (LED)
	emitters. Such novel triangulators are shown to provide good and
	reliable performances for the proposed application to maintain low
	costs and small sizes, overcoming the problem of solar interference.
	The performance of the proposed sensor is assessed by experiments
	on an instrumented motorbike in a racetrack.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Norgia2009},
  doi = {10.1109/TIM.2008.2009421},
  issn = {0018-9456},
  keywords = {angular measurement, measurement by laser beam, measurement uncertainty,
	motorcycles, optical design techniques, optical sensors, reliability,
	sport, vehicle dynamicsad hoc laser emitter, harsh environment, hypersport
	motorcycle, instrumented motorbike test, measurement uncertainity,
	optical sensor design, optical triangulator, racetrack, real-time
	tilt angle measurement, reliable performance, solar interference
	detrimental effects}
}
@inproceedings{Oda2002,
  author = {Yusuke Oda and Masayuki Miyamoto and Kei Uchiyama and Gou Shimizu},
  title = {Study on the autonomous run by integrated control of bicycle},
  booktitle = {JSME 11th Conference of Transportation and Logistics Division No.02-50},
  year = {2002},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Oda2002}
}
@misc{Ohya1960,
  author = {T. Ohya},
  title = {The dynamics of the bicycle},
  howpublished = {The bicycle technical report No.2 pp.1-8},
  year = {1960},
  note = {Iuchi2006 cites this, they say: In 1960’s Ohya[1] has ana-
	
	lyzed the stability of the bicycle from the viewpoints of fre-
	
	quency and transfer function},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ohya1960}
}
@article{Olsen1987,
  author = {John Olsen and Jim Papadopoulos},
  title = {Bicycle Dynamics: The Meaning Behind the Math},
  journal = {Bike Tech},
  year = {1987},
  pages = {13--15},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Olsen1987}
}
@mastersthesis{Ouden2011,
  author = {J. H. van den Ouden},
  title = {Inventory of bicycle motion for the design of a bicycle simulator},
  school = {Delft University of Technology},
  year = {2011},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ouden2011}
}
@inproceedings{Ovaska1998,
  author = {Ovaska, S. J. and Valiviita, S.},
  title = {Angular acceleration measurement: a review},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE IMTC/98 Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conf},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {875--880},
  __markedentry = {[moorepants:]},
  abstract = {This paper gives a review
	of sensors, methods, and algorithms available for the measurement
	of angular acceleration.
	The emphasis is in delay-sensitive, real-time applications. Although
	the angular acceleration
	can be measured indirectly using either a
	rotating angle sensor or a velocity
	sensor, the noise-amplification problem related to the differentiation
	process has motivated the efforts to develop transducers for direct
	sensing of angular acceleration.
	Direct measuring of linear acceleration
	is widely in everyday use, but the angular
	acceleration sensors, particularly those
	with unlimited rotation angle, can still be considered as emerging
	devices. Consequently, there exist two principal challenges for the
	research and development community: to develop economical and accurate
	angular accelerometers with unlimited
	rotation range, and to create wideband indirect techniques with small
	lag and high signal-to-error ratio},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ovaska1998},
  doi = {10.1109/IMTC.1998.676850}
}
@inproceedings{Owen2006,
  author = {Frank Owen and George Leone and Andrew Davol and Georg Fey},
  title = {Cross-Cultural Bicycle Design at Cal Poly and the Munich University
	of Applied Sciences},
  booktitle = {2006 International Mechanical Engineering Education Conference},
  year = {2006},
  address = {Beijing, China},
  month = {March},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Owen2006}
}
@article{Pacejka1991,
  author = {Pacejka, Hans B and Sharp, Robin S.},
  title = {SHEAR FORCE DEVELOPMENT BY PNEUMATIC TIRES IN STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS
	- A REVIEW OF MODELING ASPECTS},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {121-175},
  number = {3-4},
  abstract = {Modelling of the generation of shear forces by pneumatic tyres under
	steady state conditions is reviewed. The review is placed in a practical
	context, through reference to the uses to which models may be put
	by the vehicle dynamicist and the tyre designer. It will be of interest
	also to the student of rolling contact problems. The subject is divided
	into sections, covering physically founded models which require computation
	for their solution, physically based models which are sufficiently
	simplified to allow analytical solutions and formula based, empirical
	models. The classes are more nearly continuous than this strict division
	would imply, since approximations in obtaining analytical solutions
	may be made, empirical correction factors may be applied to analytical
	results and formula based methods may take into account tyre mechanical
	principles. Such matters are discussed in the relevant sections.
	Attention is given to the important matter of choosing model parameters
	to best represent the behaviour of a particular tyre. Conclusions
	relate to the structural and frictional mechanisms present in the
	shear force generation process, the contributions of carcass and
	tread elastic properties and of geometrical and frictional factors
	to the determination of the distributions of force through the contact
	region, the relationship between accuracy and computational load
	and the selection of methods for modelling tyre forces in a road
	vehicle dynamics context. Reference to the most pertinent literature
	in the field is made and possibilities for the further development
	of the state of the art are mentioned.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Pacejka1991},
  issn = {0042-3114},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1991GA72400001}
}
@article{Paden2009,
  author = {Brad E. Paden and Nasim Mirnateghi and Luca Gentili and Lorenzo Marconi},
  title = {Designing Nonlinear Zero Dynamics to Reject Periodic Waveforms},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {131},
  pages = {044504},
  number = {4},
  eid = {044504},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Paden2009},
  doi = {10.1115/1.3117187},
  keywords = {linear systems; nonlinear control systems; poles and zeros},
  numpages = {4},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/131/044504/1}
}
@unpublished{Papadopoulos2009,
  author = {Jim Papadopoulos},
  title = {Quantitative Conclusions in "Lords of the chainring"},
  year = {2009},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Papadopoulos2009}
}
@unpublished{Papadopoulos1987b,
  author = {Jim Papadopoulos and Andy Ruina},
  title = {Discussion of {L}e {H}\'{e}naff's Paper},
  note = {Short write up by Jim P.},
  year = {1987},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Papadopoulos1987b}
}
@unpublished{Papadopoulos1990a,
  author = {Jim M. Papadopoulos},
  title = {Governing Equations},
  note = {Lost text of Jim P.},
  year = {1990},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Papadopoulos1990a}
}
@unpublished{Papadopoulos1988,
  author = {Jim M. Papadopoulos},
  title = {A Single-Step Method of Aligning a Bicycle Frame So No Handlebar
	Torque is Required For Straight-Line Riding},
  note = {Method},
  year = {1988},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Papadopoulos1988}
}
@unpublished{Papadopoulos1988a,
  author = {Jim M. Papadopoulos},
  title = {Explaining the Coefficients},
  note = {NA},
  year = {1988},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Papadopoulos1988a}
}
@unpublished{Papadopoulos1987,
  author = {Jim M. Papadopoulos},
  title = {Bicycle Handling Experiments You Can Do},
  note = {NA},
  month = {December},
  year = {1987},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Papadopoulos1987}
}
@unpublished{Papadopoulos1987a,
  author = {Jim M. Papadopoulos},
  title = {Bicycle Steering Dynamics and Self-Stability: A Summary Report on
	Work in Progress},
  note = {NA},
  year = {1987},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Papadopoulos1987a}
}
@unpublished{Papadopoulos1987c,
  author = {Jim M. Papadopoulos},
  title = {Forces in Bicycle Pedaling},
  note = {NA},
  year = {1987},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Papadopoulos1987c}
}
@unpublished{Papadopoulos1990,
  author = {Jim M. Papadopoulos and R. Scott Hand and Andy Ruina},
  title = {Bicycle and Motorcycle Balance and Steer Dynamics},
  note = {NA},
  year = {1990},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Papadopoulos1990}
}
@inproceedings{Park2001,
  author = {Ingyu Park and Sangchul Han and Woonchul Ham},
  title = {Control algorithm for stabilization of attitute of unmanned electric
	bicycle},
  booktitle = {The Proceedings of 2001 INCOM},
  year = {2001},
  address = {Wien, Austria},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Park2001}
}
@article{Park1999,
  author = {Park, S. J and Kim, C.B. and Park, S. C.},
  title = {Anthropometric and biomechanical characteristics on body segments
	of Koreans},
  journal = {Applied Human Sciences},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {18},
  pages = {91--9},
  number = {3},
  month = {May},
  abstract = {This paper documents the physical measurements of the Korean population
	in order to construct a data base for ergonomic design. The dimension,
	volume, density, mass, and center of mass of Koreans whose ages range
	from 7 to 49 were investigated. Sixty-five male subjects and sixty-nine
	female subjects participated. Eight body segments (head with neck,
	trunk, thigh, shank, foot, upper arm, forearm and hand) were directly
	measured with a Martin-type anthropometer, and the immersion method
	was adopted to measure the volume of body segments. After this, densities
	were computed by the density equations in Drillis and Contini (1966).
	The reaction board method was employed for the measurement of the
	center of mass. Obtained data were compared with the results in the
	literature. The results in this paper showed different features on
	body segment parameters comparing with the results in the literature.
	The constructed data base can be applied to statistical guideline
	for product design, workspace design, design of clothing and tools,
	furniture design and construction of biomechanical models for Korean.
	Also, they can be extended to the application areas for Mongolian.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Park1999}
}
@unpublished{PattersonXXXX,
  author = {Bill Patterson},
  title = {Wave of the future},
  year = {XXXX},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#PattersonXXXX}
}
@book{Patterson2004,
  title = {The Lords of the Chainring},
  publisher = {W. B. Patterson},
  year = {2004},
  editor = {W. B. Patterson},
  author = {W. B. Patterson},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Patterson2004}
}
@article{Pearsall1922,
  author = {Pearsall, R. H.},
  title = {The stability of a bicycle},
  journal = {Proc. Inst. Automobile Engr.},
  year = {1922},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {395--402},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Pearsall1922}
}
@mastersthesis{Pennings1981,
  author = {Timothy J Pennings},
  title = {Mathematical modeling of bicycle dynamics with computer simulation},
  school = {University of North Dakota},
  year = {1981},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Pennings1981}
}
@article{Peterka2003,
  author = {Peterka, R.J.},
  title = {Simplifying the complexities of maintaining balance},
  journal = {Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {63 -68},
  number = {2},
  month = {March},
  abstract = {Insights are provided by simple closed-loop models of human postural
	control. In developing a quantitative model to help us understand
	the postural control system, one might be tempted to capture as much
	of the complexity as is known about each of the subsystems. However,
	this article will follow the approach of Occam's Razor. That is,
	we begin with the simplest possible representation of each of the
	subsystems and only add complexity as necessary to be consistent
	with experimental data. For example, a control model with PD control
	and a positive force feedback loop provides a better explanation
	of the low-frequency dynamic behavior than the PID control model.
	Since both models have the same number of parameters, Occam's Razor
	favors the positive force feedback model over the PID model or any
	variation on the PID model that includes additional parameters. While
	there is some experimental evidence that positive force feedback
	plays a role in some aspects of motor control its contribution to
	postural control is unknown. Our model that includes positive force
	feedback represents a quantitative hypothesis that motivates additional
	experiments to confirm, or refute the contribution of positive force
	feedback to human postural control and to investigate the dynamic
	properties of this feedback loop. An important feature clearly revealed
	by the model-based interpretation of experimental data is the ability
	of the human postural control system to alter its source of sensory
	orientation cues as environmental conditions change. Our relatively
	simple models allowed us to apply systems identification methods
	in order to estimate the relative contributions (sensory weights)
	of various sensory orientation cues in different environmental conditions
	However, our simple models do not predict how the sensory weights
	should change as a function of environmental conditions or provide
	insight into the neural mechanisms that cause these changes.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Peterka2003},
  doi = {10.1109/MEMB.2003.1195698},
  issn = {0739-5175},
  keywords = {Occam Razor;PD control;PID control model;control model;dynamic properties;environmental
	conditions;human postural control;low-frequency dynamic behavior;maintaining
	balance complexities;motor control;neural mechanisms;positive force
	feedback loop;postural control;postural control system;quantitative
	model;sensory orientation cues;sensory weights;simple closed-loop
	models;subsystems;systems identification methods;biocontrol;biomechanics;closed
	loop systems;control system analysis;force feedback;identification;mechanoception;muscle;neurophysiology;physiological
	models;three-term control;two-term control;Acceleration;Computer
	Simulation;Feedback;Homeostasis;Humans;Models, Biological;Models,
	Neurological;Muscle, Skeletal;Musculoskeletal Equilibrium;Orientation;Posture;Proprioception;Stress,
	Mechanical;Torque;Vestibular Diseases;Vestibule, Labyrinth;}
}
@article{Peterka2002,
  author = {Peterka, R. J.},
  title = {Sensorimotor Integration in Human Postural Control},
  journal = {Journal of Neurophysiology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {88},
  pages = {1097-1118},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved
	by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque
	based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular,
	and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information
	from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or
	accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system
	must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental
	conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we
	investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom
	rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes
	0.5–8°) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral
	vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was
	measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations
	of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed
	using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence
	functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response
	data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However,
	overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased
	and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude.
	“Sensory channel reweighting” could account for this nonlinear behavior
	with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus
	amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting,
	and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer
	function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided
	estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay.
	There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing
	visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as
	60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural
	stability and avoid resonant behavior, an increase in stiffness should
	be accompanied by a corresponding increase in damping. Increased
	damping was achieved primarily by decreasing the apparent time delay
	of feedback control rather than by changing the damping coefficient
	(i.e., corrective torque related to body-sway velocity). In normal
	subjects, stiffness and damping were highly correlated with body
	mass and moment of inertia, with stiffness always about 1/3 larger
	than necessary to resist the destabilizing torque due to gravity.
	The stiffness parameter in some VL subjects was larger compared with
	normal subjects, suggesting that they may use increased stiffness
	to help compensate for their loss. Overall results show that the
	simple act of standing quietly depends on a remarkably complex sensorimotor
	control system.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Peterka2002},
  eprint = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/88/3/1097.full.pdf+html},
  url = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/88/3/1097.abstract}
}
@article{Peterka2000,
  author = {Peterka, Robert J.},
  title = {Postural control model interpretation of stabilogram diffusion analysis},
  journal = {Biological Cybernetics},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {82},
  pages = {335-343},
  note = {10.1007/s004220050587},
  abstract = {Collins and De Luca [Collins JJ, De Luca CJ (1993) Exp Brain Res 95:
	308–318] introduced a new method known as stabilogram diffusion analysis
	that provides a quantitative statistical measure of the apparently
	random variations of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories recorded
	during quiet upright stance in humans. This analysis generates a
	stabilogram diffusion function (SDF) that summarizes the mean square
	COP displacement as a function of the time interval between COP comparisons.
	SDFs have a characteristic two-part form that suggests the presence
	of two different control regimes: a short-term open-loop control
	behavior and a longer-term closed-loop behavior. This paper demonstrates
	that a very simple closed-loop control model of upright stance can
	generate realistic SDFs. The model consists of an inverted pendulum
	body with torque applied at the ankle joint. This torque includes
	a random disturbance torque and a control torque. The control torque
	is a function of the deviation (error signal) between the desired
	upright body position and the actual body position, and is generated
	in proportion to the error signal, the derivative of the error signal,
	and the integral of the error signal [i.e. a proportional, integral
	and derivative (PID) neural controller]. The control torque is applied
	with a time delay representing conduction, processing, and muscle
	activation delays. Variations in the PID parameters and the time
	delay generate variations in SDFs that mimic real experimental SDFs.
	This model analysis allows one to interpret experimentally observed
	changes in SDFs in terms of variations in neural controller and time
	delay parameters rather than in terms of open-loop versus closed-loop
	behavior.},
  affiliation = {Neurological Sciences Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University,
	Portland, OR 97209, USA US US},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Peterka2000},
  issn = {0340-1200},
  issue = {4},
  keyword = {Biomedical and Life Sciences},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004220050587}
}
@article{Peterka2004,
  author = {Peterka, Robert J. and Loughlin, Patrick J.},
  title = {Dynamic Regulation of Sensorimotor Integration in Human Postural
	Control},
  journal = {Journal of Neurophysiology},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {91},
  pages = {410-423},
  number = {1},
  abstract = { Upright stance in humans is inherently unstable, requiring corrective
	action based on spatial-orientation information from sensory systems.
	One might logically predict that environments providing access to
	accurate orientation information from multiple sensory systems would
	facilitate postural stability. However, we show that, after a period
	in which access to accurate sensory information was reduced, the
	restoration of accurate information disrupted postural stability.
	In eyes-closed trials, proprioceptive information was altered by
	rotating the support surface in proportion to body sway (support
	surface "sway-referencing"). When the support surface returned to
	a level orientation, most subjects developed a transient 1-Hz body
	sway oscillation that differed significantly from the low-amplitude
	body sway typically observed during quiet stance. Additional experiments
	showed further enhancement of the 1-Hz oscillation when the surface
	transitioned from a sway-referenced to a reverse sway-referenced
	motion. Oscillatory behavior declined with repetition of trials,
	suggesting a learning effect. A simple negative feedback-control
	model of the postural control system predicted the occurrence of
	this 1-Hz oscillation in conditions where too much corrective torque
	is generated in proportion to body sway. Model simulations were used
	to distinguish between two alternative explanations for the excessive
	corrective torque generation. Simulation results favor an explanation
	based on the dynamic reweighting of sensory contributions to postural
	control rather than a load-compensation mechanism that scales torque
	in proportion to a fixed combination of sensory-orientation information.
	},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Peterka2004},
  doi = {10.1152/jn.00516.2003},
  eprint = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/91/1/410.full.pdf+html},
  url = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/91/1/410.abstract}
}
@inproceedings{Peterson2009,
  author = {Dale L. Peterson and Mont Hubbard},
  title = {General Steady Turning of a Benchmark Bicycle Model},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of IDETC/MSNDC 2009 the ASME 2009 International Design
	Engineering Technical Conferences \& 7th International Conference
	on Multibody Systems, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control},
  year = {2009},
  number = {DETC2009/MSNDC-86145},
  abstract = {We analyze general steady turns of a benchmark bicycle model in the
	case of nonzero applied steer torque. In a general steady turn, the
	lean and steer angles are constant, the velocity of the bicycle must
	ensure moment balance about the contact line, and some torque must
	be applied to maintain the constant steer angle. We identify two
	boundaries in lean–steer plane: first, the region of kinematic feasibility,
	and second, the region where steady turns are feasible. In the region
	of feasible steady turns, we present level curves of these steady
	turning velocities and steer torques. Additionally, we present level
	curves of mechanical trail in the lean–steer plane.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Peterson2009},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@inproceedings{Peterson2008,
  author = {Peterson, Dale L. and Hubbard, Mont},
  title = {Analysis of the Holonomic Constraint in the Whipple Bicycle Model,
	Paper 267},
  booktitle = {The Engineering of Sport 7},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {623--631},
  address = {Biarritz, France},
  month = {June},
  organization = {ISEA},
  publisher = {Springer},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Peterson2008},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@inproceedings{Peterson2008a,
  author = {Dale L. Peterson and Mont Hubbard},
  title = {Yaw rate and velocity tracking control of a hands-free bicycle},
  booktitle = {International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition},
  year = {2008},
  address = {Boston},
  month = {October},
  organization = {ASME},
  abstract = {The control of a bicycle has been well studied when a steer torque
	is used as the control input. Less has been done to investigate the
	control of a hands free bicycle through the rider’s lean relative
	to the bicycle frame. In this work, we extend a verified benchmark
	bicycle model to include a rider with the ability to lean in and
	out of the plane of the bicycle frame. A multi-input multi-output
	LQR state feedback controller is designed with the control objective
	being the tracking of a reference yaw rate and rear wheel angular
	velocity through the use of rider lean torque and rear wheel (pedaling)
	torque. The LQR controller is tested on the nonlinear model and numerical
	simulation results are presented. Conclusions regarding the required
	lean angle of the rider relative to the bicycle frame necessary to
	execute a steady turn are made, as well as observations of the effects
	of right half plane zeros in the transfer function from rider lean
	torque to yaw rate.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Peterson2008a},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle}
}
@article{Peterson2010,
  author = {Dale L. Peterson and Jason K. Moore and Danique Fintelman and Mont
	Hubbard},
  title = {Low-power, modular, wireless dynamic measurement of bicycle motion},
  journal = {Procedia Engineering},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {2949--2954},
  number = {2},
  note = {The Engineering of Sport 8 - Engineering Emotion},
  abstract = {A low power, light-weight, and modular system of sensors and data
	acquisition hardware was developed to measure the configuration,
	velocities, and accelerations of a bicycle. Measurement of angular
	velocity of the bicycle frame, acceleration of three points fixed
	to the frame, steer angle, and wheel spin rates is implemented. Measurements
	will be compared with dynamic models of the bicycle and human rider
	in order to assess model fidelity. In this way, we hope to (1) better
	understand how humans control bicycles, and (2) pave the way for
	bicycle design improvements based on quantitative and relevant dynamic
	measurements.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Peterson2010},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2010.04.093},
  issn = {1877-7058},
  keywords = {Bicycle dynamics},
  tags = {sbl,bicycle},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B9869-508WXJK-39/2/2a6855e265dc84c04b2e53af29169e26}
}
@article{Pick2008,
  author = {Pick, A.J. and Cole, D.J.},
  title = {A mathematical model of driver steering control including neuromuscular
	dynamics},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {130},
  pages = {1-9},
  number = {3},
  month = {May},
  abstract = {A mathematical driver model is introduced in order to explain the
	driver steering behavior observed during successive double lane-change
	maneuvers. The model consists of a linear quadratic regulator path-following
	controller coupled to a neuromuscular system (NMS). The NMS generates
	the steering wheel angle demanded by the path-following controller.
	The model demonstrates that reflex action and muscle cocontraction
	improve the steer angle control and thus increase the path-following
	accuracy. Muscle cocontraction does not have the destabilizing effect
	of reflex action, but there is an energy cost. A cost function is
	used to calculate optimum values of cocontraction that are similar
	to those observed in the experiments. The observed reduction in cocontraction
	with experience of the vehicle is explained by the driver learning
	to predict the steering torque feedback. The observed robustness
	of the path-following control to unexpected changes in steering torque
	feedback arises from the reflex action and cocontraction stiffness
	of the NMS. The findings contribute to the understanding of driver-vehicle
	dynamic interaction. Further work is planned to improve the model;
	the aim is to enable the optimum design of steering feedback early
	in the vehicle development process.},
  address = {USA},
  affiliation = {Pick, A.J.; Cole, D.J.; Dept. of Eng., Cambridge Univ., Cambridge,
	UK.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Pick2008},
  identifying-codes = {[10.1115/1.2837452]},
  issn = {0022-0434},
  keywords = {Practical, Theoretical or Mathematical/ biomechanics; closed loop
	systems; control system synthesis; driver information systems; feedback;
	linear quadratic control; neurophysiology; road vehicles; robust
	control; steering systems; torque control/ mathematical model; driver
	steering angle control; neuromuscular dynamics; double lane-change
	maneuver; linear quadratic regulator; reflex action; muscle cocontraction;
	destabilizing effect; cost function; road vehicle; torque feedback;
	driver-vehicle dynamic interaction; optimum design; path-following
	controller; closed loop system; robust control/ C3360B Road-traffic
	system control; C1330 Optimal control; C3120F Mechanical variables
	control; C1310 Control system analysis and synthesis methods; C1320
	Stability in control theory},
  language = {English},
  number-of-references = {25},
  publication-type = {J},
  publisher = {ASME},
  type = {Journal Paper},
  unique-id = {INSPEC:9982342}
}
@inproceedings{Piedboeuf1993,
  author = {Piedboeuf, J.-C.},
  title = {Kane's equations or Jourdain's principle?},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {1471-1474 vol.2},
  month = {August},
  abstract = {This paper discusses the relationships between Kane's equations and
	Jourdain's principle. In 1961 Kane published a paper: “Dynamics
	of Nonholonomic Systems”. The method detailed in that paper, since
	named Kane's equations, has been popular in the modelling of mechanical
	systems especially in robotics. It was often stated that Kane's equations
	were a novel way of modelling. However, in 1909, Jourdain published
	a paper titled “Note on an analogue of Gauss' principle of least
	constraint” where he established the principle of virtual power
	that is equivalent to Kane's equations},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Piedboeuf1993},
  doi = {10.1109/MWSCAS.1993.343389},
  journal = {Circuits and Systems, 1993., Proceedings of the 36th Midwest Symposium
	on},
  keywords = {modelling, robot dynamicsGauss' principle, Jourdain's principle, Kane's
	equations, least constraint, mechanical systems modelling, nonholonomic
	systems, robotics, virtual power}
}
@inproceedings{Pierini2008,
  author = {M. Pierini and N. Baldanzini and C. Brenna and I. Symeonidis and
	E. Schuller and S. Peldschus},
  title = {Development of a Virtual Rider},
  booktitle = {Proceeding of ISMA2008},
  year = {2008},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Pierini2008}
}
@article{Plochl2012,
  author = {Plöchl, Manfred and Edelmann, Johannes and Angrosch, Bernhard and
	Ott, Christoph},
  title = {On the wobble mode of a bicycle},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {50},
  pages = {415-429},
  number = {3},
  abstract = { Wheel shimmy and wobble are well-known dynamic phenomena at automobiles,
	aeroplanes and motorcycles. In particular, wobble at the motorcycle
	is an (unstable) eigenmode with oscillations of the wheel about the
	steering axis, and it is no surprise that unstable bicycle wobble
	is perceived unpleasant or may be dangerous, if not controlled by
	the rider in time. Basic research on wobble at motorcycles within
	the last decades has revealed a better understanding of the sudden
	onset of wobble, and the complex relations between parameters affecting
	wobble have been identified. These fundamental findings have been
	transferred to bicycles. As mass distribution and inertial properties,
	rider influence and lateral compliances of tyre and frame differ
	at bicycle and motorcycle, models to represent wobble at motorcycles
	have to prove themselves, when applied to bicycles. For that purpose
	numerical results are compared with measurements from test runs,
	and parametric influences on the stability of the wobble mode at
	bicycles have been evolved. All numerical analysis and measurements
	are based on a specific test bicycle equipped with steering angle
	sensor, wheel-speed sensor, global positioning system (GPS) 3-axis
	accelerometer, and 3-axis angular velocity gyroscopic sensor. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Plochl2012},
  doi = {10.1080/00423114.2011.594164},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423114.2011.594164},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423114.2011.594164}
}
@article{Popov2010,
  author = {Popov, A. A. and Rowell, S. and Meijaard, J. P.},
  title = {A review on motorcycle and rider modelling for steering control},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {48},
  pages = {775-792},
  number = {6},
  abstract = {The paper is a review of the state of knowledge and understanding
	of steering control in motorcycles and of the existing rider models.
	Motorcycles are well known to have specific instability characteristics,
	which can detrimentally affect the rider's control, and as such a
	suitable review of these characteristics is covered in the first
	instance. Next, early models which mostly treat riding as a regulatory
	task are considered. A rider applies control based on sensory information
	available to him/her, predominantly from visual perception of a target
	path. The review therefore extends to cover also the knowledge and
	research findings into aspects of road preview control. Here, some
	more emphasis is placed on recent applications of optimal control
	and model predictive control to the riding task and the motorcycle–rider
	interaction. The review concludes with some open questions which
	naturally present a scope for further study.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Popov2010},
  doi = {10.1080/00423110903033393},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423110903033393},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423110903033393}
}
@phdthesis{Prem1983,
  author = {Hans Prem},
  title = {Motorcycle Rider Skill Assessment},
  school = {University of Melbourne},
  year = {1983},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Prem1983}
}
@article{Provost2008,
  author = {Meghan P. Provost and Nikolaus F. Troje and Vernon L. Quinsey},
  title = {Short-term mating strategies and attraction to masculinity in point-light
	walkers},
  journal = {Evolution and Human Behavior},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {65 - 69},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {Strategic pluralism suggests that women engage in short-term sexual
	relationships when the benefits to doing so outweigh the costs. We
	investigated attraction to indicators of good genes (namely, masculinity
	as demonstrated by point-light walkers) in women varying in menstrual
	cycle status and sociosexual orientation. When women are fertile,
	they have the ability to gain genetic benefits from a male partner
	and should also be attracted to high levels of masculinity in men
	as a signal of genetic benefits. Sociosexual orientation is an individual
	difference that indicates openness to short-term mating and, thus,
	should influence aspects of mating strategy. Women with an unrestricted
	sociosexual orientation, as compared to women with a restricted sociosexual
	orientation, are more likely to engage in short-term relationships
	and obtain fewer nongenetic resources from their mates. Thus, they
	should place heavy emphasis on male masculinity as a sign of genetic
	benefits available from their mates. In this study, women indicated
	the walker most attractive to them on a constructed continuum of
	male and female point-light walkers. In Study 1, fertile women, as
	compared to nonfertile women, showed a greater attraction to masculinity.
	In Study 2, women demonstrated a strong positive relationship between
	sociosexuality and attraction to masculinity.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Provost2008},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.07.007},
  issn = {1090-5138},
  keywords = {Sociosexuality},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T6H-4R11KFM-2/2/a9eb4782cf01e0661476741d65375b42}
}
@mastersthesis{Psiaki1979,
  author = {Psiaki, Mark},
  title = {Bicycle stability: A mathematical and numerical analysis},
  school = {Princeton University},
  year = {1979},
  type = {BS Thesis},
  address = {Princeton, {NJ}},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Psiaki1979}
}
@article{Pucher2008,
  author = {John Pucher and Ralph Buehler},
  title = {Cycling for Everyone: Lessons from Europe},
  journal = {Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research
	Board},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {2074},
  pages = {58-65},
  month = {November},
  abstract = {This paper investigates how bicycling can be promoted as a safe and
	feasible means of transport for everyone and for all trip purposes.
	The policies and programs needed to encourage a broad spectrum of
	social groups to cycle are the same policies and programs that encourage
	high overall levels of cycling: extensive systems of separate cycling
	facilities, intersection modifications and priority bicycle traffic
	signals, traffic calming of neighborhoods, safe and convenient bike
	parking, coordination and integration of cycling with public transport,
	traffic education and training for both cyclists and motorists, and
	traffic laws that favor cyclists and pedestrians. To show how this
	multifaceted, coordinated approach actually works, we focus in this
	paper on cycling trends and policies in the Netherlands, Denmark,
	and Germany. We supplement our national level comparative analysis
	with case studies of large and small cities in each country.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Pucher2008}
}
@article{Pucher2008a,
  author = {Pucher, John and Buehler, Ralph},
  title = {Making Cycling Irresistible: Lessons from The Netherlands, Denmark
	and Germany},
  journal = {Transport Reviews},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {495-528},
  number = {4},
  month = {July},
  abstract = {This article shows how the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany have made
	bicycling a safe, convenient and practical way to get around their
	cities. The analysis relies on national aggregate data as well as
	case studies of large and small cities in each country. The key to
	achieving high levels of cycling appears to be the provision of separate
	cycling facilities along heavily travelled roads and at intersections,
	combined with traffic calming of most residential neighbourhoods.
	Extensive cycling rights of way in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany
	are complemented by ample bike parking, full integration with public
	transport, comprehensive traffic education and training of both cyclists
	and motorists, and a wide range of promotional events intended to
	generate enthusiasm and wide public support for cycling. In addition
	to their many pro-bike policies and programmes, the Netherlands,
	Denmark and Germany make driving expensive as well as inconvenient
	in central cities through a host of taxes and restrictions on car
	ownership, use and parking. Moreover, strict land-use policies foster
	compact, mixed-use developments that generate shorter and thus more
	bikeable trips. It is the coordinated implementation of this multi-faceted,
	mutually reinforcing set of policies that best explains the success
	of these three countries in promoting cycling. For comparison, the
	article portrays the marginal status of cycling in the UK and the
	USA, where only about 1% of trips are by bike.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Pucher2008a},
  url = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/01441640701806612}
}
@inproceedings{Rankin2009,
  author = {James Rankin and Bernd Krauskopf and Mark Lowenberg and Etienne Coetzee},
  title = {Operational Parameter Study of Aircraft Ground Dynamics},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical
	Conferences \& Computers and Information in Engineering Conference},
  year = {2009},
  address = {San Diego, California, USA},
  month = {August},
  organization = {ASME},
  abstract = {The dynamics of passenger aircraft on the ground are influenced by
	the nonlinear characteristics of several components, including geometric
	nonlinearities, the aerodynamics and interactions at the tyre-ground
	interface. We present a fully parametrised mathematical model of
	a typical passenger aircraft that includes all relevant nonlinear
	effects. The full equations of motion are derived from first principles
	in terms of forces and moments acting on a rigid airframe, and they
	include implementations of the local models of individual components.
	The overall model has been developed from and validated against an
	existing industry-tested SimMechanics model. The key advantage of
	the mathematical model is that it allows for comprehensive studies
	of solutions and their stability with methods from dynamical systems
	theory, in particular, the powerful tool of numerical continuation.
	As a concrete example, we present a bifurcation study of how fixed-radius
	turning solutions depend on the aircraft’s steering angle and centre
	of gravity position. These results are represented in a compact form
	as surfaces of solutions, on which we identify regions of stable
	turning and regions of laterally unstable solutions. The boundaries
	between these regions are computed directly and they allow us to
	determine ranges of parameter values for safe operation. The robustness
	of these results under the variation of an additional parameter,
	specifically, the engine thrust is investigated. Qualitative changes
	in the structure of the solutions are identified and explained. Overall
	our results give new insight into the possible turning dynamics of
	the aircraft in dependence on three parameters of operational relevance.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rankin2009}
}
@article{Redfield2005,
  author = {Redfield, R},
  title = {Large motion mountain biking dynamics},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {845-865},
  number = {12},
  month = {December},
  abstract = {A bond graph model of a mountain bike and rider is created to develop
	baseline predictions for the performance of mountain bikes during
	large excursion maneuvers such as drops, jumps, crashes and rough
	terrain riding. The model assumes planar dynamics, a hard-tail (front
	suspension only) bicycle and a rider fixed to the bicycle. An algorithm
	is developed to allow tracking of a virtual tire-ground contact point
	for events that separate the wheels from the ground. This model would
	be most applicable to novice mountain bikers who maintain a nearly
	rigid relationship between their body and the bicycle as opposed
	to experienced riders who are versed in controlling the bicycle independent
	of the body. Simulations of a steep drop are performed for various
	initial conditions to qualitatively validate the predictions of the
	model. Results from this model are to be compared to experimental
	data and more complex models in later research, particularly models
	including a separate rider. ne overarching goals of the research
	are to examine and understand the dynamics and control of interactions
	between a cyclist and mountain bike. Specific goals are to understand
	the improvement in performance afforded by an experienced rider,
	to hypothesize human control algorithms that allow riders to perform
	manoeuvres well and safely, to predict structural bike and body forces
	from these maneuvers and to quantify performance differences between
	hard-tail and full suspension bicycles.},
  address = {325 CHESTNUT ST, SUITE 800, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106 USA},
  affiliation = {Redfield, R (Reprint Author), USAF Acad, Dept Mech Engn, Colorado
	Springs, CO 80840 USA. USAF Acad, Dept Mech Engn, Colorado Springs,
	CO 80840 USA.},
  author-email = {rob.redfield@usafa.af.mil},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Redfield2005},
  doc-delivery-number = {992UN},
  doi = {10.1080/00423110412331289844},
  issn = {0042-3114},
  journal-iso = {Veh. Syst. Dyn.},
  keywords = {mountain biking; vehicle dynamics; suspension systems; bond graph
	modelling},
  keywords-plus = {BICYCLE SUSPENSION SYSTEMS; MODEL},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {11},
  publisher = {TAYLOR \& FRANCIS INC},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Mechanical},
  times-cited = {0}
}
@article{Redfield1986a,
  author = {Rob Redfield and M.L. Hull},
  title = {Prediction of pedal forces in bicycling using optimization methods},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {523 - 540},
  number = {7},
  abstract = {The bicycle-rider system is modeled as a planar five-bar linkage with
	pedal forces and pedal dynamics as input. The pedal force profile
	input is varied, maintaining constant average bicycle power, in order
	to obtain the optimal pedal force profile that minimizes two cost
	functions. One cost function is based on joint moments and the other
	is based on muscle stresses. Predicted (optimal) pedal profiles as
	well as joint moment time histories are compared to representative
	real data to examine cost function appropriateness. Both cost functions
	offer reasonable predictions of pedal forces. The muscle stress cost
	function, however, better predicts joint moments. Predicted muscle
	activity also correlates well with myolectric data. The factors that
	lead to effective (i.e. low cost) pedalling are examined. Pedalling
	effectiveness is found to be a complex function of pedal force vector
	orientation and muscle mechanics.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Redfield1986a},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(86)90126-0},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C35T21-7Y/2/9fbfc74d828bc6642499b7370b29c4f3}
}
@article{Redfield1986,
  author = {Rob Redfield and M. L. Hull},
  title = {On the relation between joint moments and pedalling rates at constant
	power in bicycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {317 - 329},
  number = {4},
  abstract = {Joint moments are of interest because they bear some relation to muscular
	effort and hence rider performance. The general objective of this
	study is to explore the relation between joint moments and pedalling
	rate (i.e. cadence). Joint moments are computed by modelling the
	leg-bicycle system as a five-bar linkage constrained to plane motion.
	Using dynamometer pedal force data and potentiometer crank and pedal
	position data, system equations are solved on a computer to produce
	moments at the ankle, knee and hip joints. Cadence and pedal forces
	are varied inversely to maintain constant power. Results indicate
	that average joint moments vary considerably with changes in cadence.
	Both hip and knee joints show an average moment which is minimum
	near 105 rotations min-1 for cruising cycling. It appears that an
	optimum rotations min-1 can be determined from a mechanical approach
	for any given power level and bicycle-rider geometry.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Redfield1986},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(86)90008-4},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4BYSJ4S-136/2/1f07ff1595be0ba1cd90275a041f27a6}
}
@article{Reid1981,
  author = {Reid, L. and Solowka, E.},
  title = {A systematic study of driver steering behaviour},
  journal = {Ergonomics},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {447-462},
  number = {6},
  abstract = {A sequence of driving tasks has been carried out in a driving simulator.
	The initial tests represented lane tracking along a serpentine roadway
	and were employed to verify the operation of the simulator and the
	ability of a computer algorithm to fit linear driver models to experimental
	data. A second series of tests involved an obstacle avoidance manoeuvre
	in both a car and a truck. These latter simulator runs were augmented
	by field trials in an automobile during which driver eye point-ofregard
	data were recorded. Eye point-of-regard results from both simulator
	and field trials were compared and employed in formulating a simple
	driver model for the obstacle avoidance manoeuvre. The results from
	a preliminary fitting of this model to the experimental data are
	reported. It was foundthat a single linear model of the driver's
	dynamic characteristics can be used to represent adequately all of
	the driver response data measured in the present study.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Reid1981}
}
@techreport{Reiss1968,
  author = {Reiss, M. L. and J. A. Haley},
  title = {Motorcycle Saftey},
  institution = {Airborne Instruments Lab, Final Report},
  year = {1968},
  month = {May},
  note = {Contract FH-11-6543},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Reiss1968}
}
@techreport{Rice1976a,
  author = {Roy S. Rice},
  title = {Bicycle Dynamics - Simplified Dynamic Stability Analyses},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1976},
  number = {ZN-5921-V-2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1976a}
}
@techreport{Rice1975,
  author = {Rice, R. S.},
  title = {Accident-Avoidance Capabilities of Motorcycles},
  institution = {Calspan},
  year = {1975},
  number = {ZN-5571-V-1},
  month = {June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1975}
}
@techreport{Rice1975a,
  author = {Roy S. Rice},
  title = {Rake-Trail Offset},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1975},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1975a}
}
@techreport{Rice1974,
  author = {Roy S. Rice},
  title = {A note on design criteria for bicycle stability in terms of front
	end geometry},
  institution = {Calspan},
  year = {1974},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1974}
}
@techreport{Rice1974a,
  author = {R. S. Rice},
  title = {Bicycle Dynamics - Simplified State Response Characteristics and
	Stability Indices},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1974},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1974a}
}
@article{Rice1971,
  author = {Rice, R. S.},
  title = {Are High-Rise Bikes Safe?},
  journal = {Traffic Safety},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {8-9},
  number = {1},
  month = {January},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1971}
}
@techreport{Rice1975b,
  author = {Roy S. Rice and James A. Davis and Dennis T. Kunkel},
  title = {Accident-Avoidance Capabilities of Motorcycles - Technical Report},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1975},
  number = {ZN-5571-V-1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1975b}
}
@techreport{Rice1975c,
  author = {Roy S. Rice and James A. Davis and Dennis T. Kunkel},
  title = {Accident-Avoidance Capabilities of Motorcycles - Appendices},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1975},
  number = {ZN-5571-V-2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1975c}
}
@techreport{Rice1976,
  author = {Rice, R. S. and D. T. Kunkel},
  title = {Accident-Avoidance Capabilities of Motorcycles: Lane Change Maneuver
	Simulation and Full Scale Tests},
  institution = {Calspan},
  year = {1976},
  number = {ZN-5899-V-1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1976}
}
@techreport{Rice1972,
  author = {Rice, R. S. and {Roland Jr.}, R. D.},
  title = {An Evaulation of the Safety Performance of Tricycles and Minibikes},
  institution = {Calspan Corp.},
  year = {1972},
  number = {ZN-5144-K-1},
  month = {November},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1972}
}
@techreport{Rice1972a,
  author = {Rice, R. S. and {Roland Jr.}, R. D.},
  title = {A Supplement To An Evaulation of the Safety Performance of Tricycles
	and Minibikes},
  institution = {Calspan Corp.},
  year = {1972},
  number = {ZN-5144-K-1},
  month = {November},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1972a}
}
@techreport{Rice1970,
  author = {Roy S. Rice and R. Douglas Roland},
  title = {An Evaluation of the Performance and Handling Qualities of Bicycles},
  institution = {Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory},
  year = {1970},
  type = {Calspan Report},
  number = {VJ-2888-K},
  month = {April},
  note = {prepared for the National Commission on Product Safety},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rice1970},
  keywords = {bicycle}
}
@inproceedings{Roe1991,
  author = {Roe, G.E. and Thorpe, T.E.},
  title = {Motorcycle instability on undulating road surfaces},
  booktitle = {91 Small Engine Technol Conf Proc},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {685-693},
  month = {October},
  publisher = {Soc Of Automotive Engineers Of Japan},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Roe1991}
}
@techreport{Roland1971,
  author = {{Roland Jr.}, R. Douglas and Massing, Daniel E.},
  title = {A Digital Computer Simulation of Bicycle Dynamics},
  institution = {Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc.},
  year = {1971},
  type = {Calspan Report},
  number = {YA-3063-K-1},
  address = {Buffalo, NY, 14221},
  month = {June},
  note = {Prepared for Schwinn Bicycle Company, Chicago, IL 60639},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Roland1971}
}
@article{Roland2005,
  author = {Elizabeth S. Roland and Maury L. Hull and Susan M. Stover},
  title = {Design and demonstration of a dynamometric horseshoe for measuring
	ground reaction loads of horses during racing conditions},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {2102 - 2112},
  number = {10},
  abstract = {Because musculoskeletal injuries to racehorses are common, instrumentation
	for the study of factors (e.g. track surface), which affect the ground
	reaction loads in horses during racing conditions, would be useful.
	The objectives of the work reported by this paper were to (1) design
	and construct a novel dynamometric horseshoe that is capable of measuring
	the complete ground reaction loading during racing conditions, (2)
	characterize static and dynamic measurement errors, and (3) demonstrate
	the usefulness of the instrument by collecting example data during
	the walk, trot, canter, and gallop for a single subject. Using electrical
	resistance strain gages, a dynamometric horseshoe was designed and
	constructed to measure the complete ground reaction force and moment
	vectors and the center of pressure. To mimic the load transfer surface
	of the hoof, the shape of the surface contacting the ground was similar
	to that of the solar surface of the hoof. Following static calibration,
	the measurement accuracy was determined. The root mean squared errors
	(RMSE) were 3% of full scale for the force component normal to the
	hoof and 9% for force components in the plane of the hoof. The dynamic
	calibration determined that the natural frequency with the full weight
	of a typical horse was 1744 Hz. Example data were collected during
	walking on a ground surface and during trotting, cantering, and galloping
	on a treadmill. The instrument successfully measured the complete
	ground reaction load during all four gaits. Consequently the dynamometric
	horseshoe is useful for studying factors, which affect ground reaction
	loads during racing conditions.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Roland2005},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.08.024},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4DTKJMJ-1/2/e74316bf09a50941992131056e87684f}
}
@techreport{Roland1972,
  author = {R.D. Roland and J.P. Lynch},
  title = {Bicycle Dynamics Tire Characteristics and Rider Modeling},
  institution = {Cornell Aeronautical Labaratory, Inc.},
  year = {1972},
  type = {Calspan Report},
  number = {YA-3063-K-2},
  address = {Buffalo, NY, USA},
  month = {March},
  note = {prepared for the Schwinn Bicycle Company},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Roland1972}
}
@article{Roland1973a,
  author = {Roland, R. D.},
  title = {Computer Simulation of Bicycle Dynamics},
  journal = {Mechanics and Sports},
  year = {1973},
  note = {ASME},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Roland1973a}
}
@inproceedings{Roland1973b,
  author = {Roland, R. D.},
  title = {Simulation Study of Motorcycle Stability at High Speed},
  booktitle = {Second International Congress on Automotive Safety},
  year = {1973},
  address = {San Francisco},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Roland1973b}
}
@inproceedings{Roland1973d,
  author = {R. Douglas Roland},
  title = {Motorcycle and Recreational Vehicle Safety},
  booktitle = {Second International Congress on Automotive Safety},
  year = {1973},
  address = {San Francisco, California, USA},
  month = {July},
  abstract = {A comprehensive di.gital computer simulation of a two-wheel vehicle
	and rider has been developed and is being used to study motorcycle
	stability and handling. The simulation is based on a nonlinear mathematical
	model with eight degrees of freedom, including steer and rider lean.
	Tire side force and aligning torque as nonlinear functions of slip
	angle, camber angle and vertical load, aerodynamic drag, pitching
	moment and steering torque, steering damping, and gyroscopic effects
	of the engine and wheels are modeled as well as fork rake angle,
	steering trail, and the basic physical characteristics of the motorcycle
	frame, steering assembly, and rider. These parameters are input data
	to the computer simulation which produces output in the form of time
	histories of the motion variables of the vehicle. The two-wheel vehicle
	simulation has been validated by comparison with experimental tests
	using an instrumented vehicle. A combined analytical and experimental
	research program has been conducted as a coordinated effort by Calspan
	Corporation and the Harley-Davidson Motor Company, Inc. to study
	the weave instability phenomenon which can occur in motorcycles at
	high speed. "Speedman' s wobble", as it has been called, is characterized
	by coupled steer-roll-yaw motions of the vehicle and has long been
	recognized by theoretical dynamicists. The influence of several motorcycle
	characteristics on weave instability have been evaluated in the context
	of total system performance by simulating the disturbance-response
	behavior at high speed.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Roland1973d}
}
@techreport{Roland1973c,
  author = {R. D. Roland and D. T. Kunkel},
  title = {Motorcycle Dynamics, The Effects of Design on High Speed Weave},
  institution = {Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory},
  year = {1973},
  type = {Calspan Report},
  number = {ZN-5259-K-1},
  month = {May},
  note = {prepared for the Harley-Davidson Motor Company, Inc.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Roland1973c}
}
@techreport{Roland1973,
  author = {Roland, R. D. and R. S. Rice},
  title = {Bicycle Dynamics, Ride Guidance Modeling and Disturbance Response},
  institution = {Calspan Corporation},
  year = {1973},
  type = {Calspan Report},
  number = {ZS-5157-K-1},
  month = {April},
  note = {prepared for the Schwinn Bicycle Company},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Roland1973}
}
@inproceedings{Rosales2000,
  author = {Rosales, R. and Sclaroff, S.},
  title = {Specialized mappings and the estimation of human body pose from a
	single image},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop on Human Motion (HUMO'00)},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {19-24},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rosales2000},
  doi = {10.1109/HUMO.2000.897366},
  journal = {Human Motion, 2000. Proceedings. Workshop on},
  keywords = {computer vision, image recognition, learning (artificial intelligence),
	maximum likelihood estimation, probabilitySpecialized Mappings Architecture,
	articulated body pose, expectation maximization, feedback matching
	function, forward mapping functions, human body pose esimation, maximum
	likelihood estimation, monocular images, nonlinear supervised learning
	architecture, probabilistic model}
}
@article{Routh1899,
  author = {Routh, G. R. R.},
  title = {On the Motion of a Bicycle},
  journal = {The Messenger of Mathematics},
  year = {1899},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {151--169},
  number = {4--5},
  month = {April},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Routh1899}
}
@article{Rowe1998,
  author = {Rowe, T. and Hull, M.L. and Wang, E.L.},
  title = {A pedal dynamometer for off-road bicycling},
  journal = {Transactions of the ASME. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {120},
  pages = {160-4},
  number = {1},
  month = {February},
  abstract = {Describes the design and accuracy evaluation of a dynamometric pedal,
	which measures the 2 pedal force components in the plane of the bicycle.
	To realize a design that could be used during actual off-road cycling,
	a popular clipless pedal available commercially was modified so that
	both the form and the function of the original design were maintained.
	To measure the load components of interest, the pedal spindle was
	replaced with a spindle fixed to the pedal body and instrumented
	with 8 strain gages connected into 2 Wheatstone bridge circuits.
	The new spindle is supported by bearings in the crank arm. Static
	calibration and a subsequent accuracy check revealed root mean square
	errors of less than 1 percent full scale (FS) when only the force
	components of interest were applied. Application of unmeasured load
	components created an error less than 2 percent FS. The natural frequency
	with half the weight of a 75 kgf person standing on the pedal was
	greater than 135 Hz. These performance capabilities make the dynamometer
	suitable for measuring either pedaling loads due to the rider's muscular
	action or inertial loads due to surface-induced acceleration. To
	demonstrate this suitability, sample pedal load data are presented
	both for steady-state ergometer cycling and coasting over a rough
	surface while standing.},
  address = {USA},
  affiliation = {Rowe, T.; Hull, M.L.; Dept. of Mech. Eng., California Univ., Davis,
	CA, USA.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rowe1998},
  identifying-codes = {[A1998-10-8780-023; B1998-05-7510-044],[0148-0731/98/\$3.00],[0148-0731(199802)120:1L.160:PDRB;1-U]},
  issn = {0148-0731},
  keywords = {Practical, Experimental/ biological techniques; biomechanics; dynamometers;
	force measurement/ pedal dynamometer; off-road bicycling; dynamometric
	pedal; accuracy evaluation; force components; clipless pedal; load
	components measurement; unmeasured load components; natural frequency;
	steady-state ergometer cycling; coasting over rough surface; standing;
	Wheatstone bridge circuits; bearings; crank arm; static calibration;
	muscular action; inertial loads; surface-induced acceleration; 135
	Hz/ A8780 Biophysical instrumentation and techniques; A8745D Physics
	of body movements; B7510 Biomedical measurement and imaging; B7320G
	Mechanical variables measurement/ frequency 1.35E+02 Hz},
  language = {English},
  number-of-references = {10},
  publication-type = {J},
  publisher = {ASME},
  type = {Journal Paper},
  unique-id = {INSPEC:5893487}
}
@inproceedings{Rowell2007,
  author = {Stuart Rowell and Atanas A. Popov and Jacob P. Meijaard},
  title = {Model predictive control techniques for motorcycle rider control},
  booktitle = {Advances in Automotive Control},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {Model Predictive Control techniques have been applied to the modelling
	of a motorcycle rider, believed to offer more realistic representation
	of the riding strategy compared with previous methods, notably Optimal
	Control. The results from the Model Predictive Control model have
	been compared with the Optimal Control results, showing good similarities
	and also some notable differences. The results of the application
	of Model Predictive Control techniques to the modelling of a motorcycle
	rider suggest that the approach has wider applicability to rider
	modelling, and allows greater scope for the definition of the rider's
	control approach. Notably, for limited rider preview, shortcomings
	using the Optimal Control approach are overcome using the Model Predictive
	Control method. Furthermore, the approach is believed to more accurately
	reflect the control actions taken by a human motorcycle rider.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Rowell2007},
  doi = {10.3182/20070820-3-US-2918.00077}
}
@article{Ruby1993,
  author = {Patricia Ruby and M.L Hull},
  title = {Response of intersegmental knee loads to foot/pedal platform degrees
	of freedom in cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {1327 - 1340},
  number = {11},
  abstract = {The hypothesis tested in this article was that the three-dimensional
	intersegmental knee loads would be reduced in cycling by foot/pedal
	platforms which permitted relative motion between the foot and pedal.
	To test this hypothesis, pedal load and lower limb kinematic data
	were collected from 11 subjects who pedaled with four foot/pedal
	platforms mounted on a six-load-component dynamometer. One of the
	four platforms did not allow any relative foot/pedal movement while
	the other three permitted either medial/lateral translation, adduction/abduction
	rotation or inversion/eversion rotation. Three-dimensional intersegmental
	knee loads were computed for each of the four platforms using a previously
	reported biomechanical model. A number of quantities describing each
	of the intersegmental knee load components was computed and compared
	using analysis of variance techniques. The key results were that
	the medial/lateral translation platform did not cause significant
	differences in intersegmental knee load quantities relative to those
	for the fixed platform. However, both of the platforms permitting
	rotations significantly reduced many but did not significantly increase
	any intersegmental knee load quantities. Of these two platforms,
	the adduction/abduction platform significantly reduced both the axial
	and varus/valgus knee moments while the inversion/eversion platform
	significantly reduced only varus/valgus moments. These results have
	application to bicycle pedal design where the goal is to reduce intersegmental
	knee loads, hence possibly alleviating overuse knee injuries.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ruby1993},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(93)90356-J},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C06GH8-Y/2/fd66005ce6c1b9c288b1fe932197b93c}
}
@article{Ruby1992a,
  author = {Patricia Ruby and M.L. Hull and David Hawkins},
  title = {Three-dimensional knee joint loading during seated cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {41 - 53},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {The hypothesis which motivated the work reported in this article was
	that neglecting pure moments developed between the foot and pedal
	during cycling leads to a substantial error in computing axial and
	varus/valgus moments at the knee. To test this hypothesis, a mathematical
	procedure was developed for computing the three-dimensional knee
	loads using three-dimensional pedal forces and moments. In addition
	to data from a six-load-component pedal dynamometer, the model used
	pedal position and orientation and knee position in the frontal plane
	to determine the knee joint loads. Experimental data were collected
	from the right leg of 11 male subjects during steady-state cycling
	at 90 rpm and 225 W. The mean peak varus knee moment calculated was
	15.3 N m and the mean peak valgus knee moment was 11.2 N m. Neglecting
	the pedal moment about the anterior/posterior axis resulted in an
	average absolute error of 2.6 N m and a maximum absolute error of
	4.0 N m in the varus/valgus knee moment. The mean peak internal and
	external axial knee moments were 2.8 N m and 2.3 N m, respectively.
	The average and maximum absolute errors in the axial knee moment
	for not including the moment about an axis normal to the pedal were
	found to be 2.6 N m and 5.0 N m, respectively. The results strongly
	support the use of three-dimensional pedal loads in the computation
	of knee joint moments out of the sagittal plane.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ruby1992a},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(92)90244-U},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C35T0D-6S/2/d0127311958c71398c1f54690fa2e677}
}
@article{Ruby1992,
  author = {Patricia Ruby and M.L. Hull and Kevin A. Kirby and David W. Jenkins},
  title = {The effect of lower-limb anatomy on knee loads during seated cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {1195 - 1207},
  number = {10},
  abstract = {Overuse knee joint injuries are the primary injuries to cyclists.
	Overuse injuries have been intuitively linked to the anatomic structure
	of the foot because external loads are applied to the foot in cycling.
	Thus, the structure and function of the foot should dictate in part
	how the loads are transmitted to the knee joint. Therefore, it was
	hypothesized that patterns in knee loads are related to the anatomic
	structure of the foot. To test this hypothesis, peak knee loads (dependent
	variables) were related to anatomical variables (independent variables)
	through statistical analyses. This required first the detailed evaluation
	(i.e. measurement) of the anatomical structure of the foot and leg
	for 23 subjects. Next, three-dimensional knee joint loads were determined
	for a standardized riding condition. The results of the statistical
	analyses indicated that a group of cyclists with the most extreme
	inversion of the forefoot relative to the transverse plane developed
	significantly greater average posterior knee force and extensive
	knee moment. In addition, a number of anatomical variables significantly
	accounted for the variability in peak values of the posterior force,
	the extensive moment, the varus/valgus moment and the external axial
	moment. Based on these results, the hypothesis is accepted.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ruby1992},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(92)90075-C},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C00GBV-DD/2/65f68c31ff65bd7937862ee0e08b7028}
}
@article{Ruijs1985,
  author = {Ruijs, P. A. and Pacejka, H. B.},
  title = {Research in Lateral Dynamics of Motorcycles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {149--152},
  number = {1--3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ruijs1985}
}
@inproceedings{RuijsPacejka1986,
  author = {Ruijs, P.A.J. and Pacejka, H.B.},
  title = {Recent Research in Lateral Dynamics of Motorcycles},
  booktitle = {Procedings of 9th IAVSD Symposium on The Dynamics Of Vehicles on
	roads and on tracks, Sweden June 24-28 1985},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {supplement to Vehicle System Dynamics, Volume 15},
  pages = {467- 480},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#RuijsPacejka1986}
}
@phdthesis{Saccon2006,
  author = {Alessandro Saccon},
  title = {Maneuver Regulation of Nonlinear Systems: The Challenge of Motorcycle
	Control},
  school = {Universit\'{a} Delgi Studi Di Padova},
  year = {2006},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Saccon2006}
}
@article{Saccon2009,
  author = {Saccon, Alessandro and Hauser, John},
  title = {An efficient Newton method for general motorcycle kinematics},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {47},
  pages = {221-241},
  number = {2},
  abstract = {This paper presents a detailed study of the kinematics of single-track
	vehicles, with a special emphasis on motorcycles. We consider a general
	class of tyre profiles as well as general vehicle geometry. We show
	that the kinematic problem may be reduced to the problem of finding
	the zero of a (single) nonlinear equation in the pitch angle which
	may then be solved using a safeguarded Newton method, providing rapid
	convergence. Special care, enabled by the systematic use of rotation
	matrices, is taken to understand the range of pitch angles for which
	all quantities in the equation are well defined. The paper provides
	a fast and numerically reliable algorithm that can be used within
	analysis tools such as those involving numerical integration of system
	dynamics.},
  address = {325 CHESTNUT ST, SUITE 800, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106 USA},
  affiliation = {Saccon, A (Reprint Author), Univ Padua, Dipartimento Ingn Informaz,
	Padua, Italy. {[}Saccon, Alessandro] Univ Padua, Dipartimento Ingn
	Informaz, Padua, Italy. {[}Hauser, John] Univ Colorado, Dept Elect
	\& Comp Engn, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.},
  author-email = {asaccon@dei.unipd.it},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Saccon2009},
  doc-delivery-number = {400ZJ},
  doi = {10.1080/00423110801966108},
  funding-acknowledgement = {Ducati Corse ; MSC Software },
  funding-text = {We thank Professor Ruggero Frezza for interesting discussions on motorcycle
	kinematics. This research was supported in part by Ducati Corse and
	MSC Software.},
  issn = {0042-3114},
  journal-iso = {Veh. Syst. Dyn.},
  keywords = {kinematics; motorcycle; bicycle; single-track vehicles; Newton method},
  keywords-plus = {VEHICLES; DYNAMICS; PROFILE},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {10},
  publisher = {TAYLOR \& FRANCIS INC},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Mechanical},
  times-cited = {0},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000262907600005}
}
@misc{SAE1977,
  author = {SAE},
  title = {A Bibliography on Motorcycle Dynamics and Handling},
  year = {1977},
  note = {Prepared by the SAE Motorcycle Dynamics Subcommittee},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#SAE1977}
}
@article{Saguchi2009,
  author = {Saguchi, Taichi and Takahashi, Masaki and Yoshida, Kazuo},
  title = {Stable Running Control of Autonomous Bicycle Robot for Trajectory
	Tracking Considering the Running Velocity(Mechanical Systems)},
  journal = {Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. C},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {75},
  pages = {397-403},
  number = {750},
  abstract = {Many researchers have focused attention on a stability analysis and
	a stabilization control of a bicycle as one of controlled objects,
	because the bicycle is an unstable and nonlinear vehicle. A steering
	wheel control is needed to stabilize the bicycle. Moreover, a velocity
	of the bicycle can be controlled. Thereby, it is expected that the
	change of the running velocity affects the stability of the bicycle.
	In this study, the stabilization and trajectory tracking control
	of the bicycle considering the running velocity is proposed in order
	to improve the stability and the tracking performance. The simulations
	are carried out to verify the performance of the control system and
	the effectiveness of the change of the running velocity. From the
	simulation results, it was confirmed that the tracking performance
	and the stability against the disturbances are improved.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Saguchi2009},
  issn = {03875024},
  publisher = {The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  url = {http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110007113669/en/}
}
@article{Sakai1967,
  author = {Sakai, H.},
  title = {Cornering Properties of Motorcycle Tires},
  journal = {Journal SAE Japan},
  year = {1967},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {1115--1121},
  number = {11},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sakai1967}
}
@article{Salvucci2001,
  author = {Dario D. Salvucci and Erwin R. Boer and Andrew Liu},
  title = {Toward an Integrated Model of Driver Behavior in Cognitive Architecture},
  journal = {Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research
	Board},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {1779},
  pages = {9--16},
  abstract = {Driving is a multitasking activity that requires drivers to manage
	their attention among various driving- and non-driving-related tasks.
	When one models drivers as continuous controllers, the discrete nature
	of drivers' control actions is lost and with it an important component
	for characterizing behavioral variability. A proposal is made for
	the use of cognitive architectures for developing models of driver
	behavior that integrate cognitive and perceptual-motor processes
	in a serial model of task and attention management. A cognitive architecture
	is a computational framework that incorporates built-in, well-tested
	parameters and constraints on cognitive and perceptual-motor processes.
	All driver models implemented in a cognitive architecture necessarily
	inherit these parameters and constraints, resulting in more predictive
	and psychologically plausible models than those that do not characterize
	driving as a multitasking activity. These benefits are demonstrated
	with a driver model developed in the ACT-R cognitive architecture.
	The model is validated by comparing its behavior to that of human
	drivers navigating a four-lane highway with traffic in a fixed-based
	driving simulator. Results show that the model successfully predicts
	aspects of both lower-level control, such as steering and eye movements
	during lane changes, and higher-level cognitive tasks, such as task
	management and decision making. Many of these predictions are not
	explicitly built into the model but come from the cognitive architecture
	as a result of the model's implementation in the ACT-R architecture.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Salvucci2001}
}
@article{Savaresi2008,
  author = {Savaresi, S. M. and Tanelli, M. and Langthaler, P. and Del Re, L.},
  title = {New Regressors for the Direct Identification of Tire Deformation
	in Road Vehicles Via "In-Tire" Accelerometers},
  journal = {IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Dyn.},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {769--780},
  number = {4},
  abstract = {The interaction between the tire and the road is crucial for determining
	the dynamic behavior of a road vehicle, and the road-tire contact
	forces are key variables in the design of traction, braking, and
	stability control systems. Traditionally, road-tire contact forces
	are indirectly estimated from vehicle-dynamics measurements (chassis
	accelerations, yaw-roll rates, suspension deflections, etc.). The
	emerging of the ldquosmart-tirerdquo concept (tire with embedded
	sensors and digital-computing capability) has made possible, in principle,
	a more direct estimation of contact forces. In this field - still
	in its infancy - the main open problems are the choice of the sensor(s)
	and the choice of the regressor(s) to be used for force estimation.
	The objective of this work is to present a new sensor-regressor choice,
	and to provide some preliminary experimental results, which confirm
	the validity of this choice. The idea is to use a wheel encoder and
	an accelerometer mounted directly in the tire. The measurement of
	the in-tire acceleration is transmitted through a wireless channel.
	The key innovative concept is to use the phase shift between the
	wheel encoder and the pulse-like signals provided by the accelerometer
	as the main regressor for force estimation.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Savaresi2008},
  doi = {10.1109/TCST.2007.912245},
  issn = {1063-6536},
  keywords = {accelerometers, road traffic, road vehicles, tyres, force estimation,
	in-tire acceleration, in-tire accelerometers, phase shift, road vehicles,
	road-tire contact forces, sensor-regressor choice, stability control
	systems, tire deformation, vehicle-dynamics measurements, wireless
	channel, yaw-roll rates, Road vehicles, identification, road vehicle
	control, road vehicle identification, signal processing}
}
@article{Sayers1991,
  author = {Michael W. Sayers},
  title = {A Symoblic Computer Language For Multibody Systems},
  journal = {Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {1153--1163},
  number = {6},
  month = {November},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sayers1991}
}
@phdthesis{Sayers1990,
  author = {Michael William Sayers},
  title = {Symbolic Computer Methods to Automatically Formulate Vehicle Simulation
	Codes},
  school = {The University of Michigan},
  year = {1990},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sayers1990}
}
@article{Schmid2007,
  author = {Schmid, Micaela and Nardone, Antonio and De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco
	and Schmid, Monica and Schieppati, Marco},
  title = {Equilibrium during static and dynamic tasks in blind subjects: no
	evidence of cross-modal plasticity},
  journal = {Brain},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {130},
  pages = {2097-2107},
  number = {8},
  abstract = {Can visual information be replaced by other sensory information in
	the control of static and dynamic equilibrium? We investigated the
	balancing behaviour of acquired and congenitally blind subjects (25
	severe visually impaired subjects—15 males and 10 females, mean age
	36 ± 13.5 SD) and age and gender-matched normal subjects under static
	and dynamic conditions. During quiet stance, the centre of foot pressure
	displacement was recorded and body sway analysed. Under dynamic conditions,
	subjects rode a platform continuously moving in the antero-posterior
	direction, with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). Balance was inferred
	by the movement of markers fixed on malleolus, hip and head. Amplitude
	of oscillation and cross-correlation between body segment movements
	were computed. During stance, in normal subjects body sway was larger
	EC than EO. In blind subjects, sway was similar under both visual
	conditions, in turn similar to normal subjects EC. Under dynamic
	conditions, in normal subjects head and hip were partially stabilized
	in space EO but translated as much as the platform EC. In blind subjects
	head and hip displacements were similar in the EO and the EC condition;
	with respect to normal subjects EC, body displacement was significantly
	larger with a stronger coupling between segments. Under both static
	and dynamic conditions, acquired and congenitally blind subjects
	had a similar behaviour. We conclude that long-term absence of visual
	information cannot be substituted by other sensory inputs. These
	results are at variance with the notion of compensatory cross-modal
	plasticity in blind subjects and strengthen the hypothesis that vision
	plays an obligatory role in the processing and integration of other
	sensory inputs for the selection of the balancing strategy in the
	control of equilibrium.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schmid2007},
  doi = {10.1093/brain/awm157},
  eprint = {http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/130/8/2097.full.pdf+html},
  url = {http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/130/8/2097.abstract}
}
@article{Schneider2002,
  author = {Schneider, Stephen and Holdren, John P. and Bongaarts, John and Lovejoy,
	Thomas and Rennie, John},
  title = {Misleading Math about the Earth.},
  journal = {Scientific American},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {286},
  pages = {61--71},
  number = {1},
  month = {January},
  abstract = {Science defends itself against The Skeptical Environmentalist},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schneider2002},
  issn = {00368733}
}
@inproceedings{Schwab2010,
  author = {A. L. Schwab and J. D. G. Kooijman},
  title = {Lateral dynamics of a bicycle with passive rider model},
  booktitle = {The 1st Joint International Conference on Multibody System Dynamics},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Lappeenranta, Finland},
  month = {May},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schwab2010}
}
@inproceedings{Schwab2010a,
  author = {A. L. Schwab and J. D. G. Kooijman},
  title = {Controllability of a bicycle},
  booktitle = {5th Asian Conference on Multibody Dynamics 2010},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Kyoto, Japan},
  month = {August},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schwab2010a}
}
@inproceedings{Schwab2008,
  author = {A. L. Schwab and J. D. G. Kooijman and J. P. Meijaard},
  title = {Some recent developments in bicycle dynamics and control},
  booktitle = {Fourth European Conference on Structural Control (4ECSC)},
  year = {2008},
  editor = {A. K. Belyaev and D. A. Indeitsev},
  pages = {695-702},
  publisher = {Institute of Problems in Mechanical Engineering, Russian Academy
	of Sciences},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schwab2008}
}
@article{Schwab2012,
  author = {Schwab, A. L. and Meijaard, J. P. and Kooijman, J. D.G.},
  title = {Lateral dynamics of a bicycle with a passive rider model: stability
	and controllability},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {0},
  pages = {1-16},
  number = {0},
  abstract = { This paper addresses the influence of a passive rider on the lateral
	dynamics of a bicycle model and the controllability of the bicycle
	by steer or upper body sideway lean control. In the uncontrolled
	model proposed by Whipple in 1899, the rider is assumed to be rigidly
	connected to the rear frame of the bicycle and there are no hands
	on the handlebar. Contrarily, in normal bicycling the arms of a rider
	are connected to the handlebar and both steering and upper body rotations
	can be used for control. From observations, two distinct rider postures
	can be identified. In the first posture, the upper body leans forward
	with the arms stretched to the handlebar and the upper body twists
	while steering. In the second rider posture, the upper body is upright
	and stays fixed with respect to the rear frame and the arms, hinged
	at the shoulders and the elbows, exert the control force on the handlebar.
	Models can be made where neither posture adds any degrees of freedom
	to the original bicycle model. For both postures, the open loop,
	or uncontrolled, dynamics of the bicycle–rider system is investigated
	and compared with the dynamics of the rigid-rider model by examining
	the eigenvalues and eigenmotions in the forward speed range 0–10 m/s.
	The addition of the passive rider can dramatically change the eigenvalues
	and their structure. The controllability of the bicycles with passive
	rider models is investigated with either steer torque or upper body
	lean torque as a control input. Although some forward speeds exist
	for which the bicycle is uncontrollable, these are either considered
	stable modes or are at very low speeds. From a practical point of
	view, the bicycle is fully controllable either by steer torque or
	by upper body lean, where steer torque control seems much easier
	than upper body lean. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schwab2012},
  doi = {10.1080/00423114.2011.610898},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423114.2011.610898},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423114.2011.610898}
}
@inproceedings{Schwab2005,
  author = {A. L. Schwab and J. P. Meijaard and J. M. Papadopoulos},
  title = {A MULTIBODY DYNAMICS BENCHMARK ON THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF AN UNCONTROLLED
	BICYCLE},
  booktitle = {ENOC},
  year = {2005},
  address = {Eindhoven, Netherlands},
  month = {August},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schwab2005}
}
@article{Schwab2005a,
  author = {A. L. Schwab and J. P. Meijaard and J. M. Papadopoulos},
  title = {Benchmark Results on the Linearized Equations of Motion of an Uncontrolled
	Bicycle},
  journal = {KSME International Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {292--304},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schwab2005a}
}
@inproceedings{Schwab2004,
  author = {A. L. Schwab and J. P. Meijaard and J. M. Papadopoulos},
  title = {Benchmark Results on the Linearized Equations of Motion of an Uncontrolled
	Bicycle},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of The Second Asian Conference on Multibody Dynamics},
  year = {2004},
  month = {August},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schwab2004}
}
@article{Schwarz1979,
  author = {Robert Schwarz},
  title = {Accident Avoidance Characteristics of Unconventional Motorcycle Configurations},
  journal = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  year = {1979},
  note = {SAE Paper 790258},
  abstract = {This paper presents the results of a program investigating the potential
	of unconventional motorcycle configurations for improved accident
	avoidance performance. Stability and obstacle avoidance characteristics
	were investigated analytically using mathematical models of both
	the uncontrolled and rider-controlled motorcycle. An analysis was
	also performed of the sensitivity of the optimum front-rear brake
	proportioning to road surface conditions and lateral acceleration.
	The results indicate that a low center of gravity, long wheelbase
	configuration has advantages in the moderate-to-high speed regime
	in terms of the margin of safety in performing an obstacle avoidance
	maneuver, and rider skill level required in braking. These advantages
	accrue at the expense of low speed maneuverability and controllability,
	and weight and overall complexity of the machine.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schwarz1979}
}
@techreport{Schwarz1979a,
  author = {R. Schwarz},
  title = {Advanced motorcycle handling and dynamics},
  institution = {U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety
	Administration},
  year = {1979},
  number = {DOT HS-804 910.},
  note = {South Coast Technology, Incorporated},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schwarz1979a}
}
@techreport{Schweers1990,
  author = {T. F. Schweers and D. Remde},
  title = {Objective Assessment of Motorcycle Manoeuvrability},
  institution = {Institute for Automotive Engineering},
  year = {1990},
  number = {93-1551},
  address = {Technical University Aachen},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Schweers1990}
}
@inproceedings{Seffen2001,
  author = {K. A. Seffen and G. T. Parks and P. J. Clarkson},
  title = {Observations on the controllability of motion of two-wheelers},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Institute of Mechincal Engineers},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {215},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Seffen2001}
}
@inproceedings{Segel1975,
  author = {Segel, L.},
  title = {Requirements for Describing the Mechanics of Tires Used on Single-Track
	Vehicles},
  booktitle = {IUTAM Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Railway Tracks},
  year = {1975},
  address = {Delft},
  month = {August},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Segel1975}
}
@inproceedings{Shaeri2004,
  author = {Shaeri, A. and Limebeer, D.J.N. and Sharp, R.S.},
  title = {Nonlinear steering oscillations of motorcycles},
  booktitle = {Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {773-778 Vol.1},
  month = {December},
  abstract = {Extensive prior modelling of the three dimensional motions of motorcycles,
	which has depended heavily on linearization for small perturbations
	from equilibrium "trim" states, is extended to cover large amplitude,
	nonlinear operating regimes. For a cornering machine, road undulation
	displacement forcing is shown to be capable of exciting subharmonic
	and superharmonic responses. A procedure for identifying particular
	operating conditions that may be expected to yield internal or combination
	resonances for a baseline modern machine/rider combination is devised.
	Interesting cases are examined by simulation and the results analysed
	using short time Fourier transform processing of the output signals.
	Internal and combination resonances are shown to occur under specially
	chosen circumstances. A procedure for choosing these special circumstances
	is described. Some practical implications are also considered.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Shaeri2004},
  doi = {10.1109/CDC.2004.1428756},
  issn = {0191-2216},
  keywords = {Fourier transforms, motorcycles, nonlinear control systems, position
	controlFourier transform processing, motorcycle, nonlinear steering
	oscillation, road undulation displacement, superharmonic response}
}
@inproceedings{Sharma2005,
  author = {Sharma, H.D. and Kale, S.M. and UmaShankar, N.},
  title = {Simulation model for studying inherent stability characteristics
	of autonomous bicycle},
  booktitle = {Mechatronics and Automation, 2005 IEEE International Conference},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {1},
  pages = { 193-198 Vol. 1},
  month = {July-1 Aug.},
  abstract = { An autonomous bicycle system modeled with a passive rider is simulated
	in MATLAB-SIMULINK and the stabilizing phenomenon is studied using
	simulation experiments. The model uses a practical bicycle's data
	set, being used for the experiment. It has been verified, using variety
	of constraints on lean & steer that the inherent stability is better
	at high-speeds w.r.t. steering oscillations, and at low speeds the
	high steering oscillations add to stabilize it. Also a range of velocities
	is found for which the bicycle remains self-stable. The intrinsic
	stability property of the bicycle is revealed effectively in this
	model.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharma2005},
  keywords = { bicycles, mathematics computing, mobile robots, stability, steering
	systems MATLAB-SIMULINK, autonomous bicycle, inherent stability characteristics,
	lean, steering oscillations}
}
@inproceedings{Sharma2006,
  author = {Sharma, Himanshu Dutt and N, UmaShankar},
  title = {A Fuzzy Controller Design for an Autonomous Bicycle System},
  booktitle = {Engineering of Intelligent Systems, 2006 IEEE International Conference
	on},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {1-6},
  address = {Islamabad},
  month = {April},
  abstract = {An intelligent controller is developed for stabilizing an autonomous
	bicycle system. The autonomous bicycle is stabilized by controlling
	its lean alone. The controller is developed using fuzzy logic approach
	wherein the rule set is designed using the inherent-characteristic
	relationship of lean and steer present in a bicycle. The Newtonian
	mechanics based bicycle model along with the controller is simulated
	in Matlab. The controller is simulated to actuate at constant time
	intervals and the simulation results confirm that the controller
	effort successfully stabilizes the bicycle in unstable velocity regions},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharma2006},
  doi = {10.1109/ICEIS.2006.1703218},
  keywords = {Newton method, bicycles, control system synthesis, fuzzy control,
	fuzzy logic, intelligent control, mobile robots, stabilityMatlab,
	Newtonian mechanics, autonomous bicycle system, fuzzy controller
	design, fuzzy logic, inherent-characteristic relationship, intelligent
	controller, stability}
}
@article{Sharp2006,
  author = {Robin Sharp},
  title = {Slip and Pitch},
  journal = {IEEE Control Systems Magazine},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {111--115},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2006}
}
@inproceedings{Sharp1997,
  author = {R.S. Sharp},
  title = {Design for good motorcycle handling qualities},
  booktitle = {Proc. SETC 1997},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {359--366},
  address = {Yokohama},
  organization = {SAE of Japan},
  note = {paper invited by Japan Society of Automotive Engineers},
  abstract = {An overview of the handling qualities of motorcycles is given. Firstly,
	the problems are discussed from a practical standpoint with reference
	to responses to steering control inputs, to self-excited oscillations
	arising from instabilities and to motions caused by road irregularities.
	The theoretical basis for understanding the behaviour is then outlined,
	with sections on the analysis problem itself, on small perturbations
	from straight running, on small perturbations from steady turning
	and on general motions. The need for advanced, automated approaches
	to modelling is stressed and relationships between design and operating
	conditions and steering behaviour are described. A brief account
	of experimental work on motorcycle steering responses is included
	and conclusions are drawn relating to motorcycle design issues.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1997}
}
@inproceedings{Sharp1997b,
  author = {R.S. Sharp},
  title = {The measurement of mass and inertial properties of vehicles and components},
  booktitle = {AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES, AUTOTECH 1997, Mech. Eng. Publ.},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {209--217},
  address = {Bury St Edmunds},
  abstract = {A special facility for the measurement of the mass centre location
	and the inertial properties of general rigid bodies ranging in mass
	from about 100 kg to 2500 kg is described. It is based on a large
	hemispherical air bearing mounted on a garage hydraulic lift, together
	with a selection of purpose built components, which allow the rig
	to be reconfigured quite quickly.
	
	 Data acquisition and computations are automated in a PC based system.
	A long established test procedure, based on the assumption that the
	test body has a plane of symmetry, has been extended recently to
	generalise the period measurement process. In the new procedure,
	a set of different reference directions is used for data acquisition,
	following which computer analysis involving eigenvalue determination
	can be employed to find principal axes and principal inertias for
	objects without symmetry. The paper describes the facility and its
	use and includes the theory of the general body problem. Examples
	of results obtained are given. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1997b}
}
@inbook{Sharp1999a,
  chapter = {Vehicle dynamics and the judgement of quality},
  pages = {87-96},
  title = {Vehicle Performance: Understanding Human Monitoring and Assessment},
  publisher = {Swets and Zeitlinger B. V.},
  year = {1999},
  editor = {J. P. Pauwelussen},
  author = {R. S. Sharp},
  address = {Lisse},
  abstract = {The paper is concerned with the objective specification of required
	vehicle dynamics qualities, in such a way that meeting the objectives
	specified will guarantee good subjective reaction to those aspects
	of the vehicle behaviour which are within the envelope of concern.
	Two basic types of vehicle dynamics problems are distinguished, one
	being essentially a machine problem while the other is distinctly
	a man-machine problem. The current status of quality judging is outlined
	and its shortcomings are exposed. The basic nature of the driving
	activity is discussed and a framework for the specification of what
	is required of the vehicle to be most amenable to the needs of the
	man is put forward. This leads to some ideas about research directions
	and improved industrial practices for the future. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1999a}
}
@article{Sharp2012,
  author = {Sharp, R. S.},
  title = {Rider control of a motorcycle near to its cornering limits},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {0},
  pages = {1-16},
  number = {0},
  abstract = { Optimal linear quadratic control theory is applied to longitudinal
	and lateral control of a high-performance motorcycle. Central to
	the story is the use of sufficient preview of the road to obtain
	the full benefit available from it. The focus is on effective control
	near to the cornering limits of the machine, and gain scheduling
	according to speed and lateral acceleration is employed to ensure
	that the linear controller used at any time is the most appropriate
	to the running conditions. The motorcycle model employed and the
	control theory background are described briefly. Selected optimal
	controls and closed-loop system frequency responses are illustrated.
	Path-tracking simulations are discussed and results are shown. Excellent
	machine control near to the feasible cornering limit is demonstrated.
	Further work is needed to provide similarly excellent control under
	limit braking. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2012},
  doi = {10.1080/00423114.2011.607899},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423114.2011.607899},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423114.2011.607899}
}
@inbook{Sharp2008,
  chapter = {Dynamics of Motorcycles: Stability and Control},
  pages = {183-230},
  title = {Dynamical Analysis of Vehicle Systems},
  publisher = {Springer Vienna},
  year = {2008},
  author = {Robin S. Sharp},
  volume = {497},
  series = {CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2008},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-211-76666-8}
}
@article{Sharp2008a,
  author = {Robin S. Sharp},
  title = {On the Stability and Control of the Bicycle},
  journal = {Applied Mechanics Reviews},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {61},
  pages = {24},
  number = {6},
  month = {November},
  abstract = {After some brief history, a mathematical model of a bicycle that has
	become a benchmark is described. The symbolic equations of motion
	of the bicycle are given in two forms and the equations are interpreted,
	with special reference to stability. The mechanics of autostabilization
	are discussed in detail. The relationship between design and behavior
	is shown to be heavily speed-dependent and complex. Using optimal
	linear preview control theory, rider control of the bicycle is studied.
	It is shown that steering control by an optimal rider, especially
	at low speeds, is powerful in comparison with a bicycle’s selfsteering.
	This observation leads to the expectation that riders will be insensitive
	to variations in design, as has been observed in practice. Optimal
	preview speed control is also demonstrated. Extensions to the basic
	treatment of bicycle dynamics in the benchmark case are considered
	so that the modeling includes more realistic representations of tires,
	frames, and riders. The implications for stability predictions are
	discussed and it is shown that the moderate-speed behavior is altered
	little by the elaborations. Rider control theory is applied to the
	most realistic of the models considered and the results indicate
	a strong similarity between the benchmark case and the complex one,
	where they are directly comparable. In the complex case, steering
	control by rider-lean-torque is feasible and the results indicate
	that, when this is combined with steer-torque control, it is completely
	secondary. When only rider-lean-torque control is possible, extended
	preview is necessary, high-gain control is required, and the controls
	are relatively complex. Much that is known about the stability and
	control of bicycles is collected and explained, together with new
	material relating to modeling accuracy, bicycle design, and rider
	control.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2008a},
  doi = {10.1115/1.2983014}
}
@article{Sharp2007,
  author = {Sharp, Robin S.},
  title = {Motorcycle Steering Control by Road Preview},
  journal = { Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {129},
  pages = {373-382},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2007}
}
@article{Sharp2007a,
  author = {Sharp, Robin S.},
  title = {Optimal stabilization and path-following controls for a bicycle.},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers -- Part C
	-- Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {221},
  pages = {415--427},
  number = {4},
  month = {April},
  abstract = {The article is about stabilizing and path-tracking control of a bicycle
	by a rider. It is based on previously published work, in which it
	has been shown how a driver's or rider's preview of the roadway can
	be combined with the linear dynamics of an appropriate vehicle to
	yield a problem of discrete-time optimal-linear-control-theory form.
	In the previous work, it was shown how an optimal 'driver' converts
	path preview sample values, modelled as deriving from a Gaussian
	white-noise process, into steering control inputs to cause the vehicle
	to follow the previewed path. The control compromises between precision
	and ease, to an extent that is controllable through choice of weights
	in the optimal control calculations.\\Research into the dynamics
	of bicycles has yielded a benchmark model, with equations of motion
	firmly established by extensive cross-checking. Model predictions
	have been verified for modest speeds by experimental testing. The
	established optimal linear preview stabilizing and tracking control
	theory is now brought together with the benchmark bicycle description
	to yield optimal controls for the bicycle for variations in speed
	and performance objectives. The resulting controls are installed
	in the bicycle, giving a virtual rider-controlled system, and frequency
	responses of the rider-controlled system are calculated to demonstrate
	tracking capability. Then path-tracking simulations are used to illustrate
	the behaviour of the controlled system. Tight and loose controls,
	representing different balances between tracking accuracy and control
	effort, are calculated and illustrated through the simulations.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2007a},
  issn = {09544062},
  keywords = {bicycles, stability, linear control systems, mechanical engineering,
	engineering, bicycle, optimal control, preview, riding, stability,
	tracking},
  url = {http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=25149652&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live}
}
@article{Sharp2001a,
  author = {Sharp, Robin S.},
  title = {Stability, Control and Steering Responses of Motorcycles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {291--318},
  number = {4--5},
  month = {March},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2001a},
  doi = {10.1076/vesd.35.4.291.2042},
  publisher = {Taylor \& Francis Ltd.}
}
@inproceedings{Sharp1998,
  author = {R. S. Sharp},
  title = {Multibody dynamics applications in vehicle engineering},
  booktitle = {I. Mech. E. Conference Transactions},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {215-228},
  address = {London},
  publisher = {Professional Engineering Publishers},
  note = {invited keynote paper for Multibody Dynamics: New Techniques and
	Applications},
  abstract = {The paper includes discussion of the implications of modern multibody
	systems analysis methods and computer software for vehicle dynamics.
	The different points of view and interests of users are considered,
	together with appropriate strategies for organising relevant activities.
	The main dynamical foundations for commercially available software
	systems are explained briefly and their implications are mentioned.
	The immense differences in speed of simulation between systems with
	different fundamental multibody strategies are exposed. Other customer
	requirements from software suppliers are noted. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1998}
}
@inproceedings{Sharp1997a,
  author = {R. S. Sharp},
  title = {Motorcycle wobble and weave},
  booktitle = {ITAI Conference},
  year = {1997},
  address = {Telford},
  note = {paper invited by Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators},
  abstract = {Motorcycle and rider are considered as a man-machine system and the
	skills needed to control a motorcycle successfully are discussed.
	The vibration problems wobble and weave are described and they are
	placed in the context of system dynamics through considerations of
	resonance and damping factors of natural modes of motion. How the
	rider may interact with the vibrations is discussed and machine design
	parameters which are influential on the stability are highlighted.
	How to investigate an accident, after the event, is considered also.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1997a}
}
@inproceedings{Sharp1997c,
  author = {R. S. Sharp},
  title = {Use of the symbolic multibody modelling code AUTOSIM for vehicle
	dynamics},
  booktitle = {AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES, AUTOTECH 1997, Mech. Eng. Publ.},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {189--197},
  address = {Bury St Edmunds},
  abstract = {Large three dimensional multibody model building and simulation systems
	have become commonplace in the automotive industry but there are
	small, modular alternatives to the market dominant systems, having
	a substantially different philosophy. AUTOSIM is a module in such
	an alternative arrangement, forming only a part of a fully functioning
	simulation system, which “writes” simulation code for C or FORTRAN
	compilation or linearises system equations and “writes” MATLAB.M
	code. These outputs are fully documented and ready to use, as if
	they had been written by hand with great skill and diligence. Thus,
	FORTRAN code needs compiling, linking to appropriate libraries, running
	and post-processing (graphics, animation etc.). MATLAB.M files need
	loading and processing through MATLAB functions (eigenvalues, frequency
	responses, optimisation etc.). It follows that, once the software
	has been used to build a model, the model becomes independent of
	AUTOSIM and is completely accessible, as if it were hand-written.
	One installation can serve many users.
	
	 The paper describes what AUTOSIM is, what it is like to use and what
	skills are needed to use it and it demonstrates the forms in which
	results can be obtained. Model building in a vehicle dynamics context
	is illustrated by a detailed account of a three dimensional suspension
	kinematics analysis. Significant sections of the code and of the
	FORTRAN program written automatically are described. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1997c}
}
@inproceedings{Sharp1994,
  author = {Robin S. Sharp},
  title = {Vibrational modes of motorcycles and their design parameter sensitivities},
  booktitle = {Proc. Int Conf. Vehicle NVH Refinement},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {3–5},
  address = {Birmingham},
  month = {May},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1994}
}
@article{Sharp1992,
  author = {Sharp, R. S.},
  title = {Motorcycle Stability},
  journal = {Automotive Engineer},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {25},
  number = {6},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1992}
}
@article{Sharp1985,
  author = {Robin S. Sharp},
  title = {The lateral dynamics of motorcycles and bicycles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {14},
  pages = {265–283},
  number = {6},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1985}
}
@article{Sharp1976,
  author = {Robin S. Sharp},
  title = {The influence of the suspension system on motorcycle weave-mode oscillations},
  journal = {Vehicle Syst. Dyn.},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {147–154},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1976}
}
@inproceedings{Sharp1976a,
  author = {Robin S. Sharp},
  title = {The stability of motorcycles in acceleration and deceleration},
  booktitle = {Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Conf. Braking Road Vehicles},
  year = {1976},
  pages = {45–50},
  address = {London},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1976a}
}
@article{Sharp1975,
  author = {Sharp, Robin S.},
  title = {The Dynamics of Single Track Vehicles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics
	and Mobility},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {67--77},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {The paper contains a brief review of the more subjective aspects of
	the steering behaviour of single track vehicles, a review of the
	more significant published work in the field, and an assessment of
	the current state of understanding and likely ways in which further
	progress can be made
	
	
	Attention is drawn to the many areas of agreement between theory and
	practice and to some areas of disagreement. The greatest need now
	seems to be for the incorporation of more complex tyre models into
	vehicle handling models.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1975},
  url = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/00423117508968406}
}
@article{Sharp1974,
  author = {Robin S. Sharp},
  title = {The influence of frame flexibility on the lateral stability of motorcycles},
  journal = {J. Mech. Eng. Sci.},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {117–120},
  number = {2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1974}
}
@article{Sharp1971,
  author = {Sharp, Robin S.},
  title = {Stability and Control of Motorcycles},
  journal = {Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science},
  year = {1971},
  volume = {13},
  pages = {316--329},
  number = {5},
  address = {Northgate Avenue, Bury St. Edmunds IP32 6BW, Suffolk, England},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1971},
  doc-delivery-number = {K5001},
  issn = {0022-2542},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {14},
  publisher = {PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING PUBLISHING LTD},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Mechanical},
  times-cited = {85},
  type = {Article}
}
@article{Sharp1980,
  author = {Sharp, R. S. and Alstead, C. J.},
  title = {The influence of structural flexibilities on the straight-running
	stability of motorcycles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {327--357},
  number = {6},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1980}
}
@article{Sharp2004,
  author = {R. S. Sharp and Simos Evangelou and David J. N. Limebeer},
  title = {Advances in the modelling of motorcycle dynamics},
  journal = {Multibody Sytem Dynamics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {251-–283},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2004}
}
@article{Sharp2004a,
  author = {Robin S. Sharp and David J. N. Limebeer},
  title = {On steering wobble oscillations of motorcycles},
  journal = {Journal Mechanical Engineer Science},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {218},
  pages = {1449-–1456},
  number = {12},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2004a}
}
@article{Sharp2001,
  author = {Robin S. Sharp and David J. N. Limebeer},
  title = {A motorcycle model for stability and control analysis},
  journal = {Multibody Syst. Dyn.},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {123–142},
  number = {2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2001}
}
@inproceedings{Sharp1999,
  author = {Robin S. Sharp and David J. N. Limebeer and M. Gani},
  title = {A motorcycle model for stability and control analysis},
  booktitle = {Proc. Euromech Colloquium 404, Advances Computational Multibody Dynamics},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {287–-312},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp1999}
}
@article{Sheets2008,
  author = {Sheets, A. L. and M. Hubbard},
  title = {Evaluation of a subject specific female gymnast model and simulation
	of an uneven parallel bar swing},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {3139-3144},
  number = {15},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sheets2008}
}
@book{Sheridan1974,
  title = {Man-Machine Systems},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  year = {1974},
  author = {Thomas B. Sheridan and William R. Ferrell},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sheridan1974},
  chapter = {8}
}
@techreport{Shlens2005,
  author = {Jonathon Shlens},
  title = {A Tutorial on Principal Component Analysis},
  institution = {University of California, San Diego},
  year = {2005},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Shlens2005}
}
@article{Sickle2007,
  author = {J. R. van Sickle Jr. and M.L. Hull},
  title = {Is economy of competitive cyclists affected by the anterior-posterior
	foot position on the pedal?},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {40},
  pages = {1262 - 1267},
  number = {6},
  abstract = {The primary purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis
	that cycling economy, as measured by rate of oxygen consumption in
	healthy, young, competitive cyclists pedaling at a constant workrate,
	increases (i.e. decreases) when the attachment point of the foot
	to the pedal is moved posteriorly on the foot. The of 11 competitive
	cyclists (age 26.8±8.9 years) was evaluated on three separate days
	with three anterior-posterior attachment points of the foot to the
	pedal (forward=traditional; rear=cleat halfway between the head of
	the first metatarsal and the posterior end of the calcaneous; and
	mid=halfway between the rear and forward positions) on each day.
	With a randomly selected foot position, was measured as each cyclist
	pedaled at steady state with a cadence of 90 rpm and with a power
	output corresponding to approximately 90% of their ventilatory threshold
	(VT) (mean power output 203.3±20.8 W). After heart rate returned
	to baseline, was measured again as the subject pedaled with a different
	anterior-posterior foot position, followed by another rest period
	and then was measured at the final foot position. The key finding
	of this investigation was that was not affected by the anterior-posterior
	foot position either for the group (p=0.311) or for any individual
	subject (p[greater-or-equal, slanted]0.156). The for the group was
	2705±324, 2696±337, and 2747±297 ml/min for the forward, mid,
	and rear foot positions, respectively. The practical implication
	of these findings is that adjusting the anterior-posterior foot position
	on the pedal does not affect cycling economy in competitive cyclists
	pedaling at a steady-state power output eliciting approximately 90%
	of VT.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sickle2007},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2006.05.026},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  keywords = {Economy},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4KKWVYX-1/2/d4c71a9635ce8d8924b7b657510683f8}
}
@phdthesis{Singh1964,
  author = {Digvijai Singh},
  title = {Advanced Concepts of the Stability of Two-Wheeled Vehicles: Application
	of Mathematical Analysis to Actual Vehicles},
  school = {University of Wisconsin},
  year = {1964},
  month = {June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Singh1964}
}
@inproceedings{Singh1975,
  author = {Singh, D. V.},
  title = {Stability of Single Track Vehicles},
  booktitle = {IUTAM Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Railway Tracks},
  year = {1975},
  address = {Delft},
  month = {August},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Singh1975}
}
@techreport{Singh1971,
  author = {Singh, D. V. and V. K. Goel},
  title = {Stability of Rajdoot Scooter},
  institution = {SAE},
  year = {1971},
  note = {SAE Paper 710273},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Singh1971}
}
@article{Siwakosit2000,
  author = {Siwakosit, W. and Snell, S.A. and Hess, R.A.},
  title = {Robust flight control design with handling qualities constraints
	using scheduled linear dynamic inversion and loop-shaping},
  journal = {Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {483-494},
  number = {3},
  month = {May},
  abstract = {A technique for obtaining a full-envelope decoupled linear flight
	control design is presented. The methodology begins with a reduced-order
	linear dynamic-inversion technique that is scheduled over the flight
	envelope. The reduced order dynamic inverter can offer a significant
	reduction in the number of state variables to be sensed or estimated
	as compared to typical applications of inverse dynamic control. The
	technique can provide desired input-output characteristics including
	control decoupling. The required gain scheduling of the reduced order
	dynamic inversion is straightforward. Uncertainty is introduced by
	perturbing the stability derivatives in the vehicle model at each
	of the flight conditions considered. The effects of uncertainty are
	then reduced by additional feedback loops involving a diagonal compensation
	matrix obtained through application of a loop shaping procedure based
	upon a quantitative feedback theory predesign technique. The tendency
	of quantitative feedback theory to produce high-bandwidth conservative
	designs is mitigated by the scheduling and decoupling associated
	with the dynamic inversion. Finally, handling qualities and pilot-induced
	oscillation tendencies are evaluated using a structural model of
	the human pilot implemented in an interactive computer program that
	can include the effects of nuisance nonlinearities such as actuator
	saturation. The proposed methodology is applied to the design of
	a lateral-directional flight control system for a piloted supermaneuvarable
	fighter aircraft},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Siwakosit2000},
  doi = {10.1109/87.845879},
  issn = {1063-6536},
  keywords = {aircraft control, compensation, control nonlinearities, control system
	synthesis, feedback, interactive systems, man-machine systems, matrix
	algebra, robust controlI/O characteristics, actuator saturation,
	diagonal compensation matrix, dynamic inversion, feedback loops,
	full-envelope decoupled linear flight control design, gain scheduling,
	handling qualities, handling qualities constraints, high-bandwidth
	conservative designs, input-output characteristics, interactive computer
	program, inverse dynamic control, lateral-directional flight control
	system design, loop-shaping, nuisance nonlinearities, pilot-induced
	oscillation tendencies, piloted supermaneuvarable fighter aircraft,
	quantitative feedback theory predesign technique, reduced-order linear
	dynamic-inversion technique, robust flight control design, uncertainty}
}
@article{Smak1999,
  author = {W. Smak and R. R. Neptune and M. L. Hull},
  title = {The influence of pedaling rate on bilateral asymmetry in cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {899 - 906},
  number = {9},
  abstract = {The objectives of this study were to (1) determine whether bilateral
	asymmetry in cycling changed systematically with pedaling rate, (2)
	determine whether the dominant leg as identified by kicking contributed
	more to average power over a crank cycle than the other leg, and
	(3) determine whether the dominant leg asymmetry changed systematically
	with pedaling rate. To achieve these objectives, data were collected
	from 11 subjects who pedaled at five different pedaling rates ranging
	from 60 to 120 rpm at a constant workrate of 260 W. Bilateral pedal
	dynamometers measured two orthogonal force components in the plane
	of the bicycle. From these measurements, asymmetry was quantified
	by three dependent variables, the percent differences in average
	positive power (%AP), average negative power (%AN), and average crank
	power (%AC). Differences were taken for two cases -- with respect
	to the leg generating the greater total average for each power quantity
	at 60 rpm disregarding the measure of dominance, and with respect
	to the dominant leg as determined by kicking. Simple linear regression
	analyses were performed on these quantities both for the subject
	sample and for individual subjects. For the subject sample, only
	the percent difference in average negative power exhibited a significant
	linear relationship with pedaling rate; as pedaling rate increased,
	the asymmetry decreased. Although the kicking dominant leg contributed
	significantly greater average crank power than the non-dominant leg
	for the subject sample, the non-dominant leg contributed significantly
	greater average positive power and average negative power than the
	dominant leg. However, no significant linear relationships for any
	of these three quantities with pedaling rate were evident for the
	subject sample because of high variability in asymmetry among the
	subjects. For example, significant linear relationships existed between
	pedaling rates and percent difference in total average power per
	leg for only four of the 11 subjects and the nature of these relationships
	was different (e.g. positive versus negative slopes). It was concluded
	that pedaling asymmetry is highly variable among subjects and that
	individual subjects may exhibit different systematic changes in asymmetry
	with pedaling rate depending on the quantity of interest.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Smak1999},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9290(99)00090-1},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  keywords = {Asymmetry},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-3X3TJ0S-3/2/43a12b5a25925bc7bb3db04fd846e6f4}
}
@techreport{Smith1976,
  author = {R. H. Smith},
  title = {A Theory for Handling Qualities With Applications to MIL-F- 8785B},
  institution = {Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, WPAFB, OH},
  year = {1976},
  number = {AFFDL-TR-75-119},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Smith1976}
}
@article{Snell1998,
  author = {Snell, A.},
  title = {An active roll-moment control strategy for narrow tilting commuter
	vehicles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {277--307},
  number = {5},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Snell1998}
}
@article{So1997,
  author = {Sang Gyun So and Karnopp, Dean},
  title = {Active dual mode tilt control for narrow ground vehicles},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {19--36},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#So1997}
}
@techreport{SonDaoXXXX,
  author = {Son Dao, Thanh},
  title = {Autonomous Bicycle: Dynamics and Control. System Dynamics},
  institution = {Simulation \& Control Lab., Department of Automation \& Mechanical
	Engineering, Da-Yeh University.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#SonDaoXXXX}
}
@inproceedings{Sooraksa2000,
  author = {Pitikhate Sooraksa and U. Sritheerawirojana},
  title = {A bicycle robot: part 1 modeling and control},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 17th ISARC},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {1--5},
  address = {Taipei, Taiwan},
  abstract = {In this paper, a simple fuzzy logic based intelligent architecture
	is developed for controlling a bicycle robot. The approximated model
	for membership functions and control gains can be obtained by simply
	considering the robot as an inverted pendulum in 3-dimensional space.
	The obtained model is merely a conceptually estimating one because
	the mismatch modeling and the uncertainty will be taken care by the
	intelligent controller. Simulation results are carried out. The hardware
	realization and implementation will be shown in Part 2.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sooraksa2000},
  keywords = {bicycle robot, fuzzy logic control, modeling, intelligent control,
	two wheeled robot}
}
@inproceedings{Sooraksa2000a,
  author = {Pitikhate Sooraksa and T. Uthairat and S. Kaopratum and U. Sritheerawirojana
	and V. Monyakul},
  title = {A bicycle robot: part 2 system implementation},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 17th ISARC, Taipei, Taiwan},
  year = {2000},
  abstract = {This paper presents the realization and implementation of a bicycle
	robot using the control scheme designed in Part 1. The control hardware
	architecture of the robot consists of tilt sensors, a turning control
	unit, a driving unit and a microcontroller. In a control cycle, the
	functional mechanism can be described as follows: First, the tilt
	sensors sense the state of the robot?s balance position and then
	send the signal to the microcontroller for generating a control decision
	based on the control law. After the final fuzzy control decision
	has been made, the output signal will be sent to the turning and
	the driving control units to track the desired path while retaining
	the robot in balance.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sooraksa2000a},
  keywords = {bicycle robot, fuzzy logic control, modeling, intelligent control,
	two wheeled robot}
}
@techreport{Spry2008,
  author = {Stephen C. Spry and Anouck R. Girard},
  title = {Gyroscopic Stabilization of Unstable Vehicles: Configurations, Dynamics,
	and Control},
  institution = {University of Michigan, Ann Arbor},
  year = {2008},
  abstract = {We consider active gyroscopic stabilization of unstable bodies such
	as two-wheeled monorails, twowheeled cars, or unmanned bicycles.
	It has been speculated that gyroscopically stabilized monorail cars
	
	would have economic advantages with respect to birail cars, enabling
	the cars to take sharper curves and
	
	traverse steeper terrain, with lower installation and maintenance
	costs. A two-wheeled, gyro-stabilized
	
	car was actually constructed in 1913.
	
	The dynamic stabilization of a monorail car or two-wheeled automobile
	requires that a torque acting
	
	on the car from the outside be neutralized by a torque produced within
	the car by a gyroscope. The
	
	gyroscope here is used as an actuator, not a sensor, by using precession
	forces generated by the gyroscope.
	
	When torque is applied to an axis normal to the spin axis, causing
	the gyroscope to precess, a moment
	
	is produced about a third axis, orthogonal to both the torque and
	spin axes. As the vehicle tilts from
	
	vertical, a precession-inducing torque is applied to the gyroscope
	cage such that the resulting gyroscopic
	
	reaction moment will tend to right the vehicle. The key idea is that
	motion of the gyroscope relative to
	
	the body is actively controlled in order to generate a stabilizing
	moment.
	
	This problem was considered in 1905 by Louis Brennan [1]. Many extensions
	were later developed,
	
	including the work by Shilovskii [2], and several prototypes were
	built. The di!erences in the various
	
	schemes lie in the number of gyroscopes employed, the direction of
	the spin axes relative to the rail, and
	
	in the method used to produce precession of the spin axes.
	
	We start by deriving the equations of motion for a case where the
	system is formed of a vehicle, a
	
	load placed on the vehicle, the gyroscope wheel, and a gyroscope cage.
	We allow for track curvature
	
	and vehicle speed. We then derive the equations for a similar system
	with two gyroscopes, spinning in
	
	opposite directions and such that the precession angles are opposite.
	We linearize the dynamics about a
	
	set of equilibrium points and develop a linearized model. We study
	the stability of the linearized systems
	
	and show simulation results. Finally, we discuss a scaled gyrovehicle
	model and testing.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Spry2008},
  keywords = {Gyroscopic stabilization, monorail}
}
@manual{SRM2003,
  title = {SRM Training System Technical Manual},
  author = {SRM},
  year = {2003},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#SRM2003}
}
@article{Stassen1969,
  author = {Stassen, H.G.},
  title = {The Polarity Coincidence Correlation Technique - A Useful Tool in
	the Analysis of Human-Operator Dynamics},
  journal = {Man-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {1969},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {34-39},
  number = {1},
  month = {March},
  abstract = {The paper describes a special correlation technique. It is shown that
	a two-state characterization of a random process leads to a simple
	correlation procedure, called the "polarity coincidence correlation
	method." The utility of the method in dynamics studies of man-machine
	systems, its limitations, its assumptions, and, finally, the accuracy
	due to a finite time of observation are discussed.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Stassen1969},
  doi = {10.1109/TMMS.1969.299878},
  issn = {0536-1540}
}
@techreport{Stassen1973,
  author = {H. G. Stassen and A. van Lunteren and P.L. Brinkman and W.C.J. Moolenaar
	and van Dieten, J.S.M.J. and de Ron, A. J. and M. F. W. Dubois and
	H. A. Udo de Haes and J. J. Kok and W. Veldhuyzen},
  title = {Progress Report January 1970 until January 1973 of the Man-Machine
	Systems Group},
  institution = {Delft University of Technology},
  year = {1973},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Stassen1973}
}
@book{Stevens1992,
  title = {Aircraft Control and Simulation},
  publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons},
  year = {1992},
  author = {Brian L. Stevens and Frank L. Lewis},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Stevens1992}
}
@mastersthesis{Stevens2009,
  author = {David Stevens},
  title = {The Stability and Handling Characteristics of Bicycles},
  school = {The University of New South Wales},
  year = {2009},
  type = {Bachelor's Thesis},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Stevens2009}
}
@mastersthesis{Stevens2002,
  author = {Daniel M. Stevens},
  title = {The Influence of Roll Dynamics on Motorcycle Navigation Systems},
  school = {UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY},
  year = {2002},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Stevens2002}
}
@article{Stone1993,
  author = {Cal Stone and Maury Hull},
  title = {Rider/Bicycle Interaction Loads During Standing Treadmill Cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Biomechanics},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {9},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {This paper provides measurements of rider-induced loads during standing
	cycling. Two strain gauge dynamometers were used to measure these
	loads while three subjects rode bicycles on a large motorized treadmill;
	the cycling situation simulated hill climbing while standing. Comparing
	the results to those previously published for seated cycling revealed
	that the loading for standing cycling differed fundamentally from
	that for seated cycling in certain key respects. One respect was
	that the maximum magnitude normal pedal force reached substantially
	higher values, exceeding the weight of the subject, and the phase
	occurred later in the crank cycle. Another respect was that the direction
	of the handlebar forces alternated indicating that the arms pulled
	up and back during the power stroke of the corresponding leg and
	pushed down and forward during the upstroke. Inasmuch as these forces
	were coordinated (i.e., in phase) with the leaning of the bicycle,
	the arms developed positive power.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Stone1993}
}
@article{Stone1995,
  author = {Cal Stone and M. L. Hull},
  title = {The effect of rider weight on rider-induced loads during common cycling
	situations},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {365 - 375},
  number = {4},
  abstract = {Motivated by the desire to provide information useful in the design
	analysis of bicycle frames, the hypothesis tested was that a simple
	linear model would relate the maximum magnitudes of rider-induced
	loads to rider weight. Rider-induced loads are loads developed as
	a result of weight and muscular actions during pedalling. To test
	this hypothesis, five riders spanning a wide weight range rode a
	bicycle unrestrained on a treadmill. Dynamometers measured six components
	of pedal loads and five components of both seat and handlebar loads
	while riders rode three common cycling situations -- seated cruising,
	seated climbing, and standing climbing. Average, average maximum,
	and average minimum values were computed for all load components
	and each was analyzed statistically. For all three test cases, the
	regression slope was significant for the force component normal to
	the pedal surface. Because the normal pedal force component has been
	shown previously to dominate frame stress at the point most likely
	to fatigue (Hull and Bolourchi, 1988, J. Strain. Anal. 23, 105-114),
	the results of this study should be useful in designing frames optimized
	for minimum weight and acceptable structural reliability.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Stone1995},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(94)00102-A},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-3YGTT1R-3J/2/d9261e1dc228aae8f1a2480c15b78350}
}
@mastersthesis{Stone1990,
  author = {Cal Kent Stone},
  title = {Rider/Bicycle Interaction Loads During Seated and Standing Treadmill
	Cycling},
  school = {University of California, Davis},
  year = {1990},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Stone1990}
}
@article{Stone2009,
  author = {John Stone},
  title = {The is a test article},
  journal = {The Journal of Hamster Linguistics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {12},
  pages = {230-450},
  number = {2},
  month = {December},
  note = {This is a note about the article.},
  abstract = {This is the abstract about hamsters.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Stone2009},
  comment = {This is a comment.},
  doi = {123456789DOI},
  keywords = {hamster, bugs, cedar},
  url = {http://www.url.com}
}
@article{Sugizaki1988,
  author = {Masamori Sugizaki and Akira Hasegawa},
  title = {Experimental Analysis of Transient Response in Motorcycle-Rider Systems},
  journal = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  year = {1988},
  month = {November},
  note = {SAE Paper 881783},
  abstract = {An experimental analysis has been made concerning rider sensation
	using several motorcycles. More specifically, the sensations evaluated
	are those which are related to the transient motions which are generated
	by a rider in an attempt to make two transient running patterns,
	one is to avoid obstacles and the other is lane change. Measurements
	were made of the steering torque, the accelerations of the major
	portions of the motorcycle, and the yaw and roll rates.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sugizaki1988},
  keywords = {motorcycle, handling, steer torque}
}
@inproceedings{Suntharasantic2011,
  author = {Suntharasantic, S. and Wongsaisuwan, M.},
  title = {Piecewise affine model and control of bicycle by gyroscopic stabilization},
  booktitle = {Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications
	and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), 2011 8th International Conference
	on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {549 -552},
  month = {May},
  abstract = {This paper considers the naturally unstable unmanned bicycle system
	at constant forward and rotational speeds. The bicycle is attached
	with a gyroscopic flywheel acting as an actuator for roll angle stabilization.
	The nonlinear model of the system is approximated by piecewise affine
	functions which minimizes the model error even outside the operating
	regions. The controller synthesis problem is cast as Linear Matrix
	Inequalities problem. The feasible control law is derived based on
	quadratic Lyapunov function to guarantee the system stability for
	all regions. The simulation confirms the effectiveness of this approach.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Suntharasantic2011},
  doi = {10.1109/ECTICON.2011.5947897},
  keywords = {LMI;actuator;bicycle control;constant forward speeds;controller synthesis
	problem;gyroscopic flywheel;gyroscopic stabilization;linear matrix
	inequalities problem;piecewise affine model;quadratic Lyapunov function;roll
	angle stabilization;rotational speeds;unmanned bicycle system;Lyapunov
	methods;actuators;affine transforms;bicycles;control system synthesis;linear
	matrix inequalities;remotely operated vehicles;stability;}
}
@mastersthesis{Suprapto2006,
  author = {Suprapto, S.},
  title = {Development of a gyroscopic unmanned bicycle},
  school = {AIT, Thailand},
  year = {2006},
  abstract = {Balancing an unstable system is a difficult task to be done. Bicycle
	is a model of
	
	an unstable system, it is impossible to make the bicycle standstill
	without giving any
	
	effort to balance. A gyroscope, a spinning wheel mechanism that tries
	to prevent its
	
	direction when a force is applied at that mechanism is used for torque
	source to balance
	
	the bicycle. By spins gyroscope on the vertical axis, embed the other
	axis on the bicycle,
	
	and control the third axis of the gyroscope, balancing of a bicycle
	can be done.
	
	A PD controller that is implemented using 8 bit microcontroller 68HC11
	is used
	
	for controlling the gyroscope, an algorithm to shift the center of
	gravity along control
	
	axis of gyroscope is implemented together, resulting a bond control
	algorithm that
	
	balance the bicycle while preventing the gyroscope from saturation.
	
	Rear wheel system is used to actuate the bicycle for forward movement.
	A simple
	
	closed loop PD controller is used, and resulting a stable constant
	speed.
	
	Steering system is used to make the bicycle have turning capability.
	A PD
	
	controller is used for position controller, even producing a small
	steady state error, the
	
	performance still acceptable.
	
	A mathematical model was developed to be conformed to the real experiment
	
	result, simulation is run on Simulink software. Data was taken from
	the experiment and
	
	shows that the system is stable.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Suprapto2006}
}
@inproceedings{Suryanarayanan2002,
  author = {Suryanarayanan, Shashikanth and Tomizuka, Masayoshi and Weaver, Matt},
  title = {System dynamics and control of bicycles at high speeds},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2002 American Control Conference (IEEE Cat. No.CH37301)},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {845-850},
  address = {Danvers, MA, USA},
  month = {May},
  organization = {American Autom. Control Council; IFAC; SICE},
  publisher = {American Automatic Control Council},
  note = {Proceedings of 2002 American Control Conference, 8-10 May 2002, Anchorage,
	AK, USA},
  abstract = {This paper presents the system dynamics and automated roll-rate control
	of front and rear-wheel steered bicycles. Automated steering control
	of bicycles gains importance in the context of a recent effort, initiated
	by bicycle designer Matt Weaver, to develop controllers to steer
	bicycles at very high speeds (70-100 mph). This paper extends earlier
	work on rear-wheel steered bikes, importantly Klein's unridable bicycle.
	Controllers for both front and rear-wheel steered bicycles are designed
	based on classical control techniques. Simulation results demonstrate
	good robustness and disturbance rejection properties. Implementation
	is currently underway.},
  affiliation = {Suryanarayanan, S.; Tomizuka, M.; Weaver, M.; Dept. of Mech. Eng.,
	California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Suryanarayanan2002},
  identifying-codes = {[C2002-11-3220-004],[0-7803-7298-0/02/\$17.00],[10.1109/ACC.2002.1023121]},
  isbn = {0 7803 7298 0},
  keywords = {Practical, Theoretical or Mathematical/ control system analysis; controllers;
	feedback/ system dynamics; automated roll-rate control; rear-wheel
	steered bicycles; automated steering control; Klein unridable bicycle;
	simulation results; robustness/ C3220 Controllers; C1310 Control
	system analysis and synthesis methods},
  language = {English},
  number-of-references = {4},
  publication-type = {C},
  type = {Conference Paper}
}
@article{Suzuki2007,
  author = {Suzuki, Yoshitada and Kageyama, Ichiro and Kuriyagawa, Yukiyo and
	Baba, Masayuki and Miyagishi, Shunichi},
  title = {4311 Study on Construction of Rider Robot for Two-wheel Vehicle},
  journal = {幎次倧䌚講挔論文集 : JSME annual meeting},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {2007},
  pages = {357-358},
  number = {7},
  note = {in Japanese},
  abstract = {This paper deals with the construction of a rider robot for motorcycle.
	The robot which controls a vertical stability and a direction control
	of the motorcycle is constructed as a tool for evaluation of two-wheeled
	vehicle behavior. The control algorithm of the system is constructed
	based on control action of the human rider. For the lateral control,
	the system identifies using electric compass. Sub-handle system which
	simulates the rider arms is adopted with damper and spring, and it
	is controlled by servo-motor. As a result, it is shown that the rider
	robot follows the lateral displacement calculated using the directional
	angle and vehicle speed.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Suzuki2007},
  publisher = {The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  url = {http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110007084530/en/}
}
@mastersthesis{Solvberg2007,
  author = {S{\o}lvberg, Audun},
  title = {CyberBike},
  school = {Norwegian University of Science and Technology},
  year = {2007},
  abstract = {The idea about the CyberBike came to Jens G. Balchen - the founder
	of the Department of Engineering Cybernetics (ITK) at NTNU - in the
	1980's. He wanted to make an unmanned autonomus bicycle, i.e. a bike
	that could run by itself. The idea was picked up by Amund Skavhaug,
	who started the CyberBike project in the late 80's. After being deffered
	for some years, the CyberBike has again gained some attention. This
	master's thesis is based on Hans Olav Loftum's and Lasse Bjermeland's
	theses at the spring 2006 and the autumn project of John A. Fossum
	the same year. The goal of the CyberBike project is to make the bike
	work as intended, i.e. as an autonomous unmanned bicycle. This thesis
	naturally share this goal, although the bike did not become able
	to take its first autonomous trip within the thesis' time frame.
	At the start of the work, the bike were already equipped with a suitcase
	of computational hardware on its baggage rack, a small QNX Neutrino
	OS image was installed on the industrial PC mounted in the suitcase,
	and drivers for the installed motors, tachometers and potmeters were
	written. An Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was intended to supply
	the control system with the necessary information about rotation,
	acceleration and position, and the unit was purchased for the purpose.
	Also a driver was written, but not properly tested. The IMU had to
	be installed and connected to the control system. The bike's control
	theory was developed, but had never been put into action outside
	computer simulations (due to the lack of acceleration measurements).
	The various tasks that had to be addressed emerged as the development
	process advanced. First, the IMU had to be connected to the system,
	by making a signal tranceiver circuit. A small printed circuit board
	was designed and laid out, mainly to include a MAX233CPP iC. Then
	the DB-9 serial connector on the bikes single board computer (Wafer-9371A)
	could be used to read the UART signal from the IMU as RS-232. Then
	some testing had to be done, and drivers updated. A better and more
	advanced IMU (referred to as the "MTi") was added to the project.
	This unit needed no signal converting circuitry, but driver development
	and testing still had to be done. To enhance the CyberBike's navigation
	opportunities, a GPS module was purchased. A signal transceiving
	circuit, similar to the one for the IMU, was made for this unit,
	as well as software to read out the measurements from the device.
	By the end of this thesis, no navigational algorithms are made, hence
	the GPS is currently not used, but available for future efforts made
	on this area. Some hardware related tasks was carried out, as connecting
	and implementing functionality to the pendulum limit switches, installation
	of a emergency stop switch and a power switch, purchasing and installation
	of two 12V batteries and a cooling fan. An operating system upgrade
	resulted in replacing the CyberBikePC's storage device, a compact
	flash card, with a mobile hard disk drive. Installation of a motor,
	for supplying torque to the rear wheel, included setup and tuning
	of a hardware based velocity controller in a Baldor TFM 060-06-01-3
	servo module. However; this task is not to be considered as accomplished,
	due to some unsolved problems on the system I/O-card's output channels
	giving the motor controller card its reference voltage. A bike model
	and controller realized in Simulink was made by Bjermeland. Hence
	communicaton between Simulink and the device drivers had to be established,
	and this was realized by using S-functions and Real-Time Workshop.
	Finally the controller could be connected to the actual bike, but
	there was too little time left to explore this thoroughly, and make
	the system work properly. However, a foundation is laid for further
	development of the control strategy, hopefully storing a bright future
	for the CyberBik},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Solvberg2007},
  institution = {Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Engineering
	Cybernetics},
  pages = {159},
  publisher = {Institutt for teknisk kybernetikk}
}
@inproceedings{Taguchi1975,
  author = {Taguchi, M.},
  title = {A Preliminary Test Report on the Controllability and Stability of
	Experimental Safety Motorcycle},
  booktitle = {Second International Motorcycle Safety Conference},
  year = {1975},
  address = {Washington, D. C., USA},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Taguchi1975}
}
@inproceedings{Takagi1983,
  author = {T. Takagi and M. Sugeno},
  title = {Derivation of fuzzy control rules from human operator’s control actions},
  booktitle = {IFAC Symposium on Fuzzy Information, Knowledge Representation and
	Decision Analysis},
  year = {1983},
  pages = {55--60},
  address = {Marseilles, France},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Takagi1983}
}
@article{Takahashi1984,
  author = {Toshimichi Takahashi and Tatsuo Yamada and Tsutomu Nakamura},
  title = {Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Influence of Tires on Straight-Running
	Motorcycle Weave Response},
  journal = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  year = {1984},
  month = {February},
  note = {SAE Paper 840248},
  abstract = {The influence of tires on straight-running motorcycle weave oscillation
	has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Three sets
	of front and rear tires were used. The weave oscillation was excited
	by “Nitrogen gas-jet disturbance system” fitted to the instrumented
	test vehicle.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Takahashi1984}
}
@article{Takama2002a,
  author = {Takama, Kouhei and Kageyama, Ichiro and Miyagishi, Shunichi and Baba,
	Masayuki and Uchiyama, Hajime},
  title = {Study on Construction of a Rider Robot for Two Wheeled Vehicle},
  journal = {日本機械孊䌚関東支郚総䌚講挔䌚講挔論文集},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {155--156},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Takama2002a},
  publisher = {The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  url = {http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110002496526/en/}
}
@article{Takama2002,
  author = {Takama, Kouhei and Miyagishi, Shunichi and Kageyama, Ichiro and Kuriyagawa,
	Yukiyo and Baba, Masayuki and Uchiyama, Hajime},
  title = {Construction of autonomous system for two wheeled vehicle},
  journal = {The Transportation and Logistics Conference},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {113--116},
  abstract = {In this study, we construct autonomous two wheeled vehicle (the Rider
	Robot) which uses for evaluation of two wheeled vehicle dynamics.
	The Rider Robot consists of electromechanical device and is operated
	by the control algorithm without a human rider. We consider the control
	algorithm which is separated into two parts, directional and standing
	control. The algorithm of standing stability is constructed for the
	model using the data based on maneuver of the rider using multiple
	regression analysis. The desired roll angle is adopted for the directional
	control by using of image processing and second order prediction
	model.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Takama2002},
  publisher = {The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers},
  url = {http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110002490912/en/}
}
@inproceedings{Talaia2008,
  author = {P Talaia and D. Moreno and M. Haj\v{z}man and L. Hyn\v{c}\'{i}k},
  title = {A 3D model of a human for powered two-wheeler vehicles},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of ISMA 2008},
  year = {2008},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Talaia2008}
}
@article{Tanaka2009,
  author = {Tanaka, Y. and Murakami, T.},
  title = {A Study on Straight-Line Tracking and Posture Control in Electric
	Bicycle},
  journal = {Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {56},
  pages = {159-168},
  number = {1},
  month = {January},
  abstract = {The development of automatic control for driving a bicycle is a challenging
	theme and is expected to be a human assist system. Previously, an
	acceleration-based method for stabilizing bicycle posture was proposed
	by the authors. In the experiments with this controller, the posture
	of the bicycle might be stabilized, but it is impossible to run on
	the desired trajectory, because there is no consideration with respect
	to a trajectory control. For the sake of expanding this system into
	more sophisticated equipment, a realization of the trajectory control
	for the bicycle is important. From the viewpoint of an assist system
	for human motion, a unified control of posture and trajectory brings
	a sophisticated function to a bicycle, and a high-performance bicycle
	is expected to be a convenient vehicle, similar to a small car. This
	paper proposes two strategies to stabilize bicycle posture and trajectory
	control that realizes a straight-line tracking: one is a lateral
	velocity controller, and the other is a steering function controller.
	The validity of the proposed approaches is evaluated by simulations
	and experiments.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Tanaka2009},
  doi = {10.1109/TIE.2008.927406},
  issn = {0278-0046},
  keywords = {bicycles, electric vehicles, motion control, nonlinear control systems,
	position control, velocity controlelectric bicycle, human assist
	system, lateral velocity controller, posture control, steering function
	controller, straight-line tracking, trajectory control}
}
@inproceedings{Tanaka2004,
  author = {Tanaka, Y. and Murakami, T.},
  title = {Self sustaining bicycle robot with steering controller},
  booktitle = {The 8th IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control, 2004.
	AMC '04},
  year = {2004},
  pages = { 193-197},
  month = {March},
  abstract = {Bicycle is a transportation device without any environmental burden.
	However, bicycle is unstable in itself and it is fall down without
	human assistance like steering handle or moving upper body. In these
	days, electric power assistance bicycles are used practically, but
	all of those bicycles merely assist human with pedal driving and
	there are no bicycles that help to stabilize its position. Hence,
	stabilizing the posture and realizing stable driving of a bicycle
	have been researched. Dynamic model of running bicycle is complicated
	and it's hard to recognize completely. However, assuming that the
	rider doesn't move upper body, dynamics of bicycle is represented
	in equilibrium of gravity and centrifugal force. Centrifugal force
	is risen out from the running velocity and turning radius determined
	by steering angle. Under these conditions, it is possible to stabilize
	bicycle posture by controlling its steering. In this paper, the dynamic
	model derived from equilibrium of gravity and centrifugal force is
	proposed. Then the control method for bicycle steering based on acceleration
	control is proposed. Finally, the validity of this method is proved
	by the simulations and experimental results.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Tanaka2004},
  doi = {10.1109/AMC.2004.1297665},
  issn = { },
  keywords = { acceleration control, electric drives, mobile robots, position control,
	stability, vehicle dynamics acceleration control, bicycle dynamics,
	bicycle posture, bicycle steering controller, centrifugal force,
	electric power assistance bicycles, pedal driving, self sustaining
	bicycle robot, transportation device}
}
@inproceedings{Tanaka2004a,
  author = {Y. Tanaka and T. Murakami},
  title = {The Bicycle Robot Driving on an Optimal Trajectory},
  booktitle = {IEEE Conf. Mechatronics \&Robotics},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {235--240},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Tanaka2004a}
}
@inproceedings{Tanelli2009,
  author = {M. Tanelli and M. Corno and P. De Filippi and S. Rossi and S. M.
	Savaresi and L. Fabbri},
  title = {Control-oriented steering dynamics analysis in sport motorcycles:
	modeling, identification and experiments},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification},
  year = {2009},
  address = {Saint-Malo, France},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Tanelli2009}
}
@inproceedings{Tanelli2006,
  author = {Tanelli, Mara and Schiavo, Francesco and Savaresi, Sergio M. and
	Ferretti, Gianni},
  title = {Object-oriented multibody motorcycle modelling for control systems
	prototyping},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Computer Aided Control System Design IEEE International
	Conference on Control Applications IEEE International Symposium on
	Intelligent Control},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {2695--2700},
  abstract = {This paper presents a simulation model for the dynamic behavior of
	a motorcycle developed in Modelica, within the Dymola environment,
	tailored to be employed for test and validation of active control
	systems for motorcycle dynamics. Specifically, we illustrate the
	modular approach to motorcycle modeling and discuss the tire-road
	interaction model, which is the crucial part of the simulator. Moreover,
	we propose a virtual driver model which allows to track a predefined
	trajectory and keep a target speed during different maneuvers. Finally,
	we investigate the problem of active braking control system design
	for motorcycles, proposing a braking control logic which can handle
	panic brakes on a curve. This analysis assesses the effectiveness
	of the proposed model for control systems prototyping.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Tanelli2006},
  doi = {10.1109/CACSD-CCA-ISIC.2006.4777065}
}
@inproceedings{Taro2000,
  author = {Sekine Taro and Okano Michiharu and Nagae Hiroyasu},
  title = {Analysis of Motorcycle's Behavior in the Pylon Course Slalom. Experimental
	Study on the Pylon Course Slalom of Motorcycles},
  booktitle = {JSAE Annual Congress},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {58-00},
  abstract = {The pylon slalom by motorcycle is different from the four-wheeled
	vehicle in the driving control; because of a motorcycle doesn't need
	only the required steer angle, but also the large roll angle that
	is necessary in a cornering. This paper shows above differences by
	the experimental study. To sum up the major characteristics of the
	motorcycle behaviors, the shape of steer torque isn't the sine curve
	when the running path expresses the sine curve and the various displacement
	motorcycles occur the maximum steering torque at the same velocity.
	The results will be useful to the construction of the rider model.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Taro2000}
}
@mastersthesis{Taura2007,
  author = {A. Taura},
  title = {Realization of Acrobatic Motions by Bike Robot with Balancer},
  school = {Tokyo Institute of Techinology},
  year = {2007},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Taura2007}
}
@inproceedings{Teerhuis2010,
  author = {Teerhuis, A. P. and Jansen, S. T. H.},
  title = {Motorcycle State Estimation for Lateral Dynamics},
  booktitle = {Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics 2010, Symposium on the Dynamics and
	Control of Single Track Vehicles},
  year = {2010},
  abstract = {The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main
	characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle
	motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for
	safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered.
	Direct measurement of the roll angle and tyre slip is not available;
	therefore a method of model-based estimation is developed to estimate
	the state of a motorcycle. This paper investigates the feasibility
	of such a Motorcycle State Estimator (MCSE). A simplified analytic
	dynamic model of a motorcycle is developed by comparison to an extended
	multi-body model of the motorcycle, designed in Matlab/SimMechanics.
	The analytic model is used inside an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF).
	Experimental results of an instrumented Yamaha FJR1300 motorcycle
	show that the MCSE is a feasible concept for obtaining signals related
	to the lateral dynamics of the motorcycle.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Teerhuis2010}
}
@article{Tezuka2001,
  author = {Yoshitaka Tezuka and Hidefumi Ishii and Satoru Kiyota},
  title = {Application of the magic formula tire model to motorcycle maneuverability
	analysis},
  journal = {JSAE Review},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {305 - 310},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {The Magic Formula Tire Model, recently utilized in maneuverability
	analysis for automobiles, was applied to a motorcycle simulation
	model. The correlation between the simulated and measured characteristics
	for straight running stability and turning performance was compared
	with those of the current Carpet Plotted Tire Model. Further, the
	ease of use of the Magic Formula was investigated. The results show
	that correlation with actual tire characteristics is high for the
	Magic Formula Tire Model and that the changing of tire properties
	can be easily accomplished with this model.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Tezuka2001},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/S0389-4304(01)00113-8},
  issn = {0389-4304},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V3Y-43F9CC2-9/2/d4e208c552f52dc67b5e79fc905cd12a}
}
@article{Thanh2008,
  author = {Bui Trung Thanh and Manukid Parnichkun},
  title = {Balancing Control of Bicyrobo by Particle Swarm Optimization-Based
	Structure-Specified Mixed $H_2/H_\infty$},
  journal = {International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {187--195},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Thanh2008}
}
@book{Timoshenko1948,
  title = {Advanced dynamics},
  publisher = {McGraw-Hill},
  year = {1948},
  author = {Timoshenko, S. and Young, D. H},
  address = {New York},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Timoshenko1948}
}
@article{Titlestad2006,
  author = {J. Titlestad and T. Fairlie-Clarke and A.R. Whittaker and M. Davie
	and I. Watt and S. Grant},
  title = {Effect of suspension systems on the physiological and psychological
	responses to sub-maximal biking on simulated smooth and bumpy tracks
	
	},
  journal = {Journal of Sports Sciences},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {125--135},
  number = {2},
  month = {February},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Titlestad2006},
  publisher = {Taylor and Francis},
  url = {http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/2779/}
}
@inproceedings{Troje2002a,
  author = {Nikolaus Troje},
  title = {The little difference: Fourier based synthesis of genderspecific
	biological motion},
  booktitle = {Dynamic Perception},
  year = {2002},
  editor = {Rolf P. W\"{u}rtz and Markus Lappe},
  pages = {115--120},
  address = {Berlin},
  publisher = {AKA Press},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Troje2002a}
}
@article{Troje2002,
  author = {N. F. Troje},
  title = {Decomposing biological motion: A framework for analysis and synthesis
	of human gait patterns},
  journal = {Journal of Vision},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {371-387},
  number = {5},
  month = {September},
  abstract = {Biological motion contains information about the identity of an agent
	as well as about his or her actions, intentions, and emotions. The
	human visual system is highly sensitive to biological motion and
	capable of extracting socially relevant information from it. Here
	we investigate the question of how such information is encoded in
	biological motion patterns and how such information can be retrieved.
	A framework is developed that transforms biological motion into a
	representation allowing for analysis using linear methods from statistics
	and pattern recognition. Using gender classification as an example,
	simple classifiers are constructed and compared to psychophysical
	data from human observers. The analysis reveals that the dynamic
	part of the motion contains more information about gender than motion-mediated
	structural cues. The proposed framework can be used not only for
	analysis of biological motion but also to synthesize new motion patterns.
	A simple motion modeler is presented that can be used to visualize
	and exaggerate the differences in male and female walking patterns.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Troje2002},
  doi = {10.1167/2.5.2},
  keywords = {gender classification, recognition, social recognition, animate motion},
  url = {http://journalofvision.org/2/5/2/}
}
@article{Troje2006,
  author = {Troje, Nikolaus F. and Sadr, Javid and Geyer, Henning and Nakayama,
	Ken},
  title = {Adaptation aftereffects in the perception of gender from biological
	motion},
  journal = {Journal of Vision},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {850-857},
  number = {8},
  month = {July},
  abstract = {Human visual perception is highly adaptive. While this has been known
	and studied for a long time in domains such as color vision, motion
	perception, or the processing of spatial frequency, a number of more
	recent studies have shown that adaptation and adaptation aftereffects
	also occur in high-level visual domains like shape perception and
	face recognition. Here, we present data that demonstrate a pronounced
	aftereffect in response to adaptation to the perceived gender of
	biological motion point-light walkers. A walker that is perceived
	to be ambiguous in gender under neutral adaptation appears to be
	male after adaptation with an exaggerated female walker and female
	after adaptation with an exaggerated male walker. We discuss this
	adaptation aftereffect as a tool to characterize and probe the mechanisms
	underlying biological motion perception.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Troje2006},
  keywords = {biological motion, adaptation, aftereffect, sex classification},
  url = {http://journalofvision.org/6/8/7/}
}
@article{Troje2005,
  author = {Nikolaus F. Troje and Cord Westhoff and Mikhail Lavrov},
  title = {Person identification from biological motion: Effects of structural
	and kinematic cues},
  journal = {Perception \& Psychophysics},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {67},
  pages = {667--675},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Troje2005}
}
@article{Udwadia2002,
  author = {F. E. Udwadia and R. E. Kalaba},
  title = {What is the General Form of the Explicit Equations of Motion for
	Constrained Mechanical Systems?},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mechanics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {69},
  pages = {335-339},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Udwadia2002},
  doi = {10.1115/1.1459071},
  keywords = {classical mechanics; dynamics; kinematics},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AMJ/69/335/1}
}
@techreport{Unkown1976,
  author = {Unkown},
  title = {Motorcycle Handling},
  institution = {NHTSA},
  year = {1976},
  number = {DOT-HS-6-01381},
  month = {July},
  note = {This is the first volume to the Weir study of 1979},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Unkown1976}
}
@article{Verlinden2012,
  author = {Verlinden, O. and Kabeya, P.},
  title = {Presentation and assessment of rideability of a novel single-track
	vehicle: the Anaconda},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {0},
  pages = {1-21},
  number = {0},
  abstract = { In this paper, a new single-track vehicle, the Anaconda, is presented
	and modelled according to a multibody theory. This articulated vehicle
	begins with a traditional bicycle, called the head module, followed
	by a succession of so-called pedal modules (PMs) equipped with one
	rear-steered wheel. Each module is connected to the preceding one
	by a spherical joint. To assess its dynamic behaviour, the model
	of an Anaconda with two PMs is simulated under the EasyDyn framework,
	a multibody library based on the minimal coordinates approach. The
	simulation of such a vehicle cannot be performed without the riders’
	action, consisting of the torques applied on the handlebars. The
	latter is implemented through controllers designed by optimal control,
	from the out-of-plane dynamics of the vehicle going straight ahead
	at 20 km/h. First, two optimal controllers are determined separately
	for the Head Module alone on one hand and for the Pedal Module alone
	on the other hand. They are then implemented on the Anaconda and
	it appears that the vehicle is close to instability and that the
	handling of the pedal modules is delicate but humanly possible. Finally,
	the difficulty in riding the Anaconda is evaluated through the so-called
	rideability index, which increases, as expected, with the amount
	of PMs, and shows that good psycho-motor skills will be needed to
	drive the Anaconda. },
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Verlinden2012},
  doi = {10.1080/00423114.2011.609282},
  eprint = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00423114.2011.609282},
  url = {http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00423114.2011.609282}
}
@article{Vinjamuri2010,
  author = {Vinjamuri, R. and Mingui Sun and Cheng-Chun Chang and Heung-No Lee
	and Sclabassi, R.J. and Zhi-Hong Mao},
  title = {Dimensionality Reduction in Control and Coordination of the Human
	Hand},
  journal = {Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {284 -295},
  number = {2},
  month = {February},
  abstract = {The concept of kinematic synergies is proposed to address the dimensionality
	reduction problem in control and coordination of the human hand.
	This paper develops a method for extracting kinematic synergies from
	joint-angular-velocity profiles of hand movements. Decomposition
	of a limited set of synergies from numerous movements is a complex
	optimization problem. This paper splits the decomposition process
	into two stages. The first stage is to extract synergies from rapid
	movement tasks using singular value decomposition (SVD). A bank of
	template functions is then created from shifted versions of the extracted
	synergies. The second stage is to find weights and onset times of
	the synergies based on l 1 -minimization, whose solutions provide
	sparse representations of hand movements using synergies.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Vinjamuri2010},
  doi = {10.1109/TBME.2009.2032532},
  issn = {0018-9294},
  keywords = {complex optimization problem;decomposition process;dimensionality
	reduction;hand movements;human hand control;human hand coordination;joint-angular-velocity
	profiles;kinematic synergy;minimization;singular value decomposition;sparse
	representations;template functions;biomechanics;kinematics;minimisation;optimisation;singular
	value decomposition;sparse matrices;Algorithms;Biomechanics;Hand;Hand
	Joints;Hand Strength;Humans;Models, Biological;Range of Motion, Articular;Signal
	Processing, Computer-Assisted;}
}
@inproceedings{Vrajitoru2005,
  author = {Dana Vrajitoru},
  title = {Multi-agent autonomous pilot for single-track vehicles},
  booktitle = {In Proceedings of the IASTED Conference on Modeling and Simulation},
  year = {2005},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Vrajitoru2005}
}
@inproceedings{Vries2010,
  author = {E.J.H. de Vries and J.F.A. den Brok},
  title = {Assessing slip of a rolling disc and the implementation of a tyre
	model in the benchmark bicycle},
  booktitle = {Proceedings, Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics 2010
	
	Symposium on the Dynamics and Control of Single Track Vehicles,},
  year = {2010},
  month = {October},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Vries2010}
}
@misc{Vroomen,
  author = {Hubert Gerard Jean Joseph Amaury Vroomen and Felix Godfried Peter
	Peeters and Hendrikus Martinus Wilhelmus Goossens},
  title = {Apparatus and method for determining roll angle of a motorcycle},
  note = {IPC8 Class: AB60Q104FI
	
	USPC Class: 362465
	
	United States Patent Application 20090222164},
  abstract = {An apparatus for determining roll angle of a motorcycle (1) as when
	taking a curve or bend in a road. The apparatus includes a first
	gyro sensor (11) that provides a roll rate signal, a second gyro
	sensor (12) that provides a yaw rate signal, and a velocity sensor
	(36). The apparatus is configured to integrate the roll rate signal
	to obtain a first intermediate roll angle value and to determine
	a second intermediate roll angle value from the yaw rate and the
	vehicle velocity. The apparatus combines the two intermediate roll
	angle values into an output value for the roll angle that can be
	used by a servo (50) to adjust the orientation of the headlamp so
	that the beam pattern remains leveled with the horizon when the motorcycle
	(1) rolls when taking a curve.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Vroomen}
}
@article{Waechter2002,
  author = {Waechter, M and Riess, F. and Zacharias, N.},
  title = {A multibody model for the simulation of bicycle suspension systems},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {3--28},
  number = {1},
  month = {January},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Waechter2002}
}
@article{Wallis2007,
  author = {Wallis, G. and Chatziastros, A. and Tresilian, J. and Tomasevic,
	N.},
  title = {The role of visual and nonvisual feedback in a vehicle steering task},
  journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychological Human Perception and Performance},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {1127--44},
  number = {5},
  month = {October},
  abstract = {This article investigates vehicle steering control, focusing on the
	task of lane changing and the role of different sources of sensory
	feedback. Participants carried out 2 experiments in a fully instrumented,
	motion-based simulator. Despite the high level of realism afforded
	by the simulator, participants were unable to complete a lane change
	in the absence of visual feedback. When asked to produce the steering
	movements required to change lanes and turn a corner, participants
	produced remarkably similar behavior in each case, revealing a misconception
	of how a lane-change maneuver is normally executed. Finally, participants
	were asked to change lanes in a fixed-based simulator, in the presence
	of intermittent visual information. Normal steering behavior could
	be restored using brief but suitably timed exposure to visual information.
	The data suggest that vehicle steering control can be characterized
	as a series of unidirectional, open-loop steering movements, each
	punctuated by a brief visual update.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wallis2007}
}
@techreport{Walton2005,
  author = {D. Walton and V. K. Dravitzki and B. S. Cleland and J. A. Thomas
	and R. Jackett},
  title = {Balancing the needs of cyclists and motorists},
  institution = {Land Transport New Zealand},
  year = {2005},
  number = {273},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Walton2005}
}
@article{Wang1997,
  author = {Wang, E.L. and Hull, M.L.},
  title = {A dynamic system model of an off-road cyclist},
  journal = {Transactions of the ASME. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {119},
  pages = {248-53},
  number = {3},
  month = {August},
  abstract = {To optimize the performance of off-road bicycle suspension systems,
	a dynamic model of the bicycle/rider system would be useful. This
	paper takes a major step toward this goal by developing a dynamic
	system model of the cyclist. To develop the cyclist model, a series
	of four vibrational tests utilizing random inputs was conducted on
	seven experienced off-road cyclists. This allowed the transfer functions
	for the arms and legs to be determined. To reproduce the essential
	features (i.e., resonance peaks) of the experimental transfer functions,
	the system model included elements representing the visceral mass
	along with the arms and legs. Through simulations, frequency responses
	of the system model of the rider in each of the four tests were computed.
	Optimal stiffness and damping parameter values for each subject were
	determined by minimizing the difference between the experimental
	and simulation results. Good agreement between experimental and simulation
	results indicates that modeling the rider as a lumped parameter system
	with linear springs and dampers is possible.},
  address = {USA},
  affiliation = {Wang, E.L.; Dept. of Mech. Eng., Nevada Univ., Reno, NV, USA.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wang1997},
  identifying-codes = {[A1997-21-8745-013],[0148-0731/97/\$3.00],[0148-0731(199708)119:3L.248:DSMR;1-C]},
  issn = {0148-0731},
  keywords = {Theoretical or Mathematical/ biomechanics; damping; physiological
	models; vibrations/ dynamic system model; transfer functions; off-road
	bicycle suspension systems; bicycle/rider system; vibrational tests;
	random inputs; experienced off-road cyclists; arms; legs; resonance
	peaks; visceral mass; frequency responses; optimal stiffness parameter
	value; optimal damping parameter values; rider; lumped parameter
	system; linear springs/ A8745 Biomechanics, biorheology, biological
	fluid dynamics; A8710 General, theoretical, and mathematical biophysics},
  language = {English},
  number-of-references = {25},
  publication-type = {J},
  publisher = {ASME},
  type = {Journal Paper},
  unique-id = {INSPEC:5703101}
}
@article{Wang1997a,
  author = {Eric L. Wang and Maury Hull},
  title = {Minimization of Pedaling Induced Energy Losses in Off-road Bicycle
	Rear Suspension Systems},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {291--306},
  number = {4},
  abstract = {This paper presents the results of an optimization analysis performed
	on off-road bicycles in which the energy loss induced as a result
	of pedaling action was minimized. A previously developed computer-based
	dynamic system model (Wang and Hull, Vehicle System Dynamics, 25:3,
	1996) was used to evaluate the power dissipated by a single pivot
	point rear suspension while pedalling uphill on a smooth surface.
	By systematically varying the location of the pivot point, the relationship
	between power dissipated and pivot location was determined. The optimal
	location was defined as the location which resulted in the least
	power dissipated. The simulation results show that the power dissipated
	was very dependent on the height above the bottom bracket but not
	the fore-aft location of the pivot point. If the pivot point is constrained
	to the seat tube, then the optimal pivot point was found to be 11
	cm above the bottom bracket. Compared to a commercially available
	design, the optimal pivot point reduced the power dissipated from
	6.9 to 1.2 Watts. Furthermore, the optimal pivot point was found
	to be very insensitive to pedaling mechanics, and both the spring
	and damping parameter values. The optimal pivot point did, however,
	have a linear dependence on the height of the chainline; as the chainline
	height increased so too did the optimal pivot point height.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wang1997a}
}
@article{Wang1987,
  author = {J. T. Wang and R. L. Huston},
  title = {Kane's Equations With Undetermined Multipliers---Application to Constrained
	Multibody Systems},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Mechanics},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {424-429},
  number = {2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wang1987},
  doi = {10.1115/1.3173031},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?AMJ/54/424/1}
}
@mastersthesis{Wang2011,
  author = {Xinqi Wang},
  title = {Test platform design and control of a bicycle-type two-wheeled autonomous
	vehicle},
  school = {University of Ontario Institute Of Technology},
  year = {2011},
  abstract = {Bicycle dynamics and behaviors have been vastly studied through modeling
	and
	
	simulation. Due to the complexity, software models are often assumed
	subjecting
	
	to dierent nonholonomic constraints in order to simplify the models
	and control
	
	algorithms. A real life autonomous bicycle faces perturbances from
	the road, wind,
	
	tire deformation, slipping among other external forces. Limitations
	of simulations
	
	will not always allow these to apply. All these issues make the autonomous
	bicycle
	
	research very challenging.
	
	To study the bicycle control problems a few research results from
	the literature
	
	are reviewed. A nonlinear bicycle model was used to conduct control
	simulations.
	
	Model based nonlinear controllers were applied to simulate the balance
	and path
	
	tracking control. A PID controller is more practical to replace the
	non-linear con-
	
	troller for the balance control. Simulation results of the dierent
	controllers are
	
	compared in order to decide the proper control strategies on the hardware
	platform.
	
	The controller design of the platform complies with practicality based
	on the hard-
	
	ware conguration. Two control schemes are implemented on the test
	platform;
	
	both are developed with PID algorithms. The rst scheme is a single
	PID control
	
	loop in which the controller takes the roll angle feedback and balances
	the running
	
	platform by means of steering. If the desired roll angle is zero the
	controller will try
	
	to hold the platform at the upright position. If the desired roll
	angle is non-zero
	
	the platform will be balanced at an equilibrium roll angle. A xed
	roll angle will
	
	lead to a xed steering angle as the result of balance control. The
	second scheme
	
	is directional control with balance consisting of two cascaded PID
	loops. Steering
	
	is the only means to control balance and direction. To do so the desired
	roll an-
	
	gle must be controlled to achieve the desired steering angle. The
	platform tilts to
	
	the desired side and steering follows to the same side of the tilt;
	the platform can
	
	then be lifted up by the centrifugal force and eventually balanced
	at an equilibrium
	
	roll angle. The direction can be controlled using a controlled roll
	angle. Many im-
	
	plementation issues have to be dealt with in order for the control
	algorithm to be
	
	functional. Dynamic roll angle measurement is implemented with complementary
	
	internal sensors (accelerometer and gyroscope). Directional information
	is obtained
	
	through a yaw rate gyroscope which operates on the principle of resonance.
	To mon-
	
	itor the speed of the platform, a rotational sensor was formed by
	using a hard drive
	
	stepper motor attached to the axis of the vehicle's driving motor.
	The optoelec-
	
	tronic circuit plays the vital role to ensure the system functionality
	by isolating the
	
	electromagnetic noise from the motors. Finally, in order to collect
	runtime data, the
	
	wireless communication is implemented through Bluetooth/RS232 serial
	interface.
	
	The data is then plotted and analyzed with Matlab. Controller gains
	are tuned
	
	through numerous road tests.
	
	Field test results show that the research has successfully achieved
	the goal of
	
	testing the low level control of autonomous bicycle. The developed
	algorithms are
	
	able to balance the platform on semi-smooth surfaces},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wang2011}
}
@article{Ward2006,
  author = {Ward, L.},
  title = {Gyrobike: Preventing Scraped Knees},
  journal = {Popular Mechanics},
  year = {2006},
  month = {November},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Ward2006}
}
@inproceedings{Watanabe1973,
  author = {Watanabe, Y. and K. Yoshida},
  title = {Motorcycle Handling Performance for Obstacle Avoidance},
  booktitle = {Second International Congress on Automotive Safety},
  year = {1973},
  address = {San Francisco},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Watanabe1973}
}
@phdthesis{Watkins2002,
  author = {Gregory Kendall Watkins},
  title = {The dynamic stability of a fully faired single track human powered
	vehicle},
  school = {University of North Carolina, Charlotte},
  year = {2002},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Watkins2002}
}
@article{Weir1970,
  author = {D.H. Weir and D.T. McRuer},
  title = {Dynamics of driver vehicle steering control},
  journal = {Automatica},
  year = {1970},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {87 - 98},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {The view point and principles of guidance and control theory provide
	the basis for analyzing the dynamics of driver steering control of
	motor vehicles. The resultant driver/vehicle system has as its elements
	the vehicle equations of motion, experimentally derived models for
	the human operator's dynamic response characteristics, and descriptions
	of the roadway environment. A variety of single-loop and multiloop
	systems are synthesized and examined to select several good, simple,
	and likely alternative configurations: time-advanced lateral deviation,
	path angle (or rate) plus inertial lateral deviation, and heading
	angle (or rate) plus inertial lateral deviation. These do not included
	all the possible multiloop driver/vehicle structures potentially
	capable of satisfying guidance and control requirements, but they
	do provide good performance in command-following and disturbance
	regulation, insensitivity to variations in the driver's dynamic adaptation,
	and good predicted subjective opinion from the driver. They are not
	inconsistent with perceptual data from recent driver experiments.
	The resultant models provide a new framework for devising future
	experiments, and can aid the vehicle and highway design process.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Weir1970},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0005-1098(70)90077-4},
  issn = {0005-1098},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V21-47TFYBH-R/2/2d66a43685765e23112c74eb3bafd148}
}
@techreport{Weir1979,
  author = {D.H. Weir and J. W. Zellner},
  title = {Experimental investigation of the transient behavior of motorcycles},
  year = {1979},
  note = {SAE Paper 790266},
  abstract = {Analytical and experimental studies of the transient and oscillatory
	behavior of motorcycles are reported. Three example vehicles were
	used. The effects of adding load, changing operating conditions,
	and modifying the vehicle configuration are shown. The phenomenon
	known as cornering weave is illustrated and interpreted.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Weir1979}
}
@inproceedings{Weir1973,
  author = {D. H. Weir},
  title = {A Manual Control View of Motorcycle Handling},
  booktitle = {Second International Congress of Automotive Safety},
  year = {1973},
  number = {73018},
  address = {San Francisco},
  month = {July 16-18},
  abstract = {Motorcycle handling dynamics and rider control processes are investigated.
	Lateral-directional control by means of upper body lean and steer
	torque is analyzed. Rider dynamic response properties, alternative
	perceptual cues, and motorcycle equations of motion are summarized.
	The motorcycle degrees of freedom included are lateral velocity,
	roll angle, heading rate, and front fork steer angle. The resulting
	motorcycle motions are characterized by a low frequency capisize
	mode, and two high frequency modes involving weaving and front fork
	assembly wobble. A number of rider feedback loops (control response
	to perceptual cues) are reviewed to determine those which satisfy
	both rider-centered and guidance and control requirements. A representative
	multiple-loop rider/cycle system control structure is shown, which
	serves to quantify rider/cycle response and performance, and provide
	a basis for determining the effect on handling performance of changes
	in cycle design configuration.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Weir1973}
}
@phdthesis{Weir1972,
  author = {Weir, David H.},
  title = {Motorcycle Handling Dynamics and Rider Control and the Effect of
	Design Configuration on Response and Performance},
  school = {University of California Los Angeles},
  year = {1972},
  type = {Ph{D} {D}issertation},
  address = {Los Angeles, {CA}},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Weir1972}
}
@article{Weir1983,
  author = {David H. Weir and John W. Zellner},
  title = {The Performance and Handling of a Top Fuel Drag Motorcycle},
  journal = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  year = {1983},
  month = {February},
  note = {SAE Paper 830157},
  abstract = {The design and development of a top fuel drag motorcycle are reviewed
	from the standpoints of performance, stability and handling, and
	rider safety. The paper begins with a summary of design requirements
	related to longitudinal performance, lateral/directional stability
	and control, structural properties, rider factors, organizational
	rules, and the fact that drag racing is a spectator sport. A contemporary
	top fuel dragster design is used as an example case study. Analytical
	results illustrate the effects of aerodynamics, and varying other
	design parameters, on performance and stability. A principal result
	is that adequate down load must be maintained on the front tire.
	The results suggest that safety and good handling need not compromise
	ultimate performance, and that the required tradeoffs can be guided
	by analysis at the design stage.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Weir1983}
}
@techreport{Weir1978,
  author = {David H. Weir and John W. Zellner},
  title = {Lateral-Directional Motorcycle Dynamics and Rider Control},
  institution = {SAE},
  year = {1978},
  number = {780304},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Weir1978},
  journal = {SAE}
}
@techreport{Weir1979a,
  author = {Weir, David H. and Zellner, John W. and Teper, Gar},
  title = {Motorcycle Handling},
  institution = {U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety
	Administration and Systems Technology, Inc.},
  year = {1979},
  type = {Technical Report},
  number = {Volume II},
  address = {Washington, D.C.},
  month = {May},
  abstract = {Analytical and experimental studies of the handling response and performance
	of motorcycles are reported. Five instrumented example vehicles were
	used. Steady turn, single lane change, cornering and braking, and
	cornering and accelearting tests were accomplished. Test procedures
	and measures are presented, together with subjective evaluations.
	Oscillatory behavior involving weave and wobble motions was investigated.
	The effects of adding load, changing operating conditions, and modifying
	vehicle configuration are shown. Braking tests were made with a motorcycle
	fitted with a prototype antilock brake system, and the results showed
	markedly superior performance on wet (low SN) surfaces. Linear and
	nonlinear digital computer simulations of motorcycle response and
	performance are described and demonstrated.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Weir1979a}
}
@article{Westhoff2007,
  author = {Westhoff, C. and Troje, N. F.},
  title = {Kinematic cues for person identification from biological motion},
  journal = {Perception Psychophysics},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {69},
  pages = {241-53},
  number = {2},
  month = {February},
  abstract = { We examined the role of kinematic information for person identification.
	Observers learned to name seven walkers shown as point-light displays
	that were normalized by their size, shape, and gait frequency under
	a frontal, half-profile, or profile view. In two experiments, we
	analyzed the impact of individual harmonics as created by a Fourier
	analysis of a walking pattern, as well as the relative importance
	of the amplitude and the phase spectra in walkers shown from different
	viewpoints. The first harmonic contained most of the individual information,
	but performance was also above chance level when only the second
	harmonic was available. Normalization of the amplitude of a walking
	pattern resulted in a severe deterioration of performance, whereas
	the relative phase of the point lights was only used from a frontal
	viewpoint. No overall advantage for a single learning viewpoint was
	found, and there is considerable generalization to novel testing
	viewpoints.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Westhoff2007}
}
@article{Whipple1899,
  author = {Whipple, Francis J. W.},
  title = {The stability of the motion of a bicycle},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics},
  year = {1899},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {312--348},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Whipple1899}
}
@book{Wierda1988,
  title = {Gangbare kinderfietsen op comfort, manoeuvreerbaarheid en remweg
	vergeleken},
  publisher = {Haren: Verkeerskundig Studiecentrum, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen},
  year = {1988},
  author = {M. Wierda and E. Roos},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wierda1988},
  institution = {Rijksuniversiteit Groningen},
  keywords = {bicycle, experimental, maneuvrability, stability, braking, comfort,
	traffic situation}
}
@book{Wierda1989,
  title = {Drie typen kinderfietsen op manoeuvreerbaarheid en remweg vergeleken},
  publisher = {Haren},
  year = {1989},
  author = {M. Wierda and J. Wolf},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wierda1989},
  keywords = {braking, bicycle, maneuvrability, experimental, traffic situation}
}
@techreport{Williams2009,
  author = {Blair R. Williams},
  title = {Autonomous Bicycle Roll Angle Control System},
  institution = {Hope College Department of Engineering},
  year = {2009},
  abstract = {The goal of this project was to design an autonomous bicycle roll
	angle control system.
	
	By controlling the roll angle of a moving bicycle, stability can be
	obtained for autonomous
	
	operation. Such a device can be used as the basis for developing more
	advanced types of
	
	automatically-driven two-wheeled robotic vehicles which are important
	for military
	
	reconnaissance or space exploration applications. A functional bicycle
	stability control system
	
	may also aid in the design of stability-assistive mechanisms in future
	human operated two-
	
	wheeled vehicles for safer operation. Additionally, such a device
	can be used to explore
	
	research-related questions as pertaining to inverted-pendulum-like
	control or made use of
	
	pedagogically for engineering control system classes at Hope College.
	
	Several design requirements were evaluated to develop this bicycle
	roll angle control
	
	system. For the control system to function autonomously, all system
	components were required
	
	to be mounted onboard the bicycle, including power sources. An accurate
	means of measuring
	
	roll angular states was required, as well as an easily reprogrammable
	interface for implementing
	
	various control methods. The design also called for a low cost design,
	as the project budget was
	
	limited to $800. Safety was also a vitally important factor in determining
	the product’s design.
	
	Additionally, little modifications to the original bicycle and low-maintenance
	system
	
	components were also desired of the developed device.
	
	To formulate a feasible design for a bicycle roll angle control system,
	several concepts
	
	were considered. For programming control methods and acquiring system
	data, a laptop-
	
	LabVIEW setup, FIRST Robotics controller, and I/O microprocessor board
	were all considered.
	
	To measure the bicycle’s system states, the various conceptual designs
	included use of a rear-
	
	wheel cart with an attached potentiometer, an accelerometer and rate
	gyro combination,
	
	ultrasonic sensors, a hanging mass with attached optical counter,
	and a motion-tracking camera.
	
	As the proposed control system required actuating both the bicycle’s
	rear wheel and handle bar
	
	steering angle, various configurations of stepper, DC, and servo motors
	were considered for
	
	driving these control system features. The concepts also evaluated
	several means of transmitting
	
	torque from these motors. Other unique features considered with the
	conceptual designs included
	
	use of an existing electric-powered bike or running the device stationary
	on a powered treadmill.
	
	The final roll angle control system design makes use of an onboard
	laptop equipped with
	
	LabVIEW for data acquisition and control implementation. A weighted
	average of sensor
	
	readings from an accelerometer configured as an inclinometer and the
	discrete integration of a
	
	rate gyro is used to obtain roll angle measurements. The developed
	prototype utilizes a stepper
	
	motor to actuate the required steering angle and a DC window motor
	to drive the bicycle.
	
	Batteries are mounted onboard the bicycle to power all the devices.
	Circuits were developed to
	
	configure all the electrical components, and both digital and physical
	filtering methods were
	
	applied across the measurement sensors’ output signals. A least-mean-squares
	fitting algorithm
	
	was used to identify physical parameters of the bicycle system for
	control implementation. The
	
	control system components are all interfaced with a LabVIEW program,
	and a control method is
	
	implemented. Thus far, the control system has succeeded in stabilizing
	the bicycle for brief runs.
	
	As improved control methods are developed and implemented from root
	locus analysis and
	
	model simulations, the finished prototype device is fully equipped
	with all of the necessary
	
	hardware specifications for realizing effective roll angle control.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Williams2009}
}
@techreport{Wilson1986,
  author = {David Gordon Wilson},
  title = {Understanding Pedal Power},
  institution = {Volunteers in Technical Assistance},
  year = {1986},
  abstract = {This paper is one of a series published by Volunteers in Technical
	
	Assistance to provide an introduction to specific state-of-the-art
	
	technologies of interest to people in developing countries.
	
	The papers are intended to be used as guidelines to help
	
	people choose technologies that are suitable to their situations.
	
	They are not intended to provide construction or implementation
	
	details. People are urged to contact VITA or a similar organization
	
	for further information and technical assistance if they
	
	find that a particular technology seems to meet their needs.
	
	
	The papers in the series were written, reviewed, and illustrated
	
	almost entirely by VITA Volunteer technical experts on a purely
	
	voluntary basis. Some 500 volunteers were involved in the production
	
	of the first 100 titles issued, contributing approximately
	
	5,000 hours of their time. VITA staff included Betsy Eisendrath
	
	as editor, Suzanne Brooks handling typesetting and layout, and
	
	Margaret Crouch as project manager.
	
	
	The author of this paper, VITA Volunteer David Gordon Wilson, is
	
	a mechanical engineer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
	
	The reviewers are also VITA Volunteers. John Furber is a consultant
	
	in the fields of renewable energy, computers, and business
	
	development. His company, Starlight Energy Technology, is based
	
	in California. Lawrence M. Halls is a retired mechanical engineer
	
	who designed farm machinery for Sperry-New Holland for 23
	
	years. Lauren Howard is a thinker, inventor, and bicycling advocate.
	
	She lives in Charlottesville, Virginia.
	
	
	VITA is a private, nonprofit organization that supports people
	
	working on technical problems in developing countries. VITA offers
	
	information and assistance aimed at helping individuals and
	
	groups to select and implement technologies appropriate to their
	
	situations. VITA maintains an international Inquiry Service, a
	
	specialized documentation center, and a computerized roster of
	
	volunteer technical consultants; manages long-term field projects;
	
	and publishes a variety of technical manuals and papers.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wilson1986}
}
@book{Wilson2004,
  title = {Bicycling Science},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  year = {2004},
  author = {Wilson, D. G. and Jim Papadopoulos},
  edition = {3rd},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wilson2004}
}
@article{Wilson1973,
  author = {S. S. Wilson},
  title = {Bicycle Technology},
  journal = {Scientific American},
  year = {1973},
  pages = {81--92},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wilson1973}
}
@inproceedings{Wilson-Jones1951,
  author = {Wilson-Jones, R. A.},
  title = {Steering and Stability of Single-Track Vehicles},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers (Auto Div)},
  year = {1951},
  pages = {191--199},
  note = {Part 4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wilson-Jones1951}
}
@book{Wingrove1971,
  title = {Comparison of methods for identifying pilot describing functions
	from closed-loop operating records},
  publisher = {National Aeronautics and Space Administration},
  year = {1971},
  author = {Wingrove, R.C.},
  series = {NASA technical note},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wingrove1971},
  url = {http://books.google.com/books?id=Nf3MmdHbC8IC}
}
@article{Wingrove1968,
  author = {Wingrove, R.C. and Edwards, F.G.},
  title = {Measurement of Pilot Describing Functions from Flight Test Data with
	an Example from Gemini X},
  journal = {Man-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {1968},
  volume = {9},
  pages = {49 -55},
  number = {3},
  month = {sept. },
  abstract = {It is well known that there is an error in identifying the pilot describing
	function from routine flight test records because the pilot's output
	noise is correlated with the input error signal. This paper shows
	that this identification error can be reduced in the computer processing
	by shifting the input signal an amount equivalent to the pilot's
	time delay. This technique for reducing the identification error
	is analyzed with theory and is demonstrated with the identification
	of a simulated pilot model. This technique is also applied to flight
	test records obtained from the retrofire phase of the Gemini X mission.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wingrove1968},
  doi = {10.1109/TMMS.1968.300037},
  issn = {0536-1540}
}
@book{Wingrove1969,
  title = {A technique for identifying pilot describing functions from routine
	flight-test records},
  publisher = {National Aeronautics and Space Administration},
  year = {1969},
  author = {Wingrove, R.C. and Edwards, F.G. and Ames Research Center},
  series = {NASA technical note},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wingrove1969},
  url = {http://books.google.com/books?id=7orOCGxqE1AC}
}
@article{Winkler1983,
  author = {Christopher B. Winkler and Michael R. Hagan},
  title = {A New Facility for Testing Motorcycle Tires},
  journal = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  year = {1983},
  month = {February},
  note = {SAE Paper 830154},
  abstract = {Analysis of the dynamic modes of the single-track vehicle has been
	hampered by the general lack of facilities for gathering force and
	moment data on motorcycle tires under dynamic test conditions. The
	facility described was designed and constructed by UMTRI under the
	sponsorship of the HONDA Research and Development Company in order
	to alleviate this problem. Unlike conventional tire dynamometers,
	this new facility allows for testing under dynamic conditions and
	provides for non-zero path curvature. These particular capabilities
	hold promise for advancement in the state-of-the-art understanding
	of the dynamic operating modes of the single-track, pneumatic-tired
	vehicle.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Winkler1983}
}
@article{Winter1995,
  author = {D. A. Winter},
  title = {Human balance and posture control during standing and walking},
  journal = {Gait \& Posture},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {193--214},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Winter1995}
}
@book{Wittenburg1977,
  title = {Dynamics of Systems of Rigid Bodies},
  publisher = {B.G. Teubner Stuttgart},
  year = {1977},
  author = {Wittenburg, Jens},
  pages = {224},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wittenburg1977}
}
@article{Wolchok1998,
  author = {Jeffrey C. Wolchok and M. L. Hull and Stephen M. Howell},
  title = {The effect of intersegmental knee moments on patellofemoral contact
	mechanics in cycling},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {677 - 683},
  number = {8},
  abstract = {The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bicycle pedal
	design on the mechanics of the patellofemoral joint. Previous research
	determined that for certain riders the non-driving varus and internal
	knee moments could be reduced by switching from fixed to free floating
	pedals (Ruby and Hull, 1993). It was postulated that the presence
	of varus and internal knee moments during fixed pedal cycling may
	adversely affect patellofemoral joint contact mechanics which could
	lead to the development of anterior knee pain. To investigate the
	effect of pedal design the hypothesis that varus and internal intersegmental
	knee moments significantly increase patellofemoral contact pressure,
	contact area and contact force was tested. To test this hypothesis
	cycling loads were simulated in vitro using a six-degree-of-freedom
	load application system (LAS). Using the LAS, varus moments ranging
	from 0-20 Nm and internal knee moments ranging from 0-10 Nm were
	applied simultaneously with quadriceps force at knee flexion angles
	of 60 and 90 degrees. Patellofemoral contact patterns were measured
	using pressure sensitive film. An applied 10 Nm internal moment
	significantly increased both contact area by 16% and contact force
	by 22% at 90° of flexion. The application of a 20 Nm varus moment
	modestly yet significantly increased contact area by 6% and contact
	force by 5%. When applied in combination, varus and internal knee
	moments increased contact area and force by as much as 29% and 28%
	respectively. The mean contact pressure was not significantly increased
	by either of the two moments. The results suggest that non-driving
	intersegmental knee moments subject the patellofemoral joint to loads
	and contact patterns which may accelerate the development of chondromalacia.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wolchok1998},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9290(98)00075-X},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  keywords = {Cycling},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-3VN1VM5-1/2/ad16c686854a5257aab7f5aa91b04f9b}
}
@inproceedings{Wu1991,
  author = {Wu, H. and Najafi, S. M. and Hagglund, R. R.},
  title = {Effect of a luggage carrier and weight distribution on motorcycle
	stability},
  booktitle = {American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Design Engineering Division
	(Publication) DE},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {40},
  address = {Atlanta, GA, USA},
  organization = {ASME},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wu1991}
}
@article{Wu1996a,
  author = {J.C. Wu and T.S. Liu},
  title = {Fuzzy Control Stabilization with Applications to Motorcycle Control},
  journal = {IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {836-847},
  number = {6},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wu1996a}
}
@article{Wu1996,
  author = {Wu, J. C. and Liu, T. S.},
  title = {A sliding-mode approach to fuzzy control design},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {4},
  pages = {141--151},
  number = {2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wu1996}
}
@article{Wu1996b,
  author = {Wu, J. C. and Liu, T. S.},
  title = {Stabilization control for rider-motorcycle model in Hamiltonian form},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {431--448},
  number = {6},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wu1996b}
}
@article{Wu1996c,
  author = {Wu, J. C. and Liu, T. S.},
  title = {Stabilization control of non-holonomic systems with application to
	rider-motorcycle systems},
  journal = {International Journal of Systems Science},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {1165--1175},
  number = {11},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wu1996c}
}
@article{Wu1995,
  author = {Wu, J. C. and Liu, T. S.},
  title = {Fuzzy control of rider-motorcycle system using genetic algorithm
	and auto-tuning},
  journal = {Mechatronics},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {5},
  pages = {441--455},
  number = {4},
  month = {June},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wu1995}
}
@article{Wu1994,
  author = {Wu, J. C. and Liu, T. S.},
  title = {Fuzzy model of rider control for a motorcycle undergoing lane change},
  journal = {International Journal of Vehicle Design},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {27--44},
  number = {1--2},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Wu1994}
}
@inproceedings{Yamaguchi2007,
  author = {Yamaguchi, T. and Shibata, T. and Murakami, T.},
  title = {Self-Sustaining Approach of Electric Bicycle by Acceleration Control
	Based Backstepping},
  booktitle = {Industrial Electronics Society, 2007. IECON 2007. 33rd Annual Conference
	of the IEEE},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {2610 -2614},
  month = {November},
  abstract = {Bicycle is high efficiency vehicle and suitable for an improvement
	of environmental problems from society's perspective. In the practical
	use, however, it has some demerits. For example it is not always
	stable. Therefore the motion stabilization is required for widespread
	applications. This paper focuses on the instability of bicycle running.
	In particular, a self-sustaining control strategy of electric bicycle
	motion using acceleration control based on backstepping is proposed.
	The proposed method makes it possible to improve running stability
	in low-speed range. The validity of the proposed algorithm is confirmed
	by numerical and experimental results.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yamaguchi2007},
  doi = {10.1109/IECON.2007.4460089},
  issn = {1553-572X},
  keywords = {acceleration control;backstepping;electric bicycle;motion stabilization;self-sustaining
	control strategy;acceleration control;bicycles;self-adjusting systems;}
}
@inproceedings{Yamakita2005,
  author = {Yamakita, Masaki and Utano, Atsuo},
  title = {Automatic control of bicycles with a balancer, Paper 1511181},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {1245-1250},
  address = {Monterey, {CA}},
  month = {July},
  organization = {IEEE/ASME},
  abstract = {In this paper, trajectory tracking and balancing control for autonomous
	bicycles with a balancer are discussed. In the proposed control method,
	an input-output linearization is applied for trajectory tracking
	control and a nonlinear stabilizing control is used for the balancing
	control. The control methods are designed independently first and
	their interference is compensated for later. The stability of the
	bicycles is ensured with the method even when the desired speed is
	zero. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by several
	numerical simulations using a detail model of a bicycle},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yamakita2005},
  doi = {10.1109/AIM.2005.1511181},
  keywords = {bicycles, control system synthesis, nonlinear control systems, position
	control, remotely operated vehicles, stabilityautomatic control,
	autonomous bicycles, balancing control, input-output linearization,
	trajectory tracking control}
}
@inproceedings{Yamakita2006,
  author = {Yamakita, M. and Utano, A. and Sekiguchi, K.},
  title = {Experimental Study of Automatic Control of Bicycle with Balancer},
  booktitle = {Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference
	on},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {5606-5611},
  month = {October},
  abstract = {In this paper, trajectory tracking and balancing control for autonomous
	bicycles with a balancer are discussed. In the proposed control method,
	an input-output linearization is applied for trajectory tracking
	control and a nonlinear stabilizing control is used for the balancing
	control. Even though control methods are designed independently,
	it is shown by several numerical simulations and experiments using
	a detail model and a real electric motor bike that the stability
	of the bicycles is ensured with the method even when the desired
	speed is zero and trajectory tracking to desired ones are achieved},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yamakita2006},
  doi = {10.1109/IROS.2006.282281},
  keywords = {bicycles, electric vehicles, mobile robots, nonlinear control systems,
	position control, stabilityautomatic bicycle control, autonomous
	bicycles, balancing control, electric motor bike, input-output linearization,
	nonlinear stabilizing control, trajectory tracking control}
}
@article{Yavin1998,
  author = {Y. Yavin},
  title = {Navigation and control of the motion of a riderless bicycle},
  journal = {Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {160},
  pages = {193--202},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yavin1998}
}
@article{Yavin1997,
  author = {Yavin, Y.},
  title = {Navigation and Control of the Motion of a Riderless Bicycle by Using
	a Simplified Dynamic Model},
  journal = {Mathematical and Computer Modeling},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {67--74},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yavin1997}
}
@article{Yeadon1990,
  author = {M. R. Yeadon},
  title = {The simulation of aerial movement--I. The determination of orientation
	angles from film data},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {59 - 66},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {Quantitative mechanical analyses of human movement require the time
	histories of the angles which specify body configuration and orientation.
	When these angles are obtained from a filmed performance they may
	be used to evaluate the accuracy of a simulation model. This paper
	presents a method of determining orientation angles and their rates
	of change from film data. The stages used comprise the synchronization
	of data obtained from two camera views, the determination of three-dimensional
	coordinates of joint centres, the calculation of an angle from a
	sequence of sine and cosine values and the curve fitting of angles
	using quintic splines. For each state, other possible approaches
	are discussed. Original procedures are presented for obtaining individual
	error estimates of both the film data and the calculated angles to
	permit the automatic fitting of quintic splines for interpolation
	and differentiation and for deriving the time history of an angle
	as a continuous function from a sequence of sine and cosine values.
	The method is applied to a forward somersault with twists and the
	average error estimate of 17 orientation angles is obtained as 2.1
	degrees.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yeadon1990},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(90)90369-E},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C0CT7F-7C/2/eec3f6f17db4bb2c66ae5b6711e91b5a}
}
@article{Yeadon1990a,
  author = {Yeadon, M. R.},
  title = {The Simulation of Aerial Movement-II. A Mathematical Inertia Model
	of the Human Body},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {67-74},
  abstract = {A mathematical inertia model which permits the determination of personalized
	segmental inertia parameter values from anthropometric measurements
	is described. The human body is modelled using 40 geometric solids
	which are specitkd by 95 anthropometric measurements. A ‘stadium’
	solid is introduced for modelling the torso segments using perimeter
	and width measurements. This procedure is more accurate than the
	use of elliptical dixs of given width and depth and permits a smaller
	number of such solids to be used. Inertia parameter values may be
	obtained for body models of up to 20 segments. Errors in total body
	mass estimates from this and other models are discussed with reference
	to the unknown lung volumes.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yeadon1990a}
}
@article{Yeadon1990b,
  author = {M. R. Yeadon},
  title = {The simulation of aerial movement--III. The determination of the
	angular momentum of the human body},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {75 - 83},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {A method is presented for determining the angular momentum of the
	human body about its mass centre for general three-dimensional movements.
	The body is modelled as an 11 segment link system with 17 rotational
	degrees of freedom and the angular momentum of the body is derived
	as a sum of 12 terms, each of which is a vector function of just
	one angular velocity. This partitioning of the angular momentum vector
	gives the contribution due to the relative segmental movement at
	each joint rather than the usual contribution of each segment. A
	method of normalizing the angular momentum is introduced to enable
	the comparison of rotational movements which have different flight
	times and are performed by athletes with differing inertia parameters.
	Angular momentum estimates were calculated during the flight phases
	of nine twisting somersaults performed on trampoline. Errors in film
	digitization made large contributions to the angular momentum error
	estimates. For individual angular momentum estimates the relative
	error is estimated to be about 10% whereas for mean angular momentum
	estimates the relative error is estimated to be about 1%.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yeadon1990b},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(90)90371-9},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C0CT7F-7F/2/c20b7cdd690bf293714f3f86bbf74b88}
}
@article{Yeadon1990c,
  author = {M. R. Yeadon and J. Atha and F. D. Hales},
  title = {The simulation of aerial movement--IV. A computer simulation model},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {23},
  pages = {85 - 89},
  number = {1},
  abstract = {A computer simulation model of human airborne movement is described.
	The body is modelled as 11 rigid linked segments with 17 degrees
	of freedom which are chosen with a view to modelling twisting somersaults.
	The accuracy of the model is evaluated by comparing the simulation
	values of the angles describing somersault, tilt and twist with the
	corresponding values obtained from film data of nine twisting somersaults.
	The maximum deviations between simulation and film are found to be
	0.04 revolutions for somersault, seven degrees for tilt and 0.12
	revolutions for twist. It is shown that anthropometric measurement
	errors, from which segmental inertia parameters are calculated, have
	a small effect on a simulation, whereas film digitization errors
	can account for a substantial part of the deviation between simulation
	and film values.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yeadon1990c},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/0021-9290(90)90372-A},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T82-4C0CT7F-7G/2/a14fa236ea28e727ea1407fefa2e65ae}
}
@article{Yeadon1989,
  author = {Yeadon, M. R. and Morlock, M.},
  title = {The Appropriate Use of Regression Equations for the Estimation of
	Segmental Inertial Properties},
  journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {22},
  pages = {683-689},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yeadon1989}
}
@article{Yeh1990,
  author = {Edge C. Yeh and Ying-Liang Chen},
  title = {Handling Analysis of a Motorcycle with Added Cambering of the Front
	Frame},
  journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {49-70},
  abstract = {Through linear analysis, the handling characteristics of the motorcycle
	with fixed control of added cambering of front frame are invesitgated
	under the variation of fixed and free controls of steering axis.
	The cornering responses and stability characteristics of the motorcycle
	are presented with the aid of the handling diagram. From numerical
	results for a typical motorcycle, it is found that the influence
	of the cambering of front frame on the cornering response of fixed
	steering control is opposite to that of free steering control. Moreover,
	the design philosophy of a so-called semi-direct steering mechanism,
	which cambers the front frame for cornering, is studied.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yeh1990}
}
@inproceedings{Yi2006,
  author = {Jingang Yi and Dezhen Song and Levandowski, A. and Jayasuriya, S.},
  title = {Trajectory tracking and balance stabilization control of autonomous
	motorcycles},
  booktitle = {Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006. Proceedings 2006 IEEE International
	Conference on},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {2583 -2589},
  month = {May},
  abstract = {We report a new trajectory tracking and balancing control algorithm
	for an autonomous motorcycle. Building on the existing modeling work
	of a bicycle, the new dynamic model of the autonomous motorcycle
	considers the bicycle caster angle and captures the steering effect
	on the vehicle tracking and balancing. The trajectory tracking control
	takes an external/internal model decomposition approach. A nonlinear
	controller is designed to handle the vehicle balancing. The motorcycle
	balancing is guaranteed by the system internal equilibria calculation
	and by the trajectory and system dynamics requirements. The proposed
	control system is validated by numerical simulations, and is based
	on a real prototype motorcycle system},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yi2006},
  doi = {10.1109/ROBOT.2006.1642091},
  issn = {1050-4729},
  keywords = {autonomous motorcycles;balance stabilization control;bicycle caster
	angle;nonlinear control;steering effect;trajectory tracking control;motorcycles;nonlinear
	control systems;position control;stability;steering systems;vehicle
	dynamics;}
}
@article{Yin2007,
  author = {Song Yin and Yuehong Yin},
  title = {Implementation of the Interactive Bicycle Simulator with Its Functional
	Subsystems},
  journal = {Journal of Computing Information Science and Engineering},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {160-166},
  abstract = {When equipped with a handlebar and pedal force display subsystem,
	motion-generating subsystem, and visual subsystem, the interactive
	bicycle simulator can bring riders a realistic cycling feeling. In
	the interactive bicycle simulator, the most important component is
	the rider-bicycle dynamic model. The Newton-Euler method is adopted
	to formulate this model. Real-time data gathered by sensors and identified
	from a terrain database system are used for calculation of the rider-bicycle
	dynamics. Simple and effective devices are constructed and driven
	by the outputs of the rider-bicycle dynamic model. These devices
	are successfully applied to the interactive bicycle simulator.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yin2007},
  keywords = {interactive bicycle simulator, rider-bicycle dynamics, force display
	device,Stewart platform}
}
@article{Yokomori1992,
  author = {Yokomori, Motomu and Higuchi, Kenji and Ooya, Takio},
  title = {RIDER'S OPERATION OF A MOTORCYCLE RUNNING STRAIGHT AT LOW SPEED},
  journal = {JSME International Journal, Series 3: Vibration, Control Engineering,
	Engineering For Industry},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {553-559},
  number = {4},
  month = {December},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yokomori1992}
}
@article{Yokomori1991,
  author = {Yokomori, Motomu; and Higuchi, Kenji and Ooya, Takio},
  title = {RIDER'S OPERATION ON THE MOTORCYCLE IN STRAIGHT RUNNING AT LOW SPEED},
  journal = {Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, C Hen/Transactions Of The Japan Society Of
	Mechanical Engineers, Part C},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {57},
  pages = {2621--2626},
  number = {540},
  month = {August},
  note = {2621-2626 0387-5024},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Yokomori1991}
}
@inbook{Young2003,
  chapter = {Spatial Orientation},
  title = {Principles and Practice of Aviation Psychology},
  publisher = {Erlbaum},
  year = {2003},
  editor = {P. S. Tang and M. A.Vidulich},
  author = {Young, L. R.},
  number = {3},
  address = {Mahwah, NJ},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Young2003}
}
@article{Zappa2001,
  author = {Bruno Zappa and Giovanni Legnani and Anton J. van den Bogert and
	Riccardo Adamini},
  title = {On the Number and Placement of Accelerometers for Angular Velocity
	and Acceleration Determination},
  journal = {Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {123},
  pages = {552-554},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zappa2001},
  doi = {10.1115/1.1386649},
  keywords = {accelerometers; angular velocity measurement; acceleration measurement},
  publisher = {ASME},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JDS/123/552/1}
}
@inproceedings{Zatsiorsky1983,
  author = {Zatsiorsky, V. and Seluyanov, V.},
  title = {The mass and inertia characteristics of the main segments of the
	human body},
  booktitle = {Biomechanics VIII-B},
  year = {1983},
  editor = {Matsui, H. and Kobayashi, K.},
  pages = {1152-l 159},
  address = {Illinois},
  organization = {Human Kinetic},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zatsiorsky1983}
}
@inproceedings{Zatsiorsky1990,
  author = {Zatsiorsky, V. and Seluyanov, V. and Chugunova, L.},
  title = {In vivo body segment inertial parameters determination using a gamma-scanner
	method},
  booktitle = {Biomechanics of Human Movement: Applications in Rehabilitation, Sports
	and Ergonomics},
  year = {1990},
  editor = {Berme, N. and Cappozzo, A.},
  pages = {186-202},
  address = {Ohio},
  publisher = {Bertec},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zatsiorsky1990}
}
@inproceedings{Zatsiorsky1993,
  author = {Zatsiorsky, V. M. and Raitsin, L. M. and Seluyanov, V. N. and Aruin,
	A. S. and Prilutzky, B. J.},
  title = {Biomechanical characteristics of the human body},
  booktitle = {Biomechanics and Performance in Sport},
  year = {1993},
  editor = {Baumann, W.},
  pages = {71-83},
  address = {Germany},
  organization = {Bundeninstitut f\"ur Sportwissenschaft},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zatsiorsky1993}
}
@inproceedings{Zatsiorsky1990a,
  author = {Zatsiorsky, V. M. and Seluyanov, V. N. and Chugunova, L. G.},
  title = {Methods of determining mass-inertial characteristics of human body
	segments},
  booktitle = {Contemporary Problems of Biomechanics},
  year = {1990},
  editor = {Chemyi G. G. and Regirer, S. A.},
  pages = {272-291},
  address = {Massachusetts},
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zatsiorsky1990a}
}
@techreport{Zellner1979,
  author = {Zellner, J. W. and Weir, D. H.},
  title = {Moped Directional Dynamics and Handling Qualities},
  year = {1979},
  number = {790260},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zellner1979}
}
@techreport{Zellner1978,
  author = {Zellner, J. W. and Weir, D. H.},
  title = {Development of Handling Test Procedures for Motorcycles},
  year = {1978},
  number = {780313},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zellner1978}
}
@misc{Zenkov1997,
  author = {Dmitry V. Zenkov and Anthony M. Bloch and Jerrold E. Marsden},
  title = {The Energy-Momentum Method for the Stability of Nonholonomic Systems},
  howpublished = {Technical Report},
  year = {1997},
  abstract = {In this paper we analyze the stability of relative equilibria of nonholonomic
	systems (that is, mechanical systems with nonintegrable constraints
	such as rolling constraints). In the absence of external dissipation,
	such systems conserve energy, but nonetheless can exhibit both neutrally
	stable and asymptotically stable, as well as linearly unstable relative
	equilibria. To carry out the stability analysis, we use a generalization
	of the energy-momentum method combined with the Lyapunov-Malkin Theorem
	and the center manifold theorem. While this approach is consistent
	with the energy-momentum method for holonomic systems, it extends
	it in substantial ways. The theory is illustrated with several examples,
	including the the rolling disk, the roller racer, and the rattleback
	top.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zenkov1997}
}
@article{Zeyada2000,
  author = {Zeyada, Y. and Hess, R. A.},
  title = {Modeling Human Pilot Cue Utilization with Applications to Simulator
	Fidelity Assessment},
  journal = {Journal of Aircraft},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {37},
  pages = {588-598},
  number = {4},
  month = {July-Aug.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zeyada2000}
}
@article{Zhang1995,
  author = {Zhang, Y. and M. Hubbard and K. Huffman},
  title = {Optimum Control of Bobsled Steering},
  journal = {Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {85},
  pages = {1--19},
  number = {1},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zhang1995}
}
@inproceedings{Zhang2010,
  author = {Yizhai Zhang and Jingang Yi},
  title = {Velocity Field-based Maneuver Regulation of Autonomous Motorcycles},
  booktitle = {5th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems},
  year = {2010},
  address = {Cambridge, MA, USA},
  month = {September},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zhang2010}
}
@article{Zupan2000,
  author = {Zupan, L. H. and Peterka, R. J. and Merfeld, D. M.},
  title = {Neural Processing of Gravito-Inertial Cues in Humans. I. Influence
	of the Semicircular Canals Following Post-Rotatory Tilt},
  journal = {Journal of Neurophysiology},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {84},
  pages = {2001-2015},
  number = {4},
  abstract = {Sensory systems often provide ambiguous information. Integration of
	various sensory cues is required for the CNS to resolve sensory ambiguity
	and elicit appropriate responses. The vestibular system includes
	two types of sensors: the semicircular canals, which measure head
	rotation, and the otolith organs, which measure gravito-inertial
	force (GIF), the sum of gravitational force and inertial force due
	to linear acceleration. According to Einstein's equivalence principle,
	gravitational force is indistinguishable from inertial force due
	to linear acceleration. As a consequence, otolith measurements must
	be supplemented with other sensory information for the CNS to distinguish
	tilt from translation. The GIF resolution hypothesis states that
	the CNS estimates gravity and linear acceleration, so that the difference
	between estimates of gravity and linear acceleration matches the
	measured GIF. Both otolith and semicircular canal cues influence
	this estimation of gravity and linear acceleration. The GIF resolution
	hypothesis predicts that inaccurate estimates of both gravity and
	linear acceleration can occur due to central interactions of sensory
	cues. The existence of specific patterns of vestibuloocular reflexes
	(VOR) related to these inaccurate estimates can be used to test the
	GIF resolution hypothesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured
	eye movements during two different protocols. In one experiment,
	eight subjects were rotated at a constant velocity about an earth-vertical
	axis and then tilted 90° in darkness to one of eight different evenly
	spaced final orientations, a so-called “dumping” protocol. Three
	speeds (200, 100, and 50°/s) and two directions, clockwise (CW) and
	counterclockwise (CCW), of rotation were tested. In another experiment,
	four subjects were rotated at a constant velocity (200°/s, CW and
	CCW) about an earth-horizontal axis and stopped in two different
	final orientations (nose-up and nose-down), a so-called “barbecue”
	protocol. The GIF resolution hypothesis predicts that post-rotatory
	horizontal VOR eye movements for both protocols should include an
	“induced” VOR component, compensatory to an interaural estimate of
	linear acceleration, even though no true interaural linear acceleration
	is present. The GIF resolution hypothesis accurately predicted VOR
	and induced VOR dependence on rotation direction, rotation speed,
	and head orientation. Alternative hypotheses stating that frequency
	segregation may discriminate tilt from translation or that the post-rotatory
	VOR time constant is dependent on head orientation with respect to
	the GIF direction did not predict the observed VOR for either experimental
	protocol.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zupan2000},
  eprint = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/84/4/2001.full.pdf+html},
  url = {http://jn.physiology.org/content/84/4/2001.abstract}
}
@phdthesis{Zytveld1975,
  author = {van Zytveld, P.},
  title = {A Method for the Automatic Stabilization of an Unmanned Bicycle},
  school = {Stanford University},
  year = {1975},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Zytveld1975}
}
@article{Astrom1980,
  author = {K.J. Åström},
  title = {Maximum likelihood and prediction error methods},
  journal = {Automatica},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {551 - 574},
  number = {5},
  abstract = {The basic ideas behind the parameter estimation methods are discussed
	in a general setting. The application to estimation or parameters
	in dynamical systems is treated in detail using the prototype problem
	of estimating parameters in a continuous time system using discrete
	time measurements. Computational aspects are discussed. Theoretical
	results in consistency, asymptotic normality and efficiency are covered.
	Model validation and selection of model structures are discussed.
	An example is given which illustrates some properties of the methods
	and shows the usefulness of interactive computing. Additional examples
	illustrate what happens when the data has different artefacts.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Astrom1980},
  doi = {10.1016/0005-1098(80)90078-3},
  issn = {0005-1098},
  keywords = {Computer-aided design},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0005109880900783}
}
@proceedings{SAE1973,
  title = {Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Automotive Safety},
  year = {1973},
  editor = {SAE},
  address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
  month = {July},
  organization = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#SAE1973}
}
@electronic{Arduino,
  month = {January},
  year = {2010},
  title = {Arduino electronics prototyping platform},
  organization = {Arduino},
  url = {http://www.arduino.cc/},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Arduino}
}
@electronic{ATmega328P,
  month = {January},
  year = {2010},
  title = {Atmel 8-bit AVR RISC ATmega328P},
  organization = {Atmel},
  url = {http://www.atmel.com/dyn/products/product\_card.asp?PN=ATmega328P},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#ATmega328P}
}
@proceedings{Manual1974,
  title = {Proceedings of the 10th Annual Congference on Manual Control},
  year = {1974},
  address = {Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, USA},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Manual1974}
}
@proceedings{AutoSafety1973,
  title = {Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Automotive Safety
	-- Volume I, Part One: Motorcycle Safety},
  year = {1973},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#AutoSafety1973}
}
@proceedings{AutoSafety1973a,
  title = {Proceedings of the second international congress on automotive safety
	-- Volume I, Part Two: Motorcycle Safety},
  year = {1973},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#AutoSafety1973a}
}
@proceedings{Manual1973,
  title = {Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference on Manual Control},
  year = {1973},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Manual1973}
}

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