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A list of references related to the bicycle dynamics, control and handling research project. They are organized by year, may have web links and an associated BibTex entry.

[Cole, 2012]
Cole, D. J. (2012). A path-following driver–vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics, including measured and simulated responses to a step in steering angle overlay. Vehicle System Dynamics, 0(0):1–24. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
An existing driver–vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics is improved in the areas of cognitive delay, intrinsic muscle dynamics and alpha–gamma co-activation. The model is used to investigate the influence of steering torque feedback and neuromuscular dynamics on the vehicle response to lateral force disturbances. When steering torque feedback is present, it is found that the longitudinal position of the lateral disturbance has a significant influence on whether the driver’s reflex response reinforces or attenuates the effect of the disturbance. The response to angle and torque overlay inputs to the steering system is also investigated. The presence of the steering torque feedback reduced the disturbing effect of torque overlay and angle overlay inputs. Reflex action reduced the disturbing effect of a torque overlay input, but increased the disturbing effect of an angle overlay input. Experiments on a driving simulator showed that measured handwheel angle response to an angle overlay input was consistent with the response predicted by the model with reflex action. However, there was significant intra- and inter-subject variability. The results highlight the significance of a driver’s neuromuscular dynamics in determining the vehicle response to disturbances.


[Cossalter et al., 2012]
Cossalter, V., Doria, A., Formentini, M., and Peretto, M. (2012). Experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of tyres’ properties on the straight running stability of a sport-touring motorcycle. Vehicle System Dynamics, 50(3):357–375. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
The behaviour of a motorcycle on the road is largely governed by tyre properties. This paper presents experimental and numerical analyses dealing with the influence of tyre properties on the stability of weave and wobble in straight running. The final goal is to find optimal sets of tyre properties that improve the stability of a motorcycle. The investigation is based on road tests carried out on a sport-touring motorcycle equipped with sensors. Three sets of tyres are tested at different speeds in the presence of weave and wobble. The analysis of telemetry data highlights significant differences in the trends of frequency and damping of weave and wobble against speed. The experimental analysis is integrated by a parametric numerical analysis. Tyre properties are varied according to the design of experiments method, in order to highlight the single effects on stability of lateral and cornering coefficient of front and rear tyres.


[Doria et al., 2012]
Doria, A., Formentini, M., and Tognazzo, M. (2012). Experimental and numerical analysis of rider motion in weave conditions. Vehicle System Dynamics, 0(0):1–14. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
Motorcycle dynamics is characterised by the presence of modes of vibration that may become unstable and lead to dangerous conditions. In particular, the weave mode shows large yaw and roll oscillations of the rear frame and out of phase oscillations of the front frame about the steer axis. The presence of the rider influences the modes of vibration, since the mass, stiffness and damping of limbs modify the dynamic properties of the system; moreover, at low frequency the rider can control oscillations. There are few experimental results dealing with the response of the rider in the presence of large oscillations of the motorcycle. This lack is due to the difficulty of carrying out measurements on the road and of reproducing the phenomena in the laboratory. This paper deals with a research programme aimed at measuring the oscillations of the rider's body on a running motorcycle in the presence of weave. First, testing equipment is presented. It includes a special measurement device that is able to measure the relative motion between the rider and the motorcycle. Then the road tests carried out at increasing speeds (from 160 to 210 km/h) are described and discussed. Best-fitting methods are used for identifying the main features of measured vibrations in terms of natural frequencies, damping ratios and modal shapes. The last section deals with the comparison between measured and simulated response of the motorcycle–rider system in weave conditions; good agreement was found.


[Dressel and Rahman, 2012]
Dressel, A. and Rahman, A. (2012). Measuring sideslip and camber characteristics of bicycle tyres. Vehicle System Dynamics, 0(0):1–14. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
Sideslip and camber tyre properties, the forces and moments a tyre generates as it rolls forward under different circumstances, have been found to be important to motorcycle dynamics. A similar situation may be expected to exist for bicycles, but limited bicycle tyre data and a lack of the tools necessary to measure it may contribute to its absence in bicycle dynamics analyses. Measuring these properties requires holding the tyre at a fixed orientation with respect to the pavement and its direction of travel, and then measuring the lateral force and torque about the steer axis generated as the tyre rolls forward. Devices exist for measuring these characteristics of automobile tyres. One device is known to exist specifically for motorcycle tyres, and it has been used at least once on bicycle tyres, but the minimum load it can apply is nearly double the actual load carried by most bicycle tyres. This paper presents a low-cost device that measures bicycle tyre cornering stiffness and camber stiffness.


[Fujii et al., 2012]
Fujii, S., Shiozawa, S., Shinagawa, A., and Kishi, T. (2012). Steering characteristics of motorcycles. Vehicle System Dynamics, 0(0):1–19. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
In this study, the results of a steady-state cornering test using a sport-touring motorcycle and the analysis of those test results are presented. This test was conducted as an activity in our efforts to realise a quantitative development method for motorcycles. The measurement data from this test include measurement results for tyre force, tyre moment, and tyre slip angle that have not been practically addressed in the research of motorcycles, in addition to normal measurement results for velocity, steering angle, steering torque, roll angle, etc. Until now research on motorcycle dynamics characteristics has indicated that ‘there is a strong relationship between the motorcycle dynamics characteristics and the tyre slip angle’. However, since it is difficult to take highly precise measurements of the motorcycle’s tyre slip angle during actual riding, especially when the motorcycle is tilted during cornering, such measurements have been avoided, cf. [H. Ishii and Y. Tezuka, Considerations of turning performance for motorcycle, SETC (1997), pp. 383–389]. Nevertheless, in this research we attempted to measure the tyre slip angle and also attempted to investigate in detail the dynamics characteristics and tyre characteristics during riding. Until now there has not been an adequate investigation conducted under a variety of riding conditions, but it is the aim of this research to show that it is possible to measure the tyre slip angle with a reasonable accuracy. It is our opinion that this will open a new path to a more detailed investigation of the motorcycle’s dynamics characteristics. In addition, we conducted measurements using not only the normal rider’s lean angle (lean-with posture), but also measurements in the case where the rider’s lean angle was intentionally changed, in order to investigate the effects that a change in the rider’s posture has on the variation in the measurement results of the motorcycle’s dynamics. Furthermore, we then compared these measurement results with the results obtained from simulations. Additionally, steering index values were calculated from the measurement results.


Keywords: inertial measurment unit,kalman filter,GPS,roll angle
[Hess et al., 2012]
Hess, R., Moore, J. K., and Hubbard, M. (2012). Modeling the manually controlled bicycle. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part A: Systems and Humans. Awaiting publication. [ bib ]
[Plöchl et al., 2012]
Plöchl, M., Edelmann, J., Angrosch, B., and Ott, C. (2012). On the wobble mode of a bicycle. Vehicle System Dynamics, 50(3):415–429. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
Wheel shimmy and wobble are well-known dynamic phenomena at automobiles, aeroplanes and motorcycles. In particular, wobble at the motorcycle is an (unstable) eigenmode with oscillations of the wheel about the steering axis, and it is no surprise that unstable bicycle wobble is perceived unpleasant or may be dangerous, if not controlled by the rider in time. Basic research on wobble at motorcycles within the last decades has revealed a better understanding of the sudden onset of wobble, and the complex relations between parameters affecting wobble have been identified. These fundamental findings have been transferred to bicycles. As mass distribution and inertial properties, rider influence and lateral compliances of tyre and frame differ at bicycle and motorcycle, models to represent wobble at motorcycles have to prove themselves, when applied to bicycles. For that purpose numerical results are compared with measurements from test runs, and parametric influences on the stability of the wobble mode at bicycles have been evolved. All numerical analysis and measurements are based on a specific test bicycle equipped with steering angle sensor, wheel-speed sensor, global positioning system (GPS) 3-axis accelerometer, and 3-axis angular velocity gyroscopic sensor.


[Schwab et al., 2012]
Schwab, A. L., Meijaard, J. P., and Kooijman, J. D. (2012). Lateral dynamics of a bicycle with a passive rider model: stability and controllability. Vehicle System Dynamics, 0(0):1–16. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
This paper addresses the influence of a passive rider on the lateral dynamics of a bicycle model and the controllability of the bicycle by steer or upper body sideway lean control. In the uncontrolled model proposed by Whipple in 1899, the rider is assumed to be rigidly connected to the rear frame of the bicycle and there are no hands on the handlebar. Contrarily, in normal bicycling the arms of a rider are connected to the handlebar and both steering and upper body rotations can be used for control. From observations, two distinct rider postures can be identified. In the first posture, the upper body leans forward with the arms stretched to the handlebar and the upper body twists while steering. In the second rider posture, the upper body is upright and stays fixed with respect to the rear frame and the arms, hinged at the shoulders and the elbows, exert the control force on the handlebar. Models can be made where neither posture adds any degrees of freedom to the original bicycle model. For both postures, the open loop, or uncontrolled, dynamics of the bicycle–rider system is investigated and compared with the dynamics of the rigid-rider model by examining the eigenvalues and eigenmotions in the forward speed range 0–10 m/s. The addition of the passive rider can dramatically change the eigenvalues and their structure. The controllability of the bicycles with passive rider models is investigated with either steer torque or upper body lean torque as a control input. Although some forward speeds exist for which the bicycle is uncontrollable, these are either considered stable modes or are at very low speeds. From a practical point of view, the bicycle is fully controllable either by steer torque or by upper body lean, where steer torque control seems much easier than upper body lean.


[Sharp, 2012]
Sharp, R. S. (2012). Rider control of a motorcycle near to its cornering limits. Vehicle System Dynamics, 0(0):1–16. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
Optimal linear quadratic control theory is applied to longitudinal and lateral control of a high-performance motorcycle. Central to the story is the use of sufficient preview of the road to obtain the full benefit available from it. The focus is on effective control near to the cornering limits of the machine, and gain scheduling according to speed and lateral acceleration is employed to ensure that the linear controller used at any time is the most appropriate to the running conditions. The motorcycle model employed and the control theory background are described briefly. Selected optimal controls and closed-loop system frequency responses are illustrated. Path-tracking simulations are discussed and results are shown. Excellent machine control near to the feasible cornering limit is demonstrated. Further work is needed to provide similarly excellent control under limit braking.


[Verlinden and Kabeya, 2012]
Verlinden, O. and Kabeya, P. (2012). Presentation and assessment of rideability of a novel single-track vehicle: the anaconda. Vehicle System Dynamics, 0(0):1–21. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
In this paper, a new single-track vehicle, the Anaconda, is presented and modelled according to a multibody theory. This articulated vehicle begins with a traditional bicycle, called the head module, followed by a succession of so-called pedal modules (PMs) equipped with one rear-steered wheel. Each module is connected to the preceding one by a spherical joint. To assess its dynamic behaviour, the model of an Anaconda with two PMs is simulated under the EasyDyn framework, a multibody library based on the minimal coordinates approach. The simulation of such a vehicle cannot be performed without the riders’ action, consisting of the torques applied on the handlebars. The latter is implemented through controllers designed by optimal control, from the out-of-plane dynamics of the vehicle going straight ahead at 20 km/h. First, two optimal controllers are determined separately for the Head Module alone on one hand and for the Pedal Module alone on the other hand. They are then implemented on the Anaconda and it appears that the vehicle is close to instability and that the handling of the pedal modules is delicate but humanly possible. Finally, the difficulty in riding the Anaconda is evaluated through the so-called rideability index, which increases, as expected, with the amount of PMs, and shows that good psycho-motor skills will be needed to drive the Anaconda.


[Maakaroun et al., 2011]
Maakaroun, S., Chevrel, P., Gautier, M., and Khalil, W. (2011). Modelling and simulation of a two wheeled vehicle with suspensions by using robotic formalism. In Proceedings of the 18th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control, Milano, Italy. [ bib ]
[Kooijman and Schwab, 2011]
Kooijman, J. D. G. and Schwab, A. L. (2011). A review on handling aspects in bicycle and motorcycle control. In Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. IDETC/CIE, number DETC2011-47963, Washington, DC, USA. [ bib ]
This paper gives an overview on handling aspects in bicycle and motorcycle control, from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Parallels are drawn with the literature on aircraft handling. The paper concludes with the open ends and promising directions for future work in the field of handling and control of single track vehicles.


[Suntharasantic and Wongsaisuwan, 2011]
Suntharasantic, S. and Wongsaisuwan, M. (2011). Piecewise affine model and control of bicycle by gyroscopic stabilization. In Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), 2011 8th International Conference on, pages 549 –552. [ DOI | bib ]
This paper considers the naturally unstable unmanned bicycle system at constant forward and rotational speeds. The bicycle is attached with a gyroscopic flywheel acting as an actuator for roll angle stabilization. The nonlinear model of the system is approximated by piecewise affine functions which minimizes the model error even outside the operating regions. The controller synthesis problem is cast as Linear Matrix Inequalities problem. The feasible control law is derived based on quadratic Lyapunov function to guarantee the system stability for all regions. The simulation confirms the effectiveness of this approach.


Keywords: LMI;actuator;bicycle control;constant forward speeds;controller synthesis problem;gyroscopic flywheel;gyroscopic stabilization;linear matrix inequalities problem;piecewise affine model;quadratic Lyapunov function;roll angle stabilization;rotational speeds;unmanned bicycle system;Lyapunov methods;actuators;affine transforms;bicycles;control system synthesis;linear matrix inequalities;remotely operated vehicles;stability;
[Akande et al., 2011]
Akande, F. B., Ahmad, D., and Fashina, A. B. (2011). Modelling the motion resistance of a pneumatic bicycle wheel. In Tillage for agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability conference, Ilorin, Nigeria. International Soil Tillage Research Organization. [ bib ]
The use of narrow wheels of which bicycle wheels are included have been proven to be one of the alternative solutions to soil compaction problems. Compaction caused by narrow wheels of higher inflation pressure is less than that caused by wider wheels of low inflation pressure. In this study, the motion resistance and motion resistance ratio of 660 mm bicycle wheel on the paved surface, grass field, tilled and wet surfaces have been measured empirically using the developed single wheel rolling resistance test rig for traction studies for non-lug narrow wheel. The motion resistance were measured as the towing force in real time using the Mecmesin Basic Force Gauge (BFG 2500). The respective effect of the dynamic load and towing velocity on motion resistance ratios have been modelled on different test surfaces. The mathematical modelling revealed that different relationships exist between the motion resistance ratio and the test variables on different test surfaces. These information will be useful in the development and operation of simple agricultural machines for low income farmers and the rural dwellers.


[Antonov et al., 2011]
Antonov, S., Fehn, A., and Kugi, A. (2011). Unscented kalman filter for vehicle state estimation. Vehicle System Dynamics, 49(9):1497–1520. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
Vehicle dynamics control (VDC) systems require information about system variables, which cannot be directly measured, e.g. the wheel slip or the vehicle side-slip angle. This paper presents a new concept for the vehicle state estimation under the assumption that the vehicle is equipped with the standard VDC sensors. It is proposed to utilise an unscented Kalman filter for estimation purposes, since it is based on a numerically efficient nonlinear stochastic estimation technique. A planar two-track model is combined with the empiric Magic Formula in order to describe the vehicle and tyre behaviour. Moreover, an advanced vertical tyre load calculation method is developed that additionally considers the vertical tyre stiffness and increases the estimation accuracy. Experimental tests show good accuracy and robustness of the designed vehicle state estimation concept.


[Cleary and Mohazzabi, 2011]
Cleary, P. A. and Mohazzabi, P. (2011). On the stability of a bicycle on rollers. European Journal of Physics, 32(5):1293. [ bib | http ]
Riding a bicycle on the newest form of indoor training, rollers, presents a unique experiment on bicycle stability. The stability factors eliminated by riding on rollers are discussed in terms of refined handling and control of the centre of mass on a bicycle. This paper is intended for undergraduate physics majors as well as any other general readership interested in the dynamics of bicycle stability.


[Escalona and Recuero, 2011]
Escalona, J. and Recuero, A. (2011). A bicycle model for education in multibody dynamics and real-time interactive simulation. Multibody System Dynamics, pages 1–20. 10.1007/s11044-011-9282-7. [ bib | http ]
This paper describes the use of a bicycle model to teach multibody dynamics. The bicycle motion equations are first obtained as a DAE system written in terms of dependent coordinates that are subject to holonomic and non-holonomic constraints. The equations are obtained using symbolic computation. The DAE system is transformed to an ODE system written in terms of a minimum set of independent coordinates using the generalised coordinates partitioning method. This step is taken using numerical computation. The ODE system is then numerically linearised around the upright position and eigenvalue analysis of the resulting system is performed. The frequencies and modes of the bicycle are obtained as a function of the forward velocity which is used as continuation parameter. The resulting frequencies and modes are compared with experimental results. Finally, the non-linear equations of the bicycle are used to create an interactive real-time simulator using Matlab-Simulink. A series of issues on controlling the bicycle are discussed. The entire paper is focussed on teaching engineering students the practical application of analytical and computational mechanics using a model that being simple is familiar and attractive to them.


[de Filippi et al., 2011]
de Filippi, P., Tanelli, M., Corno, M., and Savaresi, S. M. (2011). Enhancing active safety of two-wheeled vehicles via electronic stability control. In Proceedings of the 18th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control. [ bib ]
[Hwang et al., 2011]
Hwang, C.-L., Wu, H.-M., and Shih, C.-L. (2011). An autonomous dynamic balance of an electrical bicycle in motion using variable structure under-actuated control. Asian Journal of Control, 13(2):240–254. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Based on previous studies, two strategies, the controls of the center of gravity (CG) and the angle of steering handle, are employed to stabilize the bicycle in motion. In general, a pendulum is applied to adjust the CG of the bicycle. An additional factor is the inclination with respect to gravitational direction of the bicycle in motion (i.e., lean angle). As a whole, the system produces three outputs that will affect the dynamic balance of the electric bicycle: the angles of the pendulum, the lean, and the steering. The proposed control method used to generate the handle and pendulum torques is named variable structure under-actuated control (VSUAC), possessing the number of control inputs smaller than the system output. The purpose of using the VSUAC is the huge uncertainties of a bicycle system, often encountered with irregularities in ground conditions and gusts of wind. Merely using the ordinary proportional-derivative-integral (PID) control or other linear control methods usually do not show good robust performance when the aforementioned conditions are present. Finally, the simulations of the electrical bicycle in motion using ordinary PID control, modified proportional-derivative control (MPDC), and VSUAC are compared to judge the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed control.Copyright © 2010 John Wiley and Sons Asia Pte Ltd and Chinese Automatic Control Society


Keywords: Electrical bicycle, dynamic balance, variable structure under actuated control, modified proportional-derivative control, Lyapunov stability
[Jansen, 2011]
Jansen, A. (2011). Human Power: Empirically Explored. PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology. [ bib ]
[Keo and Yamakita, 2011]
Keo, L. and Yamakita, M. (2011). Control of an autonomous electric bicycle with both steering and balancer controls. Advanced Robotics, 25:1–22. [ DOI | bib | http ]
In this paper, we propose a new cooperation control algorithm for stabilizing and trajectory tracking of an unmanned electric bicycle. The simplified model of the bicycle with the balancer is derived from Lagrangian and non-holonomic constraints with respect to translation and rotation relative to the ground plane. The stabilizing control and trajectory control of an autonomous bicycle are derived independently based on the simplified model. The balancing control is derived based on the output-zeroing controller. The steering and balancer for stabilizing the bicycle are used when the linear velocity is zero or the system starts up. It is shown that a balancing control using both the steering and the balancer has a better performance than conventional ones with only balancer or steering. The trajectory tracking control is derived by an input-output linearization approach to track the path in the ground plane. The steering and the back wheel are used to design the trajectory control. The coupling of the steering between the balancing control and the trajectory control are set by weighting gain. The balancing and the trajectory control have been implemented with the real bicycle by using MATLAB XPC-TARGET. An autonomous electric bicycle can be controlled remotely <I>via</I> a host PC. Numerical simulation and experimental results are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.


[Lam and Sin, 2011]
Lam, P. Y. and Sin, T. K. (2011). Gyroscopic stabilization of a self-balancing robot bicycle. International Journal of Automation Technology, 5:916–923. [ bib ]
This paper reports the design and development of a self-balancing bicycle using off-the-shelf electronics. A self-balancing bicycle is an unstable nonlinear system similar to an inverted pendulum. Experimental results show the robustness and efficiency of the proportional plus derivative controller balancing the bicycle. The system uses a control moment gyroscope as an actuator for balancing.


[de Lange, 2011]
de Lange, P. (2011). Rider identification in bicycling: A preliminary analysis. Master's thesis, Delft University of Technology. [ bib ]
[Lupu et al., 2011]
Lupu, M. F., Sun, M., and Mao, Z.-H. (2011). Information transmission in human manual control of unstable systems. [ bib ]
The complexity of human-machine interaction (HMI) is growing rapidly in modern medical, industrial, and military systems. Human operators are often challenged by control of high-order systems or unstable systems near the limits of controllability. However, there is no quantitative indication of human performance and cognitive workload in these difficult HMI tasks. Here, we characterize HMI as information flows mea- sured in bits per second (b/s). We derive that for a normal human operator to stabilize highly unstable systems the information- transmission rate of manual control with one degree of freedom ranges between 3 and 4 b/s. This result reveals the potential and limitation of human manual control and is instructive to the design of HMI interfaces that may maximally utilize human control commands.


Keywords: Information transmission, manual control, un-stable systems
[Moore et al., 2011]
Moore, J. K., Kooijman, J. D. G., Schwab, A. L., and Hubbard, M. (2011). Rider motion identification during normal bicycling by means of principal component analysis. Multibody System Dynamics, 25:225–244. 10.1007/s11044-010-9225-8. [ bib | http ]
Recent observations of a bicyclist riding through town and on a treadmill show that the rider uses the upper body very little when performing normal maneuvers and that the bicyclist may, in fact, primarily use steering input for control. The observations also revealed that other motions such as lateral movement of the knees were used in low speed stabilization. In order to validate the hypothesis that there is little upper body motion during casual cycling, an in-depth motion capture analysis was performed on the bicycle and rider system. We used motion capture technology to record the motion of three similar young adult male riders riding two different city bicycles on a treadmill. Each rider rode each bicycle while performing stability trials at speeds ranging from 2 km/h to 30 km/h: stabilizing while pedaling normally, stabilizing without pedaling, line tracking while pedaling, and stabilizing with no-hands. These tasks were chosen with the intent of examining differences in the kinematics at various speeds, the effects of pedaling on the system, upper body control motions and the differences in tracking and stabilization. Principal component analysis was used to transform the data into a manageable set organized by the variance associated with the principal components. In this paper, these principal components were used to characterize various distinct kinematic motions that occur during stabilization with and without pedaling. These motions were grouped on the basis of correlation and conclusions were drawn about which motions are candidates for stabilization-related control actions.


[van den Ouden, 2011]
van den Ouden, J. H. (2011). Inventory of bicycle motion for the design of a bicycle simulator. Master's thesis, Delft University of Technology. [ bib ]
[Wang, 2011]
Wang, X. (2011). Test platform design and control of a bicycle-type two-wheeled autonomous vehicle. Master's thesis, University of Ontario Institute Of Technology. [ bib ]
Bicycle dynamics and behaviors have been vastly studied through modeling and simulation. Due to the complexity, software models are often assumed subjecting to di erent nonholonomic constraints in order to simplify the models and control algorithms. A real life autonomous bicycle faces perturbances from the road, wind, tire deformation, slipping among other external forces. Limitations of simulations will not always allow these to apply. All these issues make the autonomous bicycle research very challenging. To study the bicycle control problems a few research results from the literature are reviewed. A nonlinear bicycle model was used to conduct control simulations. Model based nonlinear controllers were applied to simulate the balance and path tracking control. A PID controller is more practical to replace the non-linear con- troller for the balance control. Simulation results of the di erent controllers are compared in order to decide the proper control strategies on the hardware platform. The controller design of the platform complies with practicality based on the hard- ware con guration. Two control schemes are implemented on the test platform; both are developed with PID algorithms. The rst scheme is a single PID control loop in which the controller takes the roll angle feedback and balances the running platform by means of steering. If the desired roll angle is zero the controller will try to hold the platform at the upright position. If the desired roll angle is non-zero the platform will be balanced at an equilibrium roll angle. A xed roll angle will lead to a xed steering angle as the result of balance control. The second scheme is directional control with balance consisting of two cascaded PID loops. Steering is the only means to control balance and direction. To do so the desired roll an- gle must be controlled to achieve the desired steering angle. The platform tilts to the desired side and steering follows to the same side of the tilt; the platform can then be lifted up by the centrifugal force and eventually balanced at an equilibrium roll angle. The direction can be controlled using a controlled roll angle. Many im- plementation issues have to be dealt with in order for the control algorithm to be functional. Dynamic roll angle measurement is implemented with complementary internal sensors (accelerometer and gyroscope). Directional information is obtained through a yaw rate gyroscope which operates on the principle of resonance. To mon- itor the speed of the platform, a rotational sensor was formed by using a hard drive stepper motor attached to the axis of the vehicle's driving motor. The optoelec- tronic circuit plays the vital role to ensure the system functionality by isolating the electromagnetic noise from the motors. Finally, in order to collect runtime data, the wireless communication is implemented through Bluetooth/RS232 serial interface. The data is then plotted and analyzed with Matlab. Controller gains are tuned through numerous road tests. Field test results show that the research has successfully achieved the goal of testing the low level control of autonomous bicycle. The developed algorithms are able to balance the platform on semi-smooth surfaces


[Biral et al., 2010]
Biral, F., Lot, R., Sartori, R., Borin, A., and Roessler†, B. (2010). An intelligent frontal collision warning system for motorcycles. In Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics 2010 Symposium on the Dynamics and Control of Single Track Vehicles, Delft, Netherlands. TU Delft. [ bib ]
Keywords: advanced rider assistance systems, frontal collision warning, optimal preview manoeuvre, motorcycle
[Cain and Perkins, 2010]
Cain, S. M. and Perkins, N. C. (2010). Comparison of a bicycle steady-state turning model to experimental data. In Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics 2010 Symposium on the Dynamics and Control of Single Track Vehicles, Delft, Netherlands. TU Delft. [ bib ]
Keywords: instrumented bicycle, steady turning, rider lean, steering torque. steer torque sensor
[Cerone et al., 2010]
Cerone, V., Andreo, D., Larsson, M., and Regruto, D. (2010). Stabilization of a riderless bicycle [applications of control]. Control Systems, IEEE, 30(5):23 –32. [ DOI | bib ]
The bicycle provides transportation for leisure, recreation, and travel between home and work, throughout the world, in big cities as well as in small villages, supporting human mobility for more than a century. Modeling, analysis, and control of bicycle dynamics has been an attractive area of research in the last century as well as in recent years. Bicycle dynamics has attracted the attention of the automatic control research community because of its peculiar features, such as, for example, the fact that it depends strongly on the bicycle speed and that, under certain conditions, it exhibits both open right-half plane poles and zeros, making the design of feedback controllers for either balancing the bicycle in the upright position or moving it along a predefined path a challenging problem. In this article, the LPV nature of the bicycle dynamics is exploited to design a control system that automatically balances a riderless bicycle in the upright position. More precisely, the problem is formulated as the design of an LPV state-feedback controller that guarantees stability of this two-wheeled vehicle when the speed varies within a given range and its derivative is bounded.


Keywords: LPV state-feedback controller design;automatic control research community;bicycle dynamics;bicycle speed;linear-parameter-varying approach;riderless bicycle balancing;riderless bicycle stabilization;bicycles;control system synthesis;linear systems;position control;stability;state feedback;vehicle dynamics;velocity control;
[Escalona and Recuero, 2010]
Escalona, J. and Recuero, A. (2010). A bicycle model for education in machine dynamics and real-time interactive simulation. In Proceedings, Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics 2010 Symposium on the Dynamics and Control of Single Track Vehicles,, Delft, The Netherlands. [ bib ]
[Liu et al., 2010]
Liu, Y. B., Ji, Q. H., Sun, X. C., and Han, J. H. (2010). Kinematics and trajectory tracking motion plan of an unmanned bicycle. Advanced Materials Research, 152 - 153:341–345. [ DOI | bib ]
Kinematics and ground plane trajectory tracking motion plan of an unmanned bicycle were researched in this paper. For the unmanned bicycle controlled by a steering torque, a pedaling toque and a tilting torque, rigorous kinematics model was set up and discussed, and when the ground plane trajectories and the bicycle tilting angular trajectory were given, by use of Back-stepping design means, the steering angular velocity, the rear wheel rotation angular velocity and the other motion parameters trajectories of the unmanned bicycle were planned and discussed, the simulation results showed that the kinematics model built was accurate and rigorous, all above motion parameter plans were reasonable.


Keywords: Kinematic, Motion Plan, Trajectory Tracking, Unmanned Bicycle
[Moore et al., 2010a]
Moore, J. K., Hubbard, M., Peterson, D. L., Schwab, A. L., and Kooijman, J. D. G. (2010a). An accurate method of measuring and comparing a bicycle's physical parameters. In Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics: Symposium on the Dynamics and Control of Single Track Vehicles, Delft, Netherlands. [ bib ]
[de Vries and den Brok, 2010]
de Vries, E. and den Brok, J. (2010). Assessing slip of a rolling disc and the implementation of a tyre model in the benchmark bicycle. In Proceedings, Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics 2010 Symposium on the Dynamics and Control of Single Track Vehicles,. [ bib ]
[Nehaoua et al., 2010]
Nehaoua, L., Khettat, A., Arioui, H., Imine, H., and Espie, S. (2010). Rider steer torque estimation for motorcycle riding simulator. In 5th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, Cambridge, MA, USA. [ bib ]
[Zhang and Yi, 2010]
Zhang, Y. and Yi, J. (2010). Velocity field-based maneuver regulation of autonomous motorcycles. In 5th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, Cambridge, MA, USA. [ bib ]
[Schwab and Kooijman, 2010a]
Schwab, A. L. and Kooijman, J. D. G. (2010a). Controllability of a bicycle. In 5th Asian Conference on Multibody Dynamics 2010, Kyoto, Japan. [ bib ]
[Schwab and Kooijman, 2010b]
Schwab, A. L. and Kooijman, J. D. G. (2010b). Lateral dynamics of a bicycle with passive rider model. In The 1st Joint International Conference on Multibody System Dynamics, Lappeenranta, Finland. [ bib ]
[Vinjamuri et al., 2010]
Vinjamuri, R., Sun, M., Chang, C.-C., Lee, H.-N., Sclabassi, R., and Mao, Z.-H. (2010). Dimensionality reduction in control and coordination of the human hand. Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, 57(2):284 –295. [ DOI | bib ]
The concept of kinematic synergies is proposed to address the dimensionality reduction problem in control and coordination of the human hand. This paper develops a method for extracting kinematic synergies from joint-angular-velocity profiles of hand movements. Decomposition of a limited set of synergies from numerous movements is a complex optimization problem. This paper splits the decomposition process into two stages. The first stage is to extract synergies from rapid movement tasks using singular value decomposition (SVD). A bank of template functions is then created from shifted versions of the extracted synergies. The second stage is to find weights and onset times of the synergies based on l 1 -minimization, whose solutions provide sparse representations of hand movements using synergies.


Keywords: complex optimization problem;decomposition process;dimensionality reduction;hand movements;human hand control;human hand coordination;joint-angular-velocity profiles;kinematic synergy;minimization;singular value decomposition;sparse representations;template functions;biomechanics;kinematics;minimisation;optimisation;singular value decomposition;sparse matrices;Algorithms;Biomechanics;Hand;Hand Joints;Hand Strength;Humans;Models, Biological;Range of Motion, Articular;Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted;
[Boniolo et al., 2010]
Boniolo, I., Corbetta, S., and Savaresi, S. M. (2010). Attitude estimation of a motorcycle in a kalman filtering framework. In 6th IFAC Symposium Advances in Automotive Control. [ bib ]
[Boniolo and Savaresi, 2010]
Boniolo, I. and Savaresi, S. M. (2010). Motorcycle lean angle estimation with frequency separation principle and angular rates measurements. In 6th IFAC Symposium Advances in Automotive Control. [ bib ]
[Brekke, 2010]
Brekke, S. E. (2010). Autonomous bicycle. Master's thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. [ bib ]
[Chen and Dao, 2010]
Chen, C.-K. and Dao, T.-K. (2010). A study of bicycle dynamics via system identification. In Computer Communication Control and Automation (3CA), 2010 International Symposium on, volume 2, pages 204–207. [ DOI | bib ]
This study investigates bicycle dynamic properties by using system identification approaches. The nonlinear bicycle model with configuration parameters from a previously developed benchmark model is studied. The roll angle of the bicycle is controlled at different speeds to generate input-output data including steering torque, roll and steering angles. The collected data are then used to identify the one-input two-output linear model by a prediction-error identification method using parameterization in canonical state-space form. Numerous properties for various speed ranges are discussed from the pole and zero locations of the identified linear model. The system stability, limit-cycle phase portraits of the roll and steering angles, and the non-minimum phase property of the nonlinear system are further investigated and compared.


Keywords: bicycle dynamics;input-output data;nonlinear bicycle model;steering torque;system identification;bicycles;steering systems;vehicle dynamics;
[Evertse, 2010]
Evertse, M. V. C. (2010). Rider analysis using a fully instrumented motorcycle. Master's thesis, Delft University of Technology. [ bib ]
[Keo et al., 2010]
Keo, L., Pornsarayouth, S., Yamakita, M., and Ito, K. (2010). Stabilization of an unmanned bicycle with flywheel balancer. In 8th IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Control Systems. [ bib ]
[Moore et al., 2010b]
Moore, J. K., Hubbard, M., Schwab, A. L., Kooijman, J. D. G., and Peterson, D. L. (2010b). Statistics of bicycle rider motion. Procedia Engineering, 2(2):2937–2942. The Engineering of Sport 8 - Engineering Emotion. [ DOI | bib | http ]
An overview of bicycle and rider kinematic motions from a series of experimental treadmill tests is presented. The full kinematics of bicycles and riders were measured with an active motion capture system. Motion across speeds are compared graphically with box and whiskers plots. Trends and ranges in amplitude are shown to characterize the system motion. This data will be used to develop a realistic biomechanical model and control model for the rider and for future experimental design.


Keywords: Bicycle dynamics
[Peterson et al., 2010]
Peterson, D. L., Moore, J. K., Fintelman, D., and Hubbard, M. (2010). Low-power, modular, wireless dynamic measurement of bicycle motion. Procedia Engineering, 2(2):2949–2954. The Engineering of Sport 8 - Engineering Emotion. [ DOI | bib | http ]
A low power, light-weight, and modular system of sensors and data acquisition hardware was developed to measure the configuration, velocities, and accelerations of a bicycle. Measurement of angular velocity of the bicycle frame, acceleration of three points fixed to the frame, steer angle, and wheel spin rates is implemented. Measurements will be compared with dynamic models of the bicycle and human rider in order to assess model fidelity. In this way, we hope to (1) better understand how humans control bicycles, and (2) pave the way for bicycle design improvements based on quantitative and relevant dynamic measurements.


Keywords: Bicycle dynamics
[Popov et al., 2010]
Popov, A. A., Rowell, S., and Meijaard, J. P. (2010). A review on motorcycle and rider modelling for steering control. Vehicle System Dynamics, 48(6):775–792. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
The paper is a review of the state of knowledge and understanding of steering control in motorcycles and of the existing rider models. Motorcycles are well known to have specific instability characteristics, which can detrimentally affect the rider's control, and as such a suitable review of these characteristics is covered in the first instance. Next, early models which mostly treat riding as a regulatory task are considered. A rider applies control based on sensory information available to him/her, predominantly from visual perception of a target path. The review therefore extends to cover also the knowledge and research findings into aspects of road preview control. Here, some more emphasis is placed on recent applications of optimal control and model predictive control to the riding task and the motorcycle–rider interaction. The review concludes with some open questions which naturally present a scope for further study.


[Teerhuis and Jansen, 2010]
Teerhuis, A. P. and Jansen, S. T. H. (2010). Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics. In Bicycle and Motorcycle Dynamics 2010, Symposium on the Dynamics and Control of Single Track Vehicles. [ bib ]
The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the roll angle and tyre slip is not available; therefore a method of model-based estimation is developed to estimate the state of a motorcycle. This paper investigates the feasibility of such a Motorcycle State Estimator (MCSE). A simplified analytic dynamic model of a motorcycle is developed by comparison to an extended multi-body model of the motorcycle, designed in Matlab/SimMechanics. The analytic model is used inside an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Experimental results of an instrumented Yamaha FJR1300 motorcycle show that the MCSE is a feasible concept for obtaining signals related to the lateral dynamics of the motorcycle.


[Ard, 2010]
(2010). Arduino electronics prototyping platform. [ bib | http ]
[ATm, 2010]
(2010). Atmel 8-bit avr risc atmega328p. [ bib | http ]
[Stone, 2009]
Stone, J. (2009). The is a test article. The Journal of Hamster Linguistics, 12(2):230–450. This is a note about the article. [ DOI | bib | http ]
This is the abstract about hamsters.


Keywords: hamster, bugs, cedar
[Giner et al., 2009]
Giner, D., Kang, J., and Manka, M. (2009). A "corner solver" for motorcycles as a tool for the development of a virtual rider. In Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 2009. VPPC '09. IEEE, pages 1110 –1117. [ DOI | bib ]
In this paper, a solver for the cornering analysis of motorcycles is presented. Its main outcome is the trim condition of the vehicle accelerating through a corner. There are several advantages of using this approach over a dynamic solution. Firstly, a controller is not needed to stabilize the motorcycle under the desired conditions and, secondly, the solution is much faster. The exploration of the motorcycle equilibrium points and their dependence on the speed and the corner radius will give a useful insight for the design of a virtual rider.


Keywords: corner solver;motorcycle equilibrium points;virtual rider;motorcycles;traffic engineering computing;vehicle dynamics;virtual reality;
[Moore et al., 2009a]
Moore, J. K., Kooijman, J. D. G., Hubbard, M., and Schwab, A. L. (2009a). A method for estimating physical properties of a combined bicycle and rider. In Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, IDETC/CIE 2009, San Diego, CA, USA. ASME. [ bib ]
A method is presented to estimate and measure the geometry, mass, centers of mass and the moments of inertia of a typical bicycle and rider. The results are presented in a format for ease of use with the benchmark bicycle model [1]. Example numerical data is also presented for a typical male rider and city bicycle.


[Rankin et al., 2009]
Rankin, J., Krauskopf, B., Lowenberg, M., and Coetzee, E. (2009). Operational parameter study of aircraft ground dynamics. In Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, San Diego, California, USA. ASME. [ bib ]
The dynamics of passenger aircraft on the ground are influenced by the nonlinear characteristics of several components, including geometric nonlinearities, the aerodynamics and interactions at the tyre-ground interface. We present a fully parametrised mathematical model of a typical passenger aircraft that includes all relevant nonlinear effects. The full equations of motion are derived from first principles in terms of forces and moments acting on a rigid airframe, and they include implementations of the local models of individual components. The overall model has been developed from and validated against an existing industry-tested SimMechanics model. The key advantage of the mathematical model is that it allows for comprehensive studies of solutions and their stability with methods from dynamical systems theory, in particular, the powerful tool of numerical continuation. As a concrete example, we present a bifurcation study of how fixed-radius turning solutions depend on the aircraft’s steering angle and centre of gravity position. These results are represented in a compact form as surfaces of solutions, on which we identify regions of stable turning and regions of laterally unstable solutions. The boundaries between these regions are computed directly and they allow us to determine ranges of parameter values for safe operation. The robustness of these results under the variation of an additional parameter, specifically, the engine thrust is investigated. Qualitative changes in the structure of the solutions are identified and explained. Overall our results give new insight into the possible turning dynamics of the aircraft in dependence on three parameters of operational relevance.


[Bianchi, 2009]
Bianchi (2009). 2007 bianchi pista specifications. [ bib ]
[Tanelli et al., 2009]
Tanelli, M., Corno, M., Filippi, P. D., Rossi, S., Savaresi, S. M., and Fabbri, L. (2009). Control-oriented steering dynamics analysis in sport motorcycles: modeling, identification and experiments. In Proceedings of the 15th IFAC Symposium on System Identification, Saint-Malo, France. [ bib ]
[Moore et al., 2009b]
Moore, J. K., Kooijman, J. D. G., and Schwab, A. L. (2009b). Rider motion identification during normal bicycling by means of principal component analysis. In Arczewski, K. and J. Fraczek, M. W., editors, Multibody Dynamics 2009, ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, Warsaw, Poland. [ bib ]
Recent observations of a bicyclist riding through town and on a treadmill show that the rider uses the upper body very little when performing normal maneuvers and that the bicyclist may in fact primarily use steering input for control. They also revealed that other motions such as lateral movement of the knees were used in low speed stabilization. In order to validate the hypothesis that there is little upper body motion during casual cycling, an in-depth motion capture analysis was performed on the bicycle and rider system. We used motion capture technology to record the motion of three similar young adult male riders riding two different city bicycles on a treadmill. Each rider rode each bicycle while performing stability trials at speeds ranging from 2 km/h to 30 km/h: stabilizing while pedaling normally, stabilizing without pedaling, line tracking while pedaling, and stabilizing with nohands. These tasks were chosen with the intent of examining differences in the kinematics at various speeds, the effects of pedaling on the system, upper body control motions and the differences in tracking and stabilization. Principal component analysis was used to transform the data into a manageable set organized by the variance associated with the principal components. In this paper, these principal components were used to characterize various distinct kinematic motions that occur during stabilization with and without pedaling. These motions were grouped on the basis of correlation and conclusions were drawn about which motions are candidates for stabilization related control actions.


[Norgia et al., 2009]
Norgia, M., Boniolo, I., Tanelli, M., Savaresi, S., and Svelto, C. (2009). Optical sensors for real-time measurement of motorcycle tilt angle. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 58(5):1640–1649. [ DOI | bib ]
This paper addresses the analysis and design of an optical sensor for the real-time measurement of the tilt angle in hypersport motorcycles. The aim of this paper is to design a compact, reliable, and low-cost optical triangulator that is capable of accurate in-field measurements in the harsh environment of sport motorcycles. An analytical computation of the required system sensitivity and achievable accuracy is carried out. The detrimental effects of solar interference are also described and discussed. The proposed instrumentation, which is realized with ad hoc laser emitters, is shown to have superior performance with respect to a previous solution based on light-emitting diode (LED) emitters. Such novel triangulators are shown to provide good and reliable performances for the proposed application to maintain low costs and small sizes, overcoming the problem of solar interference. The performance of the proposed sensor is assessed by experiments on an instrumented motorbike in a racetrack.


Keywords: angular measurement, measurement by laser beam, measurement uncertainty, motorcycles, optical design techniques, optical sensors, reliability, sport, vehicle dynamicsad hoc laser emitter, harsh environment, hypersport motorcycle, instrumented motorbike test, measurement uncertainity, optical sensor design, optical triangulator, racetrack, real-time tilt angle measurement, reliable performance, solar interference detrimental effects
[Arndt et al., 2009]
Arndt, D., Bobrow, J. E., Peters, S., Iagnemma, K., and Dubowsky, S. (2009). Self-balancing control of a four wheeled vehicle. Vehicle System Dynamics. [ bib ]
[Baldwin, 2009]
Baldwin, G. D. (2009). Open source multibody aeroelastic modeling, simulation, and video rendering. In Multibody Dynamics: An ECCOMAS Thematic Conference. [ bib ]
Multibody simulation and video animation are both powerful tools for analyzing, communicating, and promoting advanced vertical flight concepts. By combining these two activities, the rendered videos have the credibility of being physics based, and the multibody simulation results can be presented in a real world setting. This paper reports on the integration of two complimentary open source tools to create a general purpose multibody modeling, simulation, and video rendering environment that can be used for real-time pilot-in-the-loop or batch mode simulation and analysis. The two free open source tools that were integrated are MBDyn and Blender.


[Baslamisli et al., 2009]
Baslamisli, S. c., Köse, I. E., and Anlas, G. (2009). Gain-scheduled integrated active steering and differential control for vehicle handling improvement. Vehicle System Dynamics, 47(1):99–119. [ bib | http ]
This paper presents a gain-scheduled active steering control and active differential design method to preserve vehicle stability in extreme handling situations. A new formulation of the bicycle model in which tyre slip angles, longitudinal slips and vehicle forward speed appear as varying vehicle parameters is introduced. Such a model happens to be useful in the design of vehicle dynamics controllers scheduled by vehicle parameters: after having expressed the parametric bicycle model in the parametric descriptor form, gain-scheduled active steering and differential controllers are designed to improve vehicle handling at ‘large’ driver-commanded steering angles. Simulations reveal the efficiency of the selected modelling and controller design methodology in enhancing vehicle handling capacity during cornering on roads with varying adhesion coefficient and under variable speed operation.


[Boniolo et al., 2009]
Boniolo, I., Savaresi, S. M., and Tanelli, M. (2009). Roll angle estimation in two-wheeled vehicles. IET Control Theory and Applications, 3(1):20–32. [ DOI | bib ]
An innovative method for estimating the roll angle in two-wheeled vehicles is proposed. The roll angle is a crucial variable in the dynamics of two-wheeled vehicles, since it greatly affects the behaviour of the tire-road contact forces. Hence, the capability of providing in real time a reliable measure of such quantity allows us to evaluate the dynamic properties of the vehicle and its tyres, and represents the enabling technology for the design of advanced braking, traction and stability control systems. The method proposed is based on a low-cost sensor configuration, suitable for industrial purposes. The validity of the proposed approach is assessed in a multi-body motorbike simulator environment and also on an instrumented test vehicle.


Keywords: roll angle
[Brok, 2009]
Brok (2009). A simmechanics motorcycle tyre model for real time purposes. Master's thesis, Delft University of Technology. [ bib ]
[Connors, 2009]
Connors, B. (2009). Modeling and stability analysis of a recumbent bicycle with oscillating leg masses. Master's thesis, University of California, Davis. [ bib ]
[Connors and Hubbard, 2009]
Connors, B. and Hubbard, M. (2009). Modeling and stability analysis of a recumbent bicycle with oscillating leg masses. to be submitted to ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. [ bib ]
[Evertse, 2009]
Evertse, M. V. C. (2009). Rider analysis: Strengthen bridge between rider feeling and data. Technical report, Yamaha Motor Europe NV. [ bib ]
[Giner and Manka, 2009]
Giner, D. M. and Manka, M. (2009). Motorcycle dynamic models for virtual rider design and cornering analysis. In Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, IDETC/CIE 2009. [ bib ]
[Hess, 2009]
Hess, R. A. (2009). Analytical assessment of performance, handling qualities and added dynamics in rotorcraft flight control. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part A, Systems and Human, SMC-39(1):262–271. [ bib ]
[Hess and Marchesi, 2009]
Hess, R. A. and Marchesi, F. (2009). Analytical assessment of flight simulator fidelity using pilot models. Journal of Guidance, Dynamics, and Control. [ bib ]
[Hou et al., 2009]
Hou, Z.-C., ning Lu, Y., xin Lao, Y., and Liu, D. (2009). A new trifilar pendulum approach to identify all inertia parameters of a rigid body or assembly. Mechanism and Machine Theory, 44(6):1270 – 1280. [ DOI | bib | http ]
An improved approach is presented for using a trifilar pendulum to identify 10 inertia parameters of odd-shaped bodies. The parameters include the mass, the coordinates of the center of gravity, and the moments and products of inertia. Owing to carefully designed procedures of distance measurement and coordinate transform, no angular measurement is necessary for orientation description in the new approach. Balancing weights and load cells are introduced to facilitate the adjustments of the location and orientation of the body during tests. In order to evaluate the precision of the identified results, tentative error indices are suggested for the parameters, respectively. Two examples are given to demonstrate the new approach.


Keywords: Trifilar pendulum
[Incorporated, 2009]
Incorporated, N. D. (2009). Optotrak certus motion capture system. [ bib | http ]
[Klein, 2009]
Klein, R. (2009). Lose the training wheels. [ bib | http ]
[Kooijman and Schwab, 2009]
Kooijman, J. D. G. and Schwab, A. L. (2009). Experimental validation of the lateral dynamics of a bicycle on a treadmill. In Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, IDETC/CIE 2009, number DETC2009-86965. [ bib ]
[Kooijman et al., 2009]
Kooijman, J. D. G., Schwab, A. L., and Moore, J. K. (2009). Some observations on human control of a bicycle. In Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design and Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. [ bib ]
[Moore, 2009]
Moore, J. K. (2009). A comparison of bicycle dynamics, on and off the treadmill. Unpublished internal report, UC Davis. [ bib ]
[Murata, 2009]
Murata (2009). Murata boy. [ bib | http ]
[Paden et al., 2009]
Paden, B. E., Mirnateghi, N., Gentili, L., and Marconi, L. (2009). Designing nonlinear zero dynamics to reject periodic waveforms. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 131(4):044504. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Keywords: linear systems; nonlinear control systems; poles and zeros
[Papadopoulos, 2009]
Papadopoulos, J. (2009). Quantitative conclusions in "lords of the chainring". [ bib ]
[Peterson and Hubbard, 2009]
Peterson, D. L. and Hubbard, M. (2009). General steady turning of a benchmark bicycle model. In Proceedings of IDETC/MSNDC 2009 the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & 7th International Conference on Multibody Systems, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control, number DETC2009/MSNDC-86145. [ bib ]
We analyze general steady turns of a benchmark bicycle model in the case of nonzero applied steer torque. In a general steady turn, the lean and steer angles are constant, the velocity of the bicycle must ensure moment balance about the contact line, and some torque must be applied to maintain the constant steer angle. We identify two boundaries in lean–steer plane: first, the region of kinematic feasibility, and second, the region where steady turns are feasible. In the region of feasible steady turns, we present level curves of these steady turning velocities and steer torques. Additionally, we present level curves of mechanical trail in the lean–steer plane.


[Saccon and Hauser, 2009]
Saccon, A. and Hauser, J. (2009). An efficient newton method for general motorcycle kinematics. Vehicle System Dynamics, 47(2):221–241. [ DOI | bib ]
This paper presents a detailed study of the kinematics of single-track vehicles, with a special emphasis on motorcycles. We consider a general class of tyre profiles as well as general vehicle geometry. We show that the kinematic problem may be reduced to the problem of finding the zero of a (single) nonlinear equation in the pitch angle which may then be solved using a safeguarded Newton method, providing rapid convergence. Special care, enabled by the systematic use of rotation matrices, is taken to understand the range of pitch angles for which all quantities in the equation are well defined. The paper provides a fast and numerically reliable algorithm that can be used within analysis tools such as those involving numerical integration of system dynamics.


Keywords: kinematics; motorcycle; bicycle; single-track vehicles; Newton method
[Saguchi et al., 2009]
Saguchi, T., Takahashi, M., and Yoshida, K. (2009). Stable running control of autonomous bicycle robot for trajectory tracking considering the running velocity(mechanical systems). Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. C, 75(750):397–403. [ bib | http ]
Many researchers have focused attention on a stability analysis and a stabilization control of a bicycle as one of controlled objects, because the bicycle is an unstable and nonlinear vehicle. A steering wheel control is needed to stabilize the bicycle. Moreover, a velocity of the bicycle can be controlled. Thereby, it is expected that the change of the running velocity affects the stability of the bicycle. In this study, the stabilization and trajectory tracking control of the bicycle considering the running velocity is proposed in order to improve the stability and the tracking performance. The simulations are carried out to verify the performance of the control system and the effectiveness of the change of the running velocity. From the simulation results, it was confirmed that the tracking performance and the stability against the disturbances are improved.


[Stevens, 2009]
Stevens, D. (2009). The stability and handling characteristics of bicycles. Bachelor's thesis, The University of New South Wales. [ bib ]
[Tanaka and Murakami, 2009]
Tanaka, Y. and Murakami, T. (2009). A study on straight-line tracking and posture control in electric bicycle. Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 56(1):159–168. [ DOI | bib ]
The development of automatic control for driving a bicycle is a challenging theme and is expected to be a human assist system. Previously, an acceleration-based method for stabilizing bicycle posture was proposed by the authors. In the experiments with this controller, the posture of the bicycle might be stabilized, but it is impossible to run on the desired trajectory, because there is no consideration with respect to a trajectory control. For the sake of expanding this system into more sophisticated equipment, a realization of the trajectory control for the bicycle is important. From the viewpoint of an assist system for human motion, a unified control of posture and trajectory brings a sophisticated function to a bicycle, and a high-performance bicycle is expected to be a convenient vehicle, similar to a small car. This paper proposes two strategies to stabilize bicycle posture and trajectory control that realizes a straight-line tracking: one is a lateral velocity controller, and the other is a steering function controller. The validity of the proposed approaches is evaluated by simulations and experiments.


Keywords: bicycles, electric vehicles, motion control, nonlinear control systems, position control, velocity controlelectric bicycle, human assist system, lateral velocity controller, posture control, steering function controller, straight-line tracking, trajectory control
[Williams, 2009]
Williams, B. R. (2009). Autonomous bicycle roll angle control system. Technical report, Hope College Department of Engineering. [ bib ]
The goal of this project was to design an autonomous bicycle roll angle control system. By controlling the roll angle of a moving bicycle, stability can be obtained for autonomous operation. Such a device can be used as the basis for developing more advanced types of automatically-driven two-wheeled robotic vehicles which are important for military reconnaissance or space exploration applications. A functional bicycle stability control system may also aid in the design of stability-assistive mechanisms in future human operated two- wheeled vehicles for safer operation. Additionally, such a device can be used to explore research-related questions as pertaining to inverted-pendulum-like control or made use of pedagogically for engineering control system classes at Hope College. Several design requirements were evaluated to develop this bicycle roll angle control system. For the control system to function autonomously, all system components were required to be mounted onboard the bicycle, including power sources. An accurate means of measuring roll angular states was required, as well as an easily reprogrammable interface for implementing various control methods. The design also called for a low cost design, as the project budget was limited to 800. Safety was also a vitally important factor in determining the products design. Additionally, little modifications to the original bicycle and low-maintenance system components were also desired of the developed device. To formulate a feasible design for a bicycle roll angle control system, several concepts were considered. For programming control methods and acquiring system data, a laptop- LabVIEW setup, FIRST Robotics controller, and I/O microprocessor board were all considered. To measure the bicycles system states, the various conceptual designs included use of a rear- wheel cart with an attached potentiometer, an accelerometer and rate gyro combination, ultrasonic sensors, a hanging mass with attached optical counter, and a motion-tracking camera. As the proposed control system required actuating both the bicycles rear wheel and handle bar steering angle, various configurations of stepper, DC, and servo motors were considered for driving these control system features. The concepts also evaluated several means of transmitting torque from these motors. Other unique features considered with the conceptual designs included use of an existing electric-powered bike or running the device stationary on a powered treadmill. The final roll angle control system design makes use of an onboard laptop equipped with LabVIEW for data acquisition and control implementation. A weighted average of sensor readings from an accelerometer configured as an inclinometer and the discrete integration of a rate gyro is used to obtain roll angle measurements. The developed prototype utilizes a stepper motor to actuate the required steering angle and a DC window motor to drive the bicycle. Batteries are mounted onboard the bicycle to power all the devices. Circuits were developed to configure all the electrical components, and both digital and physical filtering methods were applied across the measurement sensorsoutput signals. A least-mean-squares fitting algorithm was used to identify physical parameters of the bicycle system for control implementation. The control system components are all interfaced with a LabVIEW program, and a control method is implemented. Thus far, the control system has succeeded in stabilizing the bicycle for brief runs. As improved control methods are developed and implemented from root locus analysis and model simulations, the finished prototype device is fully equipped with all of the necessary hardware specifications for realizing effective roll angle control.


[Kooijman and Schwab, 2008]
Kooijman, J. DG. and Schwab, AL. (2008). Some observations on human control of a bicycle. In Zobory, I., editor, 11th mini Conference on Vehicle System Dynamics, Identification and Anomalies (VSDIA2008), Budapest, Hungary, page 8. Budapest University of Technology and Economincs. [ bib ]
[Pucher and Buehler, 2008a]
Pucher, J. and Buehler, R. (2008a). Cycling for everyone: Lessons from europe. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2074:58–65. [ bib ]
This paper investigates how bicycling can be promoted as a safe and feasible means of transport for everyone and for all trip purposes. The policies and programs needed to encourage a broad spectrum of social groups to cycle are the same policies and programs that encourage high overall levels of cycling: extensive systems of separate cycling facilities, intersection modifications and priority bicycle traffic signals, traffic calming of neighborhoods, safe and convenient bike parking, coordination and integration of cycling with public transport, traffic education and training for both cyclists and motorists, and traffic laws that favor cyclists and pedestrians. To show how this multifaceted, coordinated approach actually works, we focus in this paper on cycling trends and policies in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany. We supplement our national level comparative analysis with case studies of large and small cities in each country.


[Sharp, 2008b]
Sharp, RS. (2008b). On the stability and control of the bicycle. Applied Mechanics Reviews, 61(6):24. [ DOI | bib ]
After some brief history, a mathematical model of a bicycle that has become a benchmark is described. The symbolic equations of motion of the bicycle are given in two forms and the equations are interpreted, with special reference to stability. The mechanics of autostabilization are discussed in detail. The relationship between design and behavior is shown to be heavily speed-dependent and complex. Using optimal linear preview control theory, rider control of the bicycle is studied. It is shown that steering control by an optimal rider, especially at low speeds, is powerful in comparison with a bicycle’s selfsteering. This observation leads to the expectation that riders will be insensitive to variations in design, as has been observed in practice. Optimal preview speed control is also demonstrated. Extensions to the basic treatment of bicycle dynamics in the benchmark case are considered so that the modeling includes more realistic representations of tires, frames, and riders. The implications for stability predictions are discussed and it is shown that the moderate-speed behavior is altered little by the elaborations. Rider control theory is applied to the most realistic of the models considered and the results indicate a strong similarity between the benchmark case and the complex one, where they are directly comparable. In the complex case, steering control by rider-lean-torque is feasible and the results indicate that, when this is combined with steer-torque control, it is completely secondary. When only rider-lean-torque control is possible, extended preview is necessary, high-gain control is required, and the controls are relatively complex. Much that is known about the stability and control of bicycles is collected and explained, together with new material relating to modeling accuracy, bicycle design, and rider control.


[Congleton, 2008]
Congleton, C. (2008). Results of the fall 2007 uc davis campus travel assessment. Technical Report UCD-ITS-RR-09-01, University of California Davis. [ bib ]
[Peterson and Hubbard, 2008b]
Peterson, DL. and Hubbard, M. (2008b). Yaw rate and velocity tracking control of a hands-free bicycle. In International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Boston. ASME. [ bib ]
The control of a bicycle has been well studied when a steer torque is used as the control input. Less has been done to investigate the control of a hands free bicycle through the rider’s lean relative to the bicycle frame. In this work, we extend a verified benchmark bicycle model to include a rider with the ability to lean in and out of the plane of the bicycle frame. A multi-input multi-output LQR state feedback controller is designed with the control objective being the tracking of a reference yaw rate and rear wheel angular velocity through the use of rider lean torque and rear wheel (pedaling) torque. The LQR controller is tested on the nonlinear model and numerical simulation results are presented. Conclusions regarding the required lean angle of the rider relative to the bicycle frame necessary to execute a steady turn are made, as well as observations of the effects of right half plane zeros in the transfer function from rider lean torque to yaw rate.


[Boniolo et al., 2008b]
Boniolo, I., Tanelli, M., and Savaresi, S. (2008b). Roll angle estimation in two-wheeled vehicles. In 17th IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Part of 2008 IEEE Multi-conference on Systems and Control, pages 31–36, San Antonio, Texas, USA. [ DOI | bib ]
In this work an innovative method for estimating the roll angle in two-wheeled vehicles is proposed. The capability of providing in real time a reliable measure of such quantity allows to evaluate the dynamic properties of the vehicle and its tires and represents the enabling technology for the design of advanced ABS systems and stability control systems. The method proposed in this work is based on a low-cost sensor configuration, suitable for industrial purposes. The validity of the proposed approach is assessed in a multi-body simulator environment and on an instrumented test vehicle.


Keywords: braking, control system synthesis, road vehicles, stability, vehicle dynamicsABS system design, antilock braking system, instrumented test vehicle, low-cost sensor configuration, multibody simulator environment, roll angle estimation, stability control system design, two-wheeled vehicle dynamics
[Defoort and Murakami, 2008]
Defoort, M. and Murakami, T. (2008). Second order sliding mode control with disturbance observer for bicycle stabilization. In Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2008. IROS 2008. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, pages 2822 –2827. [ DOI | bib ]
Controlling a riderless bicycle is a challenging problem because the dynamics are nonlinear. In this paper, an innovative robust control strategy based on 2nd order sliding mode control (SMC) is proposed for the stabilization of an autonomous bicycle. In order to improve overall performance, application of a disturbance observer (DOB) is suggested. The combination of 2nd order SMC and DOB enables to increase the robustness of the system trajectories while avoiding the chattering phenomenon. The proposed control scheme is validated by simulation and experimental results for bicycle stabilization at low and zero velocities.


Keywords: autonomous bicycle;bicycle stabilization;chattering phenomenon;disturbance observer;riderless bicycle;second order sliding mode control;bicycles;control nonlinearities;mobile robots;observers;road vehicles;robust control;variable structure systems;
[Connors and Hubbard, 2008]
Connors, B. and Hubbard, M. (2008). Modelling and stability analysis of a recumbent bicycle with oscillating leg masses. In Estivalet, M. and Brisson, P., editors, The Engineering of Sport 7, volume 1, pages 677–685. ISEA, Springer Paris. [ DOI | bib ]
It has been observed in the testing of a recumbent bicycle with a very low centre of gravity that the pedalling cadence can affect the rider’s ability to control the vehicle. To understand the relationship between cadence and bicycle stability, a multibody dynamic model is created. This model has nine massive rigid bodies: the bicycle frame with fixed rider torso (with head & and arms), the front fork with handlebars, the front wheel, the rear wheel, the left thigh, the right thigh, the left shank with foot, the right shank with foot, and the cranks. Nonlinear equations of motion are compiled in Autolev, a symbolic calculator using Kane’s method for multibody dynamics (Autolev, 2005). A simulation of the bicycle slowly accelerating from its starting speed (5 m/s) to its target speed (35 m/s) is run iteratively over several gear ratios. A steering controller is implemented to stabilize the bike outside its stable stable speed range. The simulation displays the lean and steer angles as well as steering control torque. Lean angle and control torque increase significantly with cadence, and steer angle increases slightly with cadence. This relationship is used to create a shifting strategy to reduce the control effort needed by the pilot during top top-speed speed-record attempts.


Keywords: recumbent bicycle modelling stability cadence
[Kuleshov, 2008]
Kuleshov, A. (2008). Nonlinear dynamics of a simplified skateboard model. In Estivalet, M. and Brisson, P., editors, The Engineering of Sport 7, volume 1, pages 135–142. ISEA, Springer Paris. [ DOI | bib ]
In this paper the further investigation and development for the simplified mathematical model of a skateboard with a rider are obtained. This model was first proposed by Mont Hubbard (Hubbard 1979, Hubbard 1980). It is supposed that there is no rider’s control of the skateboard motion. To derive equations of motion of the skateboard the Gibbs-Appell method is used. The problem of integrability of the obtained equations is studied and their stability analysis is fulfilled. The effect of varying vehicle parameters on dynamics and stability of its motion is examined.


Keywords: Skateboard Nonholonomic Constraints Integrability Stability of Motion
[Lew et al., 2008]
Lew, ES., Orazov, B., and O'Reilly, OM. (2008). The dynamics of charles taylor's remarkable one-wheeled vehicle. Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, 13:257–266. [ DOI | bib ]
[Keo and Masaki, 2008]
Keo, L. and Masaki, Y. (2008). Trajectory control for an autonomous bicycle with balancer, paper 4601741. In International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pages 676–681, Xi'an, China. IEEE/ASME. [ DOI | bib ]
In this paper, we propose a new trajectory tracking and balancing control for an unmanned bicycle with a balancer using a simplified model. The bicycle with the balancer dynamics is derived from Lagrangian and nonholonomic constraints with respect to translation and rotation relative to the ground plane. The trajectory tracking control is derived by an input-output linearization approach and an output-zeroing control is applied to the balancer for balancing the bicycle. The proposed control algorithm is guaranteed to maintain bicycle stability even when the linear velocity is zero without requiring a secondary controller. Numerical simulation show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.


Keywords: Autonomous Bicycle,Balance Control, Output Zeroing, Trajectory Tracking
[Ljung, 2008]
Ljung, L. (2008). Perspectives of system identification. In IFAC Congress, Seoul, South Korea. [ bib ]
[Pucher and Buehler, 2008b]
Pucher, J. and Buehler, R. (2008b). Making cycling irresistible: Lessons from the netherlands, denmark and germany. Transport Reviews, 28(4):495–528. [ bib | http ]
This article shows how the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany have made bicycling a safe, convenient and practical way to get around their cities. The analysis relies on national aggregate data as well as case studies of large and small cities in each country. The key to achieving high levels of cycling appears to be the provision of separate cycling facilities along heavily travelled roads and at intersections, combined with traffic calming of most residential neighbourhoods. Extensive cycling rights of way in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany are complemented by ample bike parking, full integration with public transport, comprehensive traffic education and training of both cyclists and motorists, and a wide range of promotional events intended to generate enthusiasm and wide public support for cycling. In addition to their many pro-bike policies and programmes, the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany make driving expensive as well as inconvenient in central cities through a host of taxes and restrictions on car ownership, use and parking. Moreover, strict land-use policies foster compact, mixed-use developments that generate shorter and thus more bikeable trips. It is the coordinated implementation of this multi-faceted, mutually reinforcing set of policies that best explains the success of these three countries in promoting cycling. For comparison, the article portrays the marginal status of cycling in the UK and the USA, where only about 1% of trips are by bike.


[Hwang et al., 2008]
Hwang, C.-L., Wu, H.-M., and Shih, C.-L. (2008). Fuzzy sliding-mode under-actuated control for autonomous dynamic balance of an electrical bicycle. In Fuzzy Systems, 2008. FUZZ-IEEE 2008. (IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence). IEEE International Conference on, pages 251 –257. [ DOI | bib ]
The purpose of this paper is to stabilize the running motion of an electrical bicycle. In order to do so, two strategies are employed in this paper. One is to control the bikepsilas center of gravity (CG), and the other is to control the angle of the bikepsilas steering handle. In addition, the proposed system produces three outputs that will affect the dynamic balance of an electrical bicycle: the bikepsilas pendulum angle, lean angle, and steering angle. Based on the data of input-output, two scaling factors are employed to normalize the sliding surface and its derivative. According to the concept of if-then rule, an appropriate rule table for the ith subsystem is obtained. Then the output scaling factor based on Lyapunov stability is determined. The proposed control method used to generate the handle torque and pendulum torque is called fuzzy sliding-mode under-actuated control (FSMUAC). The purpose of using the FSMUAC is the huge uncertainties of a bicycle system often caused by different ground conditions and gusts of wind; merely ordinary proportional-derivative-integral (PID) control method or other linear control methods usually do not show good robust performance in such situations.


Keywords: Lyapunov stability;angle control;autonomous dynamic balance;bike center of gravity;bike lean angle;bike pendulum angle;bike steering handle;electrical bicycle system;fuzzy sliding-mode under-actuated control;handle torque;if-then rule;output scaling factor;pendulum torque;rule table for;running motion stabilization;sliding surface;Lyapunov methods;angular velocity control;bicycles;fuzzy control;variable structure systems;
[Peterson and Hubbard, 2008a]
Peterson, DL. and Hubbard, M. (2008a). Analysis of the holonomic constraint in the whipple bicycle model, paper 267. In The Engineering of Sport 7, volume 2, pages 623–631, Biarritz, France. ISEA, Springer. [ bib ]
[Cox, 2008]
Cox, P. (2008). The role of human powered vehicles in sustainable mobility. Built Environment, 32(4):140–160. [ DOI | bib ]
As part of the move towards sustainable transport and urban mobility practices, increased cycle use is commonly advocated as a factor in this modal shift. New developments in cycle technology are beginning to introduce new classes of cycles and other human powered vehicles as options within a wider advocacy of cycling for urban mobility and which may offer advantages and greater opportunity for users. However, these innovations may also raise questions for the design and construction of the built environment. Drawing on a SCOT approach, this paper therefore examines the implications of some innovatory cycle designs and the limitations on their deployment that may arise through the interaction with wider design environments.


[Kooijman et al., 2008]
Kooijman, J. DG., Schwab, AL., and Meijaard, JP. (2008). Experimental validation of a model of an uncontrolled bicycle. Multibody System Dynamics, 19:115–132. [ DOI | bib ]
In this paper, an experimental validation of some modelling aspects of an uncontrolled bicycle is presented. In numerical models, many physical aspects of the real bicycle are considered negligible, such as the flexibility of the frame and wheels, play in the bearings, and precise tire characteristics. The admissibility of these assumptions has been checked by comparing experimental results with numerical simulation results. The numerical simulations were performed on a three-degree-of-freedom benchmarked bicycle model. For the validation we considered the linearized equations of motion for small perturbations of the upright steady forward motion. The most dubious assumption that was validated in this model was the replacement of the tires by knife-edge wheels rolling without slipping (non-holonomic constraints). The experimental system consisted of an instrumented bicycle without rider. Sensors were present for measuring the roll rate, yaw rate, steering angle, and rear wheel rotation. Measurements were recorded for the case in which the bicycle coasted freely on a level surface. From these measured data, eigenvalues were extracted by means of curve fitting. These eigenvalues were then compared with the results from the linearized equations of motion of the model. As a result, the model appeared to be fairly accurate for the low-speed low-frequency behaviour.


Keywords: Bicycle dynamics, Experiments, Instrumentation, Multibody dynamics, Non-holonomic constraints
[Pick and Cole, 2008]
Pick, A. and Cole, D. (2008). A mathematical model of driver steering control including neuromuscular dynamics. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 130(3):1–9. [ bib ]
A mathematical driver model is introduced in order to explain the driver steering behavior observed during successive double lane-change maneuvers. The model consists of a linear quadratic regulator path-following controller coupled to a neuromuscular system (NMS). The NMS generates the steering wheel angle demanded by the path-following controller. The model demonstrates that reflex action and muscle cocontraction improve the steer angle control and thus increase the path-following accuracy. Muscle cocontraction does not have the destabilizing effect of reflex action, but there is an energy cost. A cost function is used to calculate optimum values of cocontraction that are similar to those observed in the experiments. The observed reduction in cocontraction with experience of the vehicle is explained by the driver learning to predict the steering torque feedback. The observed robustness of the path-following control to unexpected changes in steering torque feedback arises from the reflex action and cocontraction stiffness of the NMS. The findings contribute to the understanding of driver-vehicle dynamic interaction. Further work is planned to improve the model; the aim is to enable the optimum design of steering feedback early in the vehicle development process.


Keywords: Practical, Theoretical or Mathematical/ biomechanics; closed loop systems; control system synthesis; driver information systems; feedback; linear quadratic control; neurophysiology; road vehicles; robust control; steering systems; torque control/ mathematical model; driver steering angle control; neuromuscular dynamics; double lane-change maneuver; linear quadratic regulator; reflex action; muscle cocontraction; destabilizing effect; cost function; road vehicle; torque feedback; driver-vehicle dynamic interaction; optimum design; path-following controller; closed loop system; robust control/ C3360B Road-traffic system control; C1330 Optimal control; C3120F Mechanical variables control; C1310 Control system analysis and synthesis methods; C1320 Stability in control theory
[Limebeer and Sharma, 2008]
Limebeer, D. and Sharma, A. (2008). The dynamics of the accelerating bicycle. In Communications, Control and Signal Processing, 2008. ISCCSP 2008. 3rd International Symposium on, pages 237–242. [ DOI | bib ]
Keywords: acceleration, braking, mechanical stability, vehicle dynamics, wheelsaccelerating bicycle, bicycle dynamics, braking, cornering, d Alemberts principle, forces of inertia, machine dynamics, road wheels, roll angle, stability
[Bassett Jr. et al., 2008]
Bassett Jr., DR., Pucher, J., Buehler, R., Thomason, DL., and Crouter, SE. (2008). Walking, cycling, and obesity rates in europe, north america, and australia. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 5:795–814. [ bib ]
[Besselink et al., 2008]
Besselink, I., Veldhuizen, T., and Nijmeijer, H. (2008). Improving yaw dynamics by feedforward rear wheel steering. In 2008 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. [ bib ]
[Boniolo et al., 2008a]
Boniolo, I., Norgia, M., Tanelli, M., Svelto, C., and Savaresi, SM. (2008a). Performance analysis of an optical distance sensor for roll angle estimation. In Proceedings of the 17th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control. [ bib ]
[Cossalter et al., 2008]
Cossalter, V., Bellati, A., Doria, A., and Peretto, M. (2008). Analysis of racing motorcycle performance with additional considerations for the mozzi axis. Vehicle System Dynamics, 46:815–826. [ bib ]
[Dean, 2008]
Dean, T. (2008). The Human-Powered Home: Choosing Muscles Over Motors. New Society Publishers. [ bib ]
[Evangelou et al., 2008]
Evangelou, S., Limebeer, D. JN., and Rodriguez, MT. (2008). Influence of road camber on motorcycle stability. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 75(6):231–236. [ DOI | bib | http ]
This paper studies the influence of road camber on the stability of single-track road vehicles. Road camber changes the magnitude and direction of the tire force and moment vectors relative to the wheels, as well as the combined-force limit one might obtain from the road tires. Camber-induced changes in the tire force and moment systems have knock-on consequences for the vehicle's stability. The study makes use of computer simulations that exploit a high-fidelity motorcycle model whose parameter set is based on a Suzuki GSX-R1000 sports machine. In order to study camber-induced stability trends for a range of machine speeds and roll angles, we study the machine dynamics as the vehicle travels over the surface of a right circular cone. Conical road surfaces allow the machine to operate at a constant steady-state speed, a constant roll angle, and a constant road camber angle. The local road-tire contact behavior is analyzed by approximating the cone surface by moving tangent planes located under the road wheels. There is novelty in the way in which adaptive controllers are used to center the vehicle's trajectory on a cone, which has its apex at the origin of the inertial reference frame. The results show that at low speed both the weave- and wobble-mode stabilities are at a maximum when the machine is perpendicular to the road surface. This trend is reversed at high speed, since the weave- and wobble-mode dampings are minimized by running conditions in which the wheels are orthogonal to the road. As a result, positive camber, which is often introduced by road builders to aid drainage and enhance the friction limit of four-wheeled vehicle tires, might be detrimental to the stability of two-wheeled machines.


Keywords: damping; friction; mechanical contact; mechanical stability; motorcycles; tyres; vehicle dynamics; wheels
[Fukui and Takahashi, 2008]
Fukui, K. and Takahashi, T. (2008). Study of the performance of a driver-vehicle system for changing the steering characteristics of a vehicle. R&D Review of Toyota CRDL, 40(4):20–25. [ bib ]
[Giner et al., 2008]
Giner, DM., Brenna, C., Symeonidis, I., and Kavadarlic, G. (2008). Mymosatowards the simulation of realistic motorcycle manoeuvres by coupling multibody and control techniques. In Proceedings of IMECE2008 2008 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, number IMECE2008-67297. [ bib ]
[Knight, 2008]
Knight, R. (2008). The bicyclist's paradox. The Physics Teacher, 46:275–279. [ bib ]
[Maggio and Cossalter, 2008]
Maggio, F. and Cossalter, V. (2008). How a rear steering system may improve motorcycle dynamics. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF VEHICLE DESIGN, 46(3):328–346. [ bib ]
This research investigates how motorcycle dynamics may be improved by applying a steering system on the rear wheel. The study is carried out using a widely validated multi-body model of motorcycle and rider. Two types of rear steering systems are compared: a self-steering wheel coupled with a spring-damper assembly and a controlled steering wheel, whose steering angle is governed accordingly to a first-order relationship between front and rear steering angle. In general, any rear steering system transfers energy from weave mode to wobble mode. Thus, both solutions stabilise high-speed weave, but increase instability when braking. The passive system shows unexpected reactions when accelerating in cornering condition, whereas the active system is almost neutral.


Keywords: motorcycle stability; weave; wobble; 2WS motorcycle; steering system
[Moore and Hubbard, 2008]
Moore, J. and Hubbard, M. (2008). Parametric study of bicycle stability. In Estivalet, M. and Brisson, P., editors, The Engineering of Sport 7, volume 2. International Sports Engineering Association, Springer Paris. [ DOI | bib ]
Bicycles are inherently dynamically stable and this stability can be beneficial to handling qualities. A dynamical model can predict the self-stability. Previous models determined the sensitivity of stability to changes in parameters, but have often used idealized parameters occurring in the equations of motion that were not possible to realistically change independently. A mathematical model of a bicycle is developed and verified. The model is used together with a physical parameter generation algorithm to evaluate the dependence of four important actual design parameters on the self-stability of a bicycle.


Keywords: bicycle, stability, parametric, dynamics, linear
[Moreno et al., 2008]
Moreno, D., Talaia, P., Cuyper, JD., and Lozano, M. (2008). Mymosa - a virtual motorcycle rider for closed-loop simulation of motorcycles. In Proceedings of ISAM 2008. [ bib ]
MYMOSA - Integrated motorcycle safety


[Pierini et al., 2008]
Pierini, M., Baldanzini, N., Brenna, C., Symeonidis, I., Schuller, E., and Peldschus, S. (2008). Development of a virtual rider. In Proceeding of ISMA2008. [ bib ]
[Provost et al., 2008]
Provost, MP., Troje, NF., and Quinsey, VL. (2008). Short-term mating strategies and attraction to masculinity in point-light walkers. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29(1):65 – 69. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Strategic pluralism suggests that women engage in short-term sexual relationships when the benefits to doing so outweigh the costs. We investigated attraction to indicators of good genes (namely, masculinity as demonstrated by point-light walkers) in women varying in menstrual cycle status and sociosexual orientation. When women are fertile, they have the ability to gain genetic benefits from a male partner and should also be attracted to high levels of masculinity in men as a signal of genetic benefits. Sociosexual orientation is an individual difference that indicates openness to short-term mating and, thus, should influence aspects of mating strategy. Women with an unrestricted sociosexual orientation, as compared to women with a restricted sociosexual orientation, are more likely to engage in short-term relationships and obtain fewer nongenetic resources from their mates. Thus, they should place heavy emphasis on male masculinity as a sign of genetic benefits available from their mates. In this study, women indicated the walker most attractive to them on a constructed continuum of male and female point-light walkers. In Study 1, fertile women, as compared to nonfertile women, showed a greater attraction to masculinity. In Study 2, women demonstrated a strong positive relationship between sociosexuality and attraction to masculinity.


Keywords: Sociosexuality
[Savaresi et al., 2008]
Savaresi, SM., Tanelli, M., Langthaler, P., and Del Re, L. (2008). New regressors for the direct identification of tire deformation in road vehicles via "in-tire" accelerometers. IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Dyn., 16(4):769–780. [ DOI | bib ]
The interaction between the tire and the road is crucial for determining the dynamic behavior of a road vehicle, and the road-tire contact forces are key variables in the design of traction, braking, and stability control systems. Traditionally, road-tire contact forces are indirectly estimated from vehicle-dynamics measurements (chassis accelerations, yaw-roll rates, suspension deflections, etc.). The emerging of the ldquosmart-tirerdquo concept (tire with embedded sensors and digital-computing capability) has made possible, in principle, a more direct estimation of contact forces. In this field - still in its infancy - the main open problems are the choice of the sensor(s) and the choice of the regressor(s) to be used for force estimation. The objective of this work is to present a new sensor-regressor choice, and to provide some preliminary experimental results, which confirm the validity of this choice. The idea is to use a wheel encoder and an accelerometer mounted directly in the tire. The measurement of the in-tire acceleration is transmitted through a wireless channel. The key innovative concept is to use the phase shift between the wheel encoder and the pulse-like signals provided by the accelerometer as the main regressor for force estimation.


Keywords: accelerometers, road traffic, road vehicles, tyres, force estimation, in-tire acceleration, in-tire accelerometers, phase shift, road vehicles, road-tire contact forces, sensor-regressor choice, stability control systems, tire deformation, vehicle-dynamics measurements, wireless channel, yaw-roll rates, Road vehicles, identification, road vehicle control, road vehicle identification, signal processing
[Schwab et al., 2008]
Schwab, AL., Kooijman, J. DG., and Meijaard, JP. (2008). Some recent developments in bicycle dynamics and control. In Belyaev, AK. and Indeitsev, DA., editors, Fourth European Conference on Structural Control (4ECSC), pages 695–702. Institute of Problems in Mechanical Engineering, Russian Academy of Sciences. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 2008a]
Sharp, RS. (2008a). Dynamical Analysis of Vehicle Systems, volume 497 of CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, chapter Dynamics of Motorcycles: Stability and Control, pages 183–230. Springer Vienna. [ DOI | bib ]
[Sheets and Hubbard, 2008]
Sheets, AL. and Hubbard, M. (2008). Evaluation of a subject specific female gymnast model and simulation of an uneven parallel bar swing. Journal of Biomechanics, 41(15):3139–3144. [ bib ]
[Spry and Girard, 2008]
Spry, SC. and Girard, AR. (2008). Gyroscopic stabilization of unstable vehicles: Congurations, dynamics, and control. Technical report, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. [ bib ]
We consider active gyroscopic stabilization of unstable bodies such as two-wheeled monorails, twowheeled cars, or unmanned bicycles. It has been speculated that gyroscopically stabilized monorail cars would have economic advantages with respect to birail cars, enabling the cars to take sharper curves and traverse steeper terrain, with lower installation and maintenance costs. A two-wheeled, gyro-stabilized car was actually constructed in 1913. The dynamic stabilization of a monorail car or two-wheeled automobile requires that a torque acting on the car from the outside be neutralized by a torque produced within the car by a gyroscope. The gyroscope here is used as an actuator, not a sensor, by using precession forces generated by the gyroscope. When torque is applied to an axis normal to the spin axis, causing the gyroscope to precess, a moment is produced about a third axis, orthogonal to both the torque and spin axes. As the vehicle tilts from vertical, a precession-inducing torque is applied to the gyroscope cage such that the resulting gyroscopic reaction moment will tend to right the vehicle. The key idea is that motion of the gyroscope relative to the body is actively controlled in order to generate a stabilizing moment. This problem was considered in 1905 by Louis Brennan [1]. Many extensions were later developed, including the work by Shilovskii [2], and several prototypes were built. The di!erences in the various schemes lie in the number of gyroscopes employed, the direction of the spin axes relative to the rail, and in the method used to produce precession of the spin axes. We start by deriving the equations of motion for a case where the system is formed of a vehicle, a load placed on the vehicle, the gyroscope wheel, and a gyroscope cage. We allow for track curvature and vehicle speed. We then derive the equations for a similar system with two gyroscopes, spinning in opposite directions and such that the precession angles are opposite. We linearize the dynamics about a set of equilibrium points and develop a linearized model. We study the stability of the linearized systems and show simulation results. Finally, we discuss a scaled gyrovehicle model and testing.


Keywords: Gyroscopic stabilization, monorail
[Talaia et al., 2008]
Talaia, P., Moreno, D., Hajžman, M., and Hynčík, L. (2008). A 3d model of a human for powered two-wheeler vehicles. In Proceedings of ISMA 2008. [ bib ]
[Thanh and Parnichkun, 2008]
Thanh, BT. and Parnichkun, M. (2008). Balancing control of bicyrobo by particle swarm optimization-based structure-specified mixed h_2/h_∞. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 5(4):187–195. [ bib ]
[Hakansson and Hull, 2007]
Hakansson, N. and Hull, M. (2007). Influence of pedaling rate on muscle mechanical energy in low power recumbent pedaling using forward dynamic simulations. Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, 15(4):509–516. [ DOI | bib ]
An understanding of the muscle power contributions to the crank and limb segments in recumbent pedaling would be useful in the development of rehabilitative pedaling exercises. The objectives of this work were to 1) quantify the power contributions of the muscles to driving the crank and limb segments using a forward dynamic simulation of low-power pedaling in the recumbent position, and 2) determine whether there were differences in the muscle power contributions at three different pedaling rates. A forward dynamic model was used to determine the individual muscle excitation amplitude and timing to drive simulations that best replicated experimental kinematics and kinetics of recumbent pedaling. The segment kinematics, pedal reaction forces, and electromyograms (EMG) of 10 muscles of the right leg were recorded from 16 subjects as they pedaled a recumbent ergometer at 40, 50, and 60 rpm and a constant 50 W workrate. Intersegmental joint moments were computed using inverse dynamics and the muscle excitation onset and offset timing were determined from the EMG data. All quantities were averaged across ten cycles for each subject and averaged across subjects. The model-generated kinematic and kinetic quantities tracked almost always within 1 standard deviation (SD) of the experimental data for all three pedaling rates. The uniarticular hip and knee extensors generated 65 The triceps surae muscles transferred power from the limb segments to the crank and the bi-articular muscles that crossed the hip and knee delivered power to the crank during the leg transitions between flexion and extension. The functions of the individual muscles did not change with pedaling rate, but the mechanical energy generated by the knee extensors and hip flexors decreased as pedaling rate increased. By varying the pedaling rate, it is possible to manipulate the individual muscle power contributions to the crank and limb segments in recumbe- - nt pedaling and thereby design rehabilitative pedaling exercises to meet specific objectives.


Keywords: electromyography, kinematics, patient rehabilitationEMG, crank, electromyograms, forward dynamic simulations, hip extensors, inverse dynamics, kinetics, knee extensors, leg extension, leg flexion, limb segments, low power recumbent pedaling, muscle excitation amplitude, muscle mechanical energy, muscle power, pedal reaction forces, pedaling rate, rehabilitative pedaling exercises, segment kinematics, triceps surae muscles
[Chi, 2007]
Chi, C.-T. (2007). Self-equilibrium control on a dynamic bicycle ride. WSEAS Trans. Sys. Ctrl., 2:527–536. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle, center of gravity, cost, equilibrium control, hysteresis controller, sloping road
[Yamaguchi et al., 2007]
Yamaguchi, T., Shibata, T., and Murakami, T. (2007). Self-sustaining approach of electric bicycle by acceleration control based backstepping. In Industrial Electronics Society, 2007. IECON 2007. 33rd Annual Conference of the IEEE, pages 2610 –2614. [ DOI | bib ]
Bicycle is high efficiency vehicle and suitable for an improvement of environmental problems from society's perspective. In the practical use, however, it has some demerits. For example it is not always stable. Therefore the motion stabilization is required for widespread applications. This paper focuses on the instability of bicycle running. In particular, a self-sustaining control strategy of electric bicycle motion using acceleration control based on backstepping is proposed. The proposed method makes it possible to improve running stability in low-speed range. The validity of the proposed algorithm is confirmed by numerical and experimental results.


Keywords: acceleration control;backstepping;electric bicycle;motion stabilization;self-sustaining control strategy;acceleration control;bicycles;self-adjusting systems;
[Wallis et al., 2007]
Wallis, G., Chatziastros, A., Tresilian, J., and Tomasevic, N. (2007). The role of visual and nonvisual feedback in a vehicle steering task. Journal of Experimental Psychological Human Perception and Performance, 33(5):1127–44. [ bib ]
This article investigates vehicle steering control, focusing on the task of lane changing and the role of different sources of sensory feedback. Participants carried out 2 experiments in a fully instrumented, motion-based simulator. Despite the high level of realism afforded by the simulator, participants were unable to complete a lane change in the absence of visual feedback. When asked to produce the steering movements required to change lanes and turn a corner, participants produced remarkably similar behavior in each case, revealing a misconception of how a lane-change maneuver is normally executed. Finally, participants were asked to change lanes in a fixed-based simulator, in the presence of intermittent visual information. Normal steering behavior could be restored using brief but suitably timed exposure to visual information. The data suggest that vehicle steering control can be characterized as a series of unidirectional, open-loop steering movements, each punctuated by a brief visual update.


[Chidzonga and Chikuni, 2007]
Chidzonga, R. and Chikuni, E. (2007). Stabilizing a bicycle below critical speed. In AFRICON 2007, pages 1–7. [ DOI | bib ]
This paper discusses the control of a naturally unstable bicycle at stand still based on local linearization of a nonlinear model which results in a 2times2 multiple input multiple output system. It is shown through simulation plus new insights on stabilizing non-minimum phase systems and f-domain design techniques that it is possible to keep the bicycle vertical outside the self stability speed domain where theory in the literature has predicted that it's not possible. In reality the stabilization goal is a skill which can be acquired through practice.


Keywords: MIMO systems, bicycles, linear systems, nonlinear control systems, road vehicles, stabilitylocal linearization, multiple input multiple output system, nonlinear model, self stability speed domain, stabilization goal, unstable bicycle control
[Miura et al., 2007]
Miura, Y., Tokutake, H., and Fukui, K. (2007). Handling qualities evaluation method based on actual driver characteristics. VEHICLE SYSTEM DYNAMICS, 45(9):807–817. [ DOI | bib ]
The present study proposes an objective handling qualities evaluation method using driver-in-the-loop analysis. The driving simulator experiments were performed for various driving conditions, drivers and vehicle dynamics. The response characteristics of the driver model and the closed-loop system were analyzed. The analysis revealed the driving strategies clearly, indicating the importance of closed-loop analysis. Using the identified driver model and its strategies, a cost function of the handling qualities was constructed. The cost function can be used to estimate the handling qualities analytically from the vehicle dynamics. The proposed method was validated by comparison with the handling qualities evaluation rated by the driver's comments.


Keywords: handling qualities evaluation; driver model; driver-in-the-loop analysis; driving simulator experiments
[Murayama and Yamakita, 2007]
Murayama, A. and Yamakita, M. (2007). Development of autonomous bike robot with balancer, paper 4601741. In Annual Conference, pages 1048–1052, Kagawa, Japan. SICE. [ DOI | bib ]
Recently it is expected to develop robots which can work in dissastered area or places where human can not approach. In dissasterd area, it is considered that a bike type robot which has narrower body and has high manuvability is more efficient than vehicles with four wheels. In the literatures, bike type robots with stabilizing mechanism with wheel or steerling control have been proposed. In this paper we discuss a development of bike type robot with a balancer and show experimental result in an open field.


Keywords: Output Zeroing Control,underactuated
[Basu-Mandal et al., 2007]
Basu-Mandal, P., Chatterjee, A., and Papadopoulos, JM. (2007). Hands-free circular motions of a benchmark bicycle. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and EngineeringSciences, 463(2084):1983–2003. [ bib | http ]
We write nonlinear equations of motion for an idealized benchmarkbicycle in two different ways and verify their validity. We then present a complete description of hands-free circular motions. Three distinct families exist. (i) A handlebar-forward family, starting from capsize bifurcation off straight-line motion and ending in unstable static equilibrium, with the frame perfectly upright and the front wheel almost perpendicular. (ii) A handlebar-reversed family, starting again from capsize bifurcation but ending with the front wheel again steered straight, the bicycle spinning infinitely fast in small circles while lying flat in the ground plane. (iii) Lastly, a family joining a similar flat spinning motion (with handlebar forward), to a handlebar-reversed limit, circling in dynamic balance at infinite speed, with the frame near upright and the front wheel almost perpendicular; the transition between handlebar forward and reversed is through moderate-speed circular pivoting, with the rear wheel not rotating and the bicycle virtually upright. Small sections of two families are stable.


[Meijaard et al., 2007]
Meijaard, JP., Papadopoulos, JM., Ruina, A., and Schwab, AL. (2007). Linearized dynamics equations for the balance and steer of a bicycle: A benchmark and review. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 463(2084):1955–1982. [ DOI | bib | http ]
We present canonical linearized equations of motion for the Whipple bicycle model consisting of four rigid laterally symmetric ideally hinged parts: two wheels, a frame and a front assembly. The wheels are also axisymmetric and make ideal knife-edge rolling point contact with the ground level. The mass distribution and geometry are otherwise arbitrary. This conservative non-holonomic system has a seven-dimensional accessible configuration space and three velocity degrees of freedom parametrized by rates of frame lean, steer angle and rear wheel rotation. We construct the terms in the governing equations methodically for easy implementation. The equations are suitable for e.g. the study of bicycle self-stability. We derived these equations by hand in two ways and also checked them against two nonlinear dynamics simulations. In the century-old literature, several sets of equations fully agree with those here and several do not. Two benchmarks provide test cases for checking alternative formulations of the equations of motion or alternative numerical solutions. Further, the results here can also serve as a check for general purpose dynamic programs. For the benchmark bicycles, we accurately calculate the eigenvalues (the roots of the characteristic equation) and the speeds at which bicycle lean and steer are self-stable, confirming the century-old result that this conservative system can have asymptotic stability.


[Buehler, 2007]
Buehler, TJ. (2007). Fifty years of bicycle policy in davis, ca. Master's thesis, University of California, Davis. [ bib ]
[Ham and Kim, 2007]
Ham, W. and Kim, S. (2007). A new iterative algorithm for the inverse kinematic problem and its application to unmanned electric bicycle system. In Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, 2007. CIRA 2007. International Symposium on, pages 444 –449. [ DOI | bib ]
In the former researches (Ingyu Park, et al., 2001), (Sangduck Lee and Woonchul Ham, 2002), (Seonghoon Kim and Woonchul Ham, 2004), we suggested an algorithm which can be used for deriving the nonlinear inverse kinematic problem in unmanned bicycle system by using iterative method. In this short note, we reinforce the former method and propose a new iterative algorithm for a certain type of nonlinear dynamic equation such as inverse kinematics of bicycle system. The idea of proposed algorithm is similar to Piccard's iterative method in basic concept. We also propose a robust control strategy for tracking problem in bicycle system based on nonlinear compensation. In this control algorithm, we invent and attach the load mass balance system for the self stabilization with more ease. From the computer simulation results, we can see that the proposed control algorithm can be applied to the real system.


Keywords: computer simulation;iterative algorithm;load mass balance system;nonlinear compensation;nonlinear dynamic equation;nonlinear inverse kinematic problem;robust control strategy;self stabilization;unmanned electric bicycle system;bicycles;compensation;iterative methods;mobile robots;nonlinear dynamical systems;remotely operated vehicles;robot kinematics;robust control;
[Hoagg and Bernstein, 2007]
Hoagg, JB. and Bernstein, DS. (2007). Nonminimum-phase zeros: Much to do about nothing. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 27:45–57. [ bib ]
In the popular literature there is a certain fascination with the concept of zero [1]–[3]. While today the inconspicuous 0 is taken for granted, the situation was different in the distant past. For example, the Romans had no symbol for 0, a fact memorialized by the jump from 1 B.C. to 1 A.D., a convention instituted in 531 A.D. [4, p. 91]. In contrast, the Mayans had a symbol for zero, and the first day of each Mayan month was day zero [3, p. 18]. The modern zero of mathematics slowly earned its membership in the club of numbers through Indian mathematics, although this acceptance was achieved only through a tortuous process that spanned centuries [3]. A conceptual impediment to the acceptance of zero is the difficulty in understanding the ratio 1/0. Presumably, this ratio is infinity or ?, a much more challenging concept. That 0 and inifinity are close cousins casts suspicion on zero as a valid number. Even in modern times, the zero appears begrudgingly on your telephone keypad after the 9. In Europe, the ground floor in a building is routinely labeled 0, and thus the meaning of floor -1 is unambiguous, whereas, in the United States, there is no floor 0, and negative floor numbers are rarely used. Despite the human reluctance to admit zero as an authentic number, it is as difficult to imagine mathematics today without zero as it is to imagine technology without the wheel and axle. Although the number zero is well known, the system-theoretic concept of a system zero is virtually unknown outside of dynamics and control theory. The purpose of this article is to illuminate the critical role of system zeros in control- system performance for the benefit of a wide audience both inside and outside the control systems community.


[Moore et al., 2007]
Moore, JK., Peterson, DL., and Hubbard, M. (2007). Influence of rider dynamics on the whipple bicycle model. In 11th International Symposium on Computer Simulation in Biomechanics, Tainan, Taiwan. ISB. [ bib ]
[Kuleshov, 2007]
Kuleshov, AS. (2007). Mathematical model of a skateboard with one degree of freedom. Physics - Doklady, 52:283–286. [ DOI | bib ]
Keywords: 45.50.Dd
[Hespanha, 2007]
Hespanha, JP. (2007). Undergraduate lecture notes on lqg/lqr controller design. Course lecture notes. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 2007b]
Sharp, RS. (2007b). Optimal stabilization and path-following controls for a bicycle. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers – Part C – Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 221(4):415–427. [ bib | http ]
The article is about stabilizing and path-tracking control of a bicycle by a rider. It is based on previously published work, in which it has been shown how a driver's or rider's preview of the roadway can be combined with the linear dynamics of an appropriate vehicle to yield a problem of discrete-time optimal-linear-control-theory form. In the previous work, it was shown how an optimal 'driver' converts path preview sample values, modelled as deriving from a Gaussian white-noise process, into steering control inputs to cause the vehicle to follow the previewed path. The control compromises between precision and ease, to an extent that is controllable through choice of weights in the optimal control calculations.
Research into the dynamics of bicycles has yielded a benchmark model, with equations of motion firmly established by extensive cross-checking. Model predictions have been verified for modest speeds by experimental testing. The established optimal linear preview stabilizing and tracking control theory is now brought together with the benchmark bicycle description to yield optimal controls for the bicycle for variations in speed and performance objectives. The resulting controls are installed in the bicycle, giving a virtual rider-controlled system, and frequency responses of the rider-controlled system are calculated to demonstrate tracking capability. Then path-tracking simulations are used to illustrate the behaviour of the controlled system. Tight and loose controls, representing different balances between tracking accuracy and control effort, are calculated and illustrated through the simulations.


Keywords: bicycles, stability, linear control systems, mechanical engineering, engineering, bicycle, optimal control, preview, riding, stability, tracking
[Westhoff and Troje, 2007]
Westhoff, C. and Troje, NF. (2007). Kinematic cues for person identification from biological motion. Perception Psychophysics, 69(2):241–53. [ bib ]
We examined the role of kinematic information for person identification. Observers learned to name seven walkers shown as point-light displays that were normalized by their size, shape, and gait frequency under a frontal, half-profile, or profile view. In two experiments, we analyzed the impact of individual harmonics as created by a Fourier analysis of a walking pattern, as well as the relative importance of the amplitude and the phase spectra in walkers shown from different viewpoints. The first harmonic contained most of the individual information, but performance was also above chance level when only the second harmonic was available. Normalization of the amplitude of a walking pattern resulted in a severe deterioration of performance, whereas the relative phase of the point lights was only used from a frontal viewpoint. No overall advantage for a single learning viewpoint was found, and there is considerable generalization to novel testing viewpoints.


[Aguilera Cortés et al., 2007]
Aguilera Cortés, LA., Jáuregui de la Mota, R., González Palacios, MA., Torres Cisneros, M., Cervantes Sánchez, JJ., González Galván, EJ., and Herrera May, AL. (2007). Simulación y control de una suspensión semiactiva: Caso de una bicicleta para descenso. Technical report, Acta Universitaria. [ bib ]
[Baslamisli et al., 2007]
Baslamisli, Sc., Polat, I., and Köse, IE. (2007). Gain scheduled active steering control based on a parametric bicycle model. In Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, pages 1168–1173. [ DOI | bib ]
This paper presents a gain scheduled active steering control design method to preserve vehicle stability in extreme handling situations. It is shown that instead of the classical linear tire model based on expressing cornering force proportional to tire sideslip angle, a simple rational model with validity extending beyond the linear regime of the tire may be considered. This results in a new formulation of the bicycle model in which tire sideslip angles and vehicle forward speed appear as time-varying parameters. Such a model happens to be useful in the design of controllers scheduled by tire sideslip angles: after having expressed the parametric bicycle model in the parametric descriptor form, a gain scheduled active steering controller is designed in this study to improve vehicle handling at "large" driver commanded steering angles. Simulations reveal the efficiency of the selected modeling and controller design methodology in enhancing vehicle handling capacity during cornering on roads with high and low adhesion coefficient.


Keywords: control system synthesis, road vehicles, stability, steering systems, time-varying systems, vehicle dynamics, gain scheduled active steering control design, parametric bicycle model, rational model, time-varying parameter, tire sideslip angle, vehicle forward speed, vehicle handling capacity, vehicle stability
[Chen and Dao, 2007]
Chen, C.-K. and Dao, T.-S. (2007). Genetic fuzzy control for path-tracking of an autonomous robotic bicycle. Journal of System Design and Dynamics, 1:536–547. [ DOI | bib ]
Due to its non-holonomic constraints and a highly unstable nature, the autonomous bicycle is difficult to be controlled for tracking a target path while retaining its balance. As a result of the non-holonomic constraint conditions, the instantaneous velocity of the vehicle is limited to certain directions. Constraints of this kind occur under the no-slip condition. In this study, the problem of optimization of fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) for path-tracking of an autonomous robotic bicycle using genetic algorithm (GA) is focused. In order to implement path-tracking algorithm, strategies for balancing and tracking a given roll-angle are also addressed. The proposed strategy optimizes FLCs by keeping the rule-table fixed and tuning their membership functions by introducing the scaling factors (SFs) and deforming coefficients (DCs). The numerical simualtions prove the effectiveness of the proposed structure of the genetic fuzzy controller for the developed bicycle system.


Keywords: Fuzzy System, Motion Control, Genetic Algorithm, Stability, Bicycle
[Cossalter et al., 2007]
Cossalter, V., Lot, R., and Peretto, M. (2007). Steady turning of motorcycles. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 221:1343–1356. [ DOI | bib ]
When driving along a circular path, the rider controls a motorcycle mainly by the steering torque. If the steering torque is low and the vehicle is moderately over-steering, a good handling feeling is perceived by the rider. In this paper, non-linear steady turning results are analysed over a wide range of forward speeds and lateral accelerations, and different ‘driving zones’ are identified by considering the steering torque transition speeds and steering angle critical speed. A parametric linear model of steady turning, concerning both the steering torque and the steering angle, is developed and simple parametric expressions of transition speeds and the critical speed are obtained. Steady turning tests involving different motorcycles are presented, the transition speeds and critical speed are found by linear fitting, and the characteristics of the different driving zones are investigated. The primary purpose is to determine the conditions at which the operational safety and handling of the vehicle do not impose severe demands on rider skill for control and adequate path-following properties, i.e. to identify a ‘preferable driving zone’.


Keywords: motorcycle, steady turning, capsize, over-steering, under-steering
[van Dijk, 2007]
van Dijk, T. (2007). Bicycles made to measure. Delft Outlook, 3:7–10. [ bib ]
[Dressel, 2007]
Dressel, A. (2007). The benchmarked linearized equations of motion for an idealized bicycle (implemented in software and distributed via the internet). Master's thesis, Cornell University. [ bib ]
People have been successfully building and riding bicycles since the 1800s, and many attempts have been made to describe the motion of these machines mathematically. However, common acceptance of the correct linearized equations of motion for a bicycle has remained elusive. In his 1988 master’s thesis at Cornell University, Scott Hand derived the equations again and performed the first known extensive survey of the literature, finding and documenting the mistakes made in previous attempts. The question remained however of what mistakes, if any, Mr. Hand and his advisors made. The subsequent advent of cheap and plentiful computing power and the development of numerical methods to take advantage of it provide an opportunity to confirm, once and for all, the correct linearized equations of motion for an idealized bicycle. That is exactly what A. L. Schwab, J. P. Meijaard, and J. M. Papadopoulos have done in their recent paper. The next step is to efficiently promulgate these correct and confirmed equations in a useful form. The goal is that anyone working in the areas of bicycle or motorcycle handling or control can use these equations directly or verify their own underlying equations against this benchmark. This thesis describes a program, JBike6, its on-line help, and its web site designed specifically for that purpose: to provide a turn-key application for evaluating the self-stability of a bicycle. JBike6 also generates numbers (eigenvalues and matrix entries) that can be used to compare, to very high precision, against any other linearized or fully non-linear equations of motion for a bicycle. After a brief review of the application, theory, and results of JBike6, the contents of this thesis consist primarily of hard copy of the on-line help and web site and screen shots of the program. The text has been modified to be more readable as a narrative and some pictures have been formatted to fit within the margins. Obviously, the interactive nature of the program, the help file, and the web site, including the hyperlinks, animations, and videos, is not available in this printed document. While all the components will continue to evolve, this thesis is a snapshot of them in September 2006. Many redundancies have been removed, but some remain in order to preserve the integrity and flow of the individual components. All these components may currently be found on-line at www.tam.cornell.eduad29/JBike6


[Evangelou et al., 2007]
Evangelou, S., Limebeer, D. JN., Sharp, RS., and Smith, MC. (2007). Mechanical steering compensators for high-performance motorcycles. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 74(2):332–346. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Keywords: steering systems; motorcycles; vehicle dynamics; design engineering; quadratic programming
[Goodarzi et al., 2007]
Goodarzi, A., Soltani, A., and Esmailzadeh, E. (2007). Handling improvement of motorcycles using active seats. In Advances in Automotive Control. [ DOI | bib ]
[Krauss and Book, 2007]
Krauss, RW. and Book, WJ. (2007). A python software module for automated identification of systems modeled with the transfer matrix method. ASME Conference Proceedings, 2007(43033):1573–1582. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Marumo and Nagai, 2007]
Marumo, Y. and Nagai, M. (2007). Steering control of motorcycles using steer-by-wire system. Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, 45(5):445–458. [ DOI | bib ]
This study proposes a steering control method to improve motorcycle handling and stability. Steer-by-wire (SBW) technology is applied to the motorcycle's steering system to remove characteristic difficulties of vehicle maneuvers. By examining computer simulation using a simplified motorcycle model, the actual rolling angle of the SBW motorcycle is controlled to follow the desired rolling angle intended by the rider. A state feedback control such as linear quadratic control gives the SBW vehicle a good follow-through performance compared with proportional-derivative control because it can decouple rolling motion from the other motions, which affect the rolling motion in the strongly coupled motorcycle system.


[Nordquist and Hull, 2007]
Nordquist, J. and Hull, ML. (2007). Design and demonstration of a new instrumented spatial linkage for use in a dynamic environment: Application to measurement of ankle rotations during snowboarding. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 129(2):231–239. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Joint injuries during sporting activities might be reduced by understanding the extent of the dynamic motion of joints prone to injury during maneuvers performed in the field. Because instrumented spatial linkages (ISLs) have been widely used to measure joint motion, it would be useful to extend the functionality of an ISL to measure joint motion in a dynamic environment. The objectives of the work reported by this paper were to (i) design and construct an ISL that will measure dynamic joint motion in a field environment, (ii) calibrate the ISL and quantify its static measurement error, (iii) quantify dynamic measurement error due to external acceleration, and (iv) measure ankle joint complex rotation during snowboarding maneuvers performed on a snow slope. An ᅵelbow-typeᅵ ISL was designed to measure ankle joint complex rotation throughout its range (ᅵ30 deg for flexion/extension, ᅵ15 deg for internal/external rotation, and ᅵ15 deg for inversion/eversion). The ISL was calibrated with a custom six degree-of-freedom calibration device generally useful for calibrating ISLs, and static measurement errors of the ISL also were evaluated. Root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) were 0.59 deg for orientation (1.7 scale). A custom dynamic fixture allowed external accelerations (5 g, 0ᅵ50 Hz) to be applied to the ISL in each of three linear directions. Maximum measurement deviations due to external acceleration were 0.05 deg in orientation and 0.10 mm in position, which were negligible in comparison to the static errors. The full functionality of the ISL for measuring joint motion in a field environment was demonstrated by measuring rotations of the ankle joint complex during snowboarding maneuvers performed on a snow slope.


Keywords: sport; biomechanics; biomedical measurement; biomedical equipment; motion measurement; calibration; measurement errors
[Rowell et al., 2007]
Rowell, S., Popov, AA., and Meijaard, JP. (2007). Model predictive control techniques for motorcycle rider control. In Advances in Automotive Control. [ DOI | bib ]
Model Predictive Control techniques have been applied to the modelling of a motorcycle rider, believed to offer more realistic representation of the riding strategy compared with previous methods, notably Optimal Control. The results from the Model Predictive Control model have been compared with the Optimal Control results, showing good similarities and also some notable differences. The results of the application of Model Predictive Control techniques to the modelling of a motorcycle rider suggest that the approach has wider applicability to rider modelling, and allows greater scope for the definition of the rider's control approach. Notably, for limited rider preview, shortcomings using the Optimal Control approach are overcome using the Model Predictive Control method. Furthermore, the approach is believed to more accurately reflect the control actions taken by a human motorcycle rider.


[Schmid et al., 2007]
Schmid, M., Nardone, A., De Nunzio, AM., Schmid, M., and Schieppati, M. (2007). Equilibrium during static and dynamic tasks in blind subjects: no evidence of cross-modal plasticity. Brain, 130(8):2097–2107. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
Can visual information be replaced by other sensory information in the control of static and dynamic equilibrium? We investigated the balancing behaviour of acquired and congenitally blind subjects (25 severe visually impaired subjects—15 males and 10 females, mean age 36 ± 13.5 SD) and age and gender-matched normal subjects under static and dynamic conditions. During quiet stance, the centre of foot pressure displacement was recorded and body sway analysed. Under dynamic conditions, subjects rode a platform continuously moving in the antero-posterior direction, with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). Balance was inferred by the movement of markers fixed on malleolus, hip and head. Amplitude of oscillation and cross-correlation between body segment movements were computed. During stance, in normal subjects body sway was larger EC than EO. In blind subjects, sway was similar under both visual conditions, in turn similar to normal subjects EC. Under dynamic conditions, in normal subjects head and hip were partially stabilized in space EO but translated as much as the platform EC. In blind subjects head and hip displacements were similar in the EO and the EC condition; with respect to normal subjects EC, body displacement was significantly larger with a stronger coupling between segments. Under both static and dynamic conditions, acquired and congenitally blind subjects had a similar behaviour. We conclude that long-term absence of visual information cannot be substituted by other sensory inputs. These results are at variance with the notion of compensatory cross-modal plasticity in blind subjects and strengthen the hypothesis that vision plays an obligatory role in the processing and integration of other sensory inputs for the selection of the balancing strategy in the control of equilibrium.


[Sharp, 2007a]
Sharp, RS. (2007a). Motorcycle steering control by road preview. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 129(4):373–382. [ bib ]
[van Sickle Jr. and Hull, 2007]
van Sickle Jr., JR. and Hull, M. (2007). Is economy of competitive cyclists affected by the anterior-posterior foot position on the pedal? Journal of Biomechanics, 40(6):1262 – 1267. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The primary purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that cycling economy, as measured by rate of oxygen consumption in healthy, young, competitive cyclists pedaling at a constant workrate, increases (i.e. decreases) when the attachment point of the foot to the pedal is moved posteriorly on the foot. The of 11 competitive cyclists (age 26.8±8.9 years) was evaluated on three separate days with three anterior-posterior attachment points of the foot to the pedal (forward=traditional; rear=cleat halfway between the head of the first metatarsal and the posterior end of the calcaneous; and mid=halfway between the rear and forward positions) on each day. With a randomly selected foot position, was measured as each cyclist pedaled at steady state with a cadence of 90 rpm and with a power output corresponding to approximately 90 (VT) (mean power output 203.3±20.8 W). After heart rate returned to baseline, was measured again as the subject pedaled with a different anterior-posterior foot position, followed by another rest period and then was measured at the final foot position. The key finding of this investigation was that was not affected by the anterior-posterior foot position either for the group (p=0.311) or for any individual subject (p[greater-or-equal, slanted]0.156). The for the group was 2705±324, 2696±337, and 2747±297 ml/min for the forward, mid, and rear foot positions, respectively. The practical implication of these findings is that adjusting the anterior-posterior foot position on the pedal does not affect cycling economy in competitive cyclists pedaling at a steady-state power output eliciting approximately 90 of VT.


Keywords: Economy
[Suzuki et al., 2007]
Suzuki, Y., Kageyama, I., Kuriyagawa, Y., Baba, M., and Miyagishi, S. (2007). 4311 study on construction of rider robot for two-wheel vehicle. 年次大会講演論文集 : JSME annual meeting, 2007(7):357–358. in Japanese. [ bib | http ]
This paper deals with the construction of a rider robot for motorcycle. The robot which controls a vertical stability and a direction control of the motorcycle is constructed as a tool for evaluation of two-wheeled vehicle behavior. The control algorithm of the system is constructed based on control action of the human rider. For the lateral control, the system identifies using electric compass. Sub-handle system which simulates the rider arms is adopted with damper and spring, and it is controlled by servo-motor. As a result, it is shown that the rider robot follows the lateral displacement calculated using the directional angle and vehicle speed.


[Sølvberg, 2007]
Sølvberg, A. (2007). Cyberbike. Master's thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. [ bib ]
The idea about the CyberBike came to Jens G. Balchen - the founder of the Department of Engineering Cybernetics (ITK) at NTNU - in the 1980's. He wanted to make an unmanned autonomus bicycle, i.e. a bike that could run by itself. The idea was picked up by Amund Skavhaug, who started the CyberBike project in the late 80's. After being deffered for some years, the CyberBike has again gained some attention. This master's thesis is based on Hans Olav Loftum's and Lasse Bjermeland's theses at the spring 2006 and the autumn project of John A. Fossum the same year. The goal of the CyberBike project is to make the bike work as intended, i.e. as an autonomous unmanned bicycle. This thesis naturally share this goal, although the bike did not become able to take its first autonomous trip within the thesis' time frame. At the start of the work, the bike were already equipped with a suitcase of computational hardware on its baggage rack, a small QNX Neutrino OS image was installed on the industrial PC mounted in the suitcase, and drivers for the installed motors, tachometers and potmeters were written. An Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) was intended to supply the control system with the necessary information about rotation, acceleration and position, and the unit was purchased for the purpose. Also a driver was written, but not properly tested. The IMU had to be installed and connected to the control system. The bike's control theory was developed, but had never been put into action outside computer simulations (due to the lack of acceleration measurements). The various tasks that had to be addressed emerged as the development process advanced. First, the IMU had to be connected to the system, by making a signal tranceiver circuit. A small printed circuit board was designed and laid out, mainly to include a MAX233CPP iC. Then the DB-9 serial connector on the bikes single board computer (Wafer-9371A) could be used to read the UART signal from the IMU as RS-232. Then some testing had to be done, and drivers updated. A better and more advanced IMU (referred to as the "MTi") was added to the project. This unit needed no signal converting circuitry, but driver development and testing still had to be done. To enhance the CyberBike's navigation opportunities, a GPS module was purchased. A signal transceiving circuit, similar to the one for the IMU, was made for this unit, as well as software to read out the measurements from the device. By the end of this thesis, no navigational algorithms are made, hence the GPS is currently not used, but available for future efforts made on this area. Some hardware related tasks was carried out, as connecting and implementing functionality to the pendulum limit switches, installation of a emergency stop switch and a power switch, purchasing and installation of two 12V batteries and a cooling fan. An operating system upgrade resulted in replacing the CyberBikePC's storage device, a compact flash card, with a mobile hard disk drive. Installation of a motor, for supplying torque to the rear wheel, included setup and tuning of a hardware based velocity controller in a Baldor TFM 060-06-01-3 servo module. However; this task is not to be considered as accomplished, due to some unsolved problems on the system I/O-card's output channels giving the motor controller card its reference voltage. A bike model and controller realized in Simulink was made by Bjermeland. Hence communicaton between Simulink and the device drivers had to be established, and this was realized by using S-functions and Real-Time Workshop. Finally the controller could be connected to the actual bike, but there was too little time left to explore this thoroughly, and make the system work properly. However, a foundation is laid for further development of the control strategy, hopefully storing a bright future for the CyberBik


[Taura, 2007]
Taura, A. (2007). Realization of acrobatic motions by bike robot with balancer. Master's thesis, Tokyo Institute of Techinology. [ bib ]
[Yin and Yin, 2007]
Yin, S. and Yin, Y. (2007). Implementation of the interactive bicycle simulator with its functional subsystems. Journal of Computing Information Science and Engineering, 7:160–166. [ bib ]
When equipped with a handlebar and pedal force display subsystem, motion-generating subsystem, and visual subsystem, the interactive bicycle simulator can bring riders a realistic cycling feeling. In the interactive bicycle simulator, the most important component is the rider-bicycle dynamic model. The Newton-Euler method is adopted to formulate this model. Real-time data gathered by sensors and identified from a terrain database system are used for calculation of the rider-bicycle dynamics. Simple and effective devices are constructed and driven by the outputs of the rider-bicycle dynamic model. These devices are successfully applied to the interactive bicycle simulator.


Keywords: interactive bicycle simulator, rider-bicycle dynamics, force display device,Stewart platform
[Mirnateghi et al., 2006]
Mirnateghi, N., Peterson, D., and Paden, B. (2006). Systems with friction: Performance limitations and range deficiency. In Decision and Control, 2006 45th IEEE Conference on, pages 6099–6103. [ DOI | bib ]
Keywords: differential equations, friction, sampled data systems, trackingdifferential equations, discontinuous right-hand side, friction, tracking limitations
[Ward, 2006]
Ward, L. (2006). Gyrobike: Preventing scraped knees. Popular Mechanics. [ bib ]
[Evangelou et al., 2006]
Evangelou, S., Limebeer, D., Sharp, R., and Smith, M. (2006). Control of motorcycle steering instabilities. Control Systems Magazine, IEEE, 26(5):78–88. [ DOI | bib ]
The establishment of damper settings that provide an optimal compromise between wobble- and weave-mode damping is discussed. The conventional steering damper is replaced with a network of interconnected mechanical components comprised of springs, dampers and inerters - that retain the virtue of the damper, while improving the weave-mode performance. The improved performance is due to the fact that the network introduces phase compensation between the relative angular velocity of the steering system and the resulting steering technique


Keywords: compensation, motorcycles, springs (mechanical), stabilitydamper settings, inerters, interconnected mechanical components, motorcycle steering instabilities, phase compensation, springs, weave-mode damping, wobble-mode damping
[Frezza and Beghi, 2006]
Frezza, R. and Beghi, A. (2006). A virtual motorcycle driver for closed-loop simulation. Control Systems Magazine, IEEE, 26(5):62–77. [ DOI | bib ]
The development of a motorcycle driver for virtual prototyping applications is discussed. The driver is delivered with a commercial multibody code as a tool for performing closed-loop maneuvers with virtual motorcycle models. The closed-loop controller is developed with a qualitative analysis of how a human rider controls a motorcycle. The analysis concerns handling and maneuverability, which are relevant for real and virtual vehicle performance evaluation. A motorcycle model for control design and a controller structure are developed. The model is based on a mathematical representation of common-sense rules of motorcycle riding. The virtual rider is then tested in various operating conditions to assess whether the control requirements are achieved. Criteria for evaluating driver models are briefly discussed


Keywords: closed loop systems, control system CAD, motorcycles, virtual prototypingclosed-loop maneuvers, commercial multibody code, control design, maneuverability, motorcycle control, motorcycle driver development, motorcycle handling, multibody tools, qualitative analysis, system performance evaluation, virtual motorcycle models, virtual prototyping
[Ham and Choi, 2006]
Ham, W. and Choi, H. (2006). Autonomous tracking control and inverse kinematics of unmanned electric bicycle system. In SICE-ICASE, 2006. International Joint Conference, pages 336 –339. [ DOI | bib ]
In the former researches for the unmanned bicycle system, we do focus on stabilizing it by using the lateral motion of mass and suggest a control algorithm for steering angle and driving wheel speed for a given desired path. We also suggest a new algorithm for nonlinear inverse kinematic problem which is similar to Piccard's iterative method in basic concept. We then propose a tracking control strategy by moving the center of load mass left and right respectively based on the nonlinear compensation-like control studied in the former researches. From the computer simulation results, we can show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy


Keywords: Piccard iterative method;autonomous tracking control;inverse kinematics;unmanned electric bicycle system;iterative methods;mobile robots;nonlinear control systems;remotely operated vehicles;robot kinematics;robust control;tracking;
[Limebeer and Sharp, 2006]
Limebeer, DJ. and Sharp, RS. (2006). Bicycles, motorcycles, and models. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 26(5):34–61. [ bib ]
[Yamakita et al., 2006]
Yamakita, M., Utano, A., and Sekiguchi, K. (2006). Experimental study of automatic control of bicycle with balancer. In Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, pages 5606–5611. [ DOI | bib ]
In this paper, trajectory tracking and balancing control for autonomous bicycles with a balancer are discussed. In the proposed control method, an input-output linearization is applied for trajectory tracking control and a nonlinear stabilizing control is used for the balancing control. Even though control methods are designed independently, it is shown by several numerical simulations and experiments using a detail model and a real electric motor bike that the stability of the bicycles is ensured with the method even when the desired speed is zero and trajectory tracking to desired ones are achieved


Keywords: bicycles, electric vehicles, mobile robots, nonlinear control systems, position control, stabilityautomatic bicycle control, autonomous bicycles, balancing control, electric motor bike, input-output linearization, nonlinear stabilizing control, trajectory tracking control
[Liang et al., 2006]
Liang, C.-Y., Lin, W.-H., and Chang, B. (2006). Applying fuzzy logic control to an electric bicycle. In Pan, J.-S., Shi, P., and Zhao, Y., editors, First International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control, pages 513–516, Los Alamitos, CA, USA. IEEE; ICIC Int.; National Natural Sci. Found. of China; Beijing Jiaotong Univ.; Kaosiung Univ. of Appl. Sci, IEEE Comput. Soc. First International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control, 30 August-1 September 2006, Beijing, China. [ DOI | bib ]
Bicycles are used virtually everywhere, and for many applications; transportation, recreation and exercise. Their dynamic behavior is statically unstable like the inverted pendulum. In this paper, we developed an intelligent electric bicycle based on fuzzy logic and single chip approach. We chose the PSoC (programmable system-on-chips) as the microprocessor. The key point is to adjust the PWM (pulse width modulation) signal to control the speed of the bicycle, automatically. With this method we hope one can ride the bicycle easily, whether the road is level or steep.


Keywords: Practical/ bicycles; electric vehicles; fuzzy control; intelligent control; system-on-chip; velocity control/ fuzzy logic control; intelligent electric bicycle; transportation; dynamic behavior; inverted pendulum; single chip approach; programmable system-on-chip; PSoC; microprocessor; PWM control; speed control/ B8520 Transportation; B1265F Microprocessors and microcomputers; C3360B Road-traffic system control; C1340F Fuzzy control; C3120E Velocity, acceleration and rotation control; C5130 Microprocessor chips
[Moore, 2006]
Moore, JK. (2006). Low speed bicycle stability: Effects of geometric parameters. For course MAE 223, UC Davis, Winter 2006. [ bib ]
[Troje et al., 2006]
Troje, NF., Sadr, J., Geyer, H., and Nakayama, K. (2006). Adaptation aftereffects in the perception of gender from biological motion. Journal of Vision, 6(8):850–857. [ bib | http ]
Human visual perception is highly adaptive. While this has been known and studied for a long time in domains such as color vision, motion perception, or the processing of spatial frequency, a number of more recent studies have shown that adaptation and adaptation aftereffects also occur in high-level visual domains like shape perception and face recognition. Here, we present data that demonstrate a pronounced aftereffect in response to adaptation to the perceived gender of biological motion point-light walkers. A walker that is perceived to be ambiguous in gender under neutral adaptation appears to be male after adaptation with an exaggerated female walker and female after adaptation with an exaggerated male walker. We discuss this adaptation aftereffect as a tool to characterize and probe the mechanisms underlying biological motion perception.


Keywords: biological motion, adaptation, aftereffect, sex classification
[Meijaard and Schwab, 2006]
Meijaard, JP. and Schwab, AL. (2006). Linearized equations for and extended bicycle model. In Soares, C. AM., editor, III European Conference on Computational Mechanics Solids, Structures and Coupled Problems in Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal. [ bib ]
[Yi et al., 2006]
Yi, J., Song, D., Levandowski, A., and Jayasuriya, S. (2006). Trajectory tracking and balance stabilization control of autonomous motorcycles. In Robotics and Automation, 2006. ICRA 2006. Proceedings 2006 IEEE International Conference on, pages 2583 –2589. [ DOI | bib ]
We report a new trajectory tracking and balancing control algorithm for an autonomous motorcycle. Building on the existing modeling work of a bicycle, the new dynamic model of the autonomous motorcycle considers the bicycle caster angle and captures the steering effect on the vehicle tracking and balancing. The trajectory tracking control takes an external/internal model decomposition approach. A nonlinear controller is designed to handle the vehicle balancing. The motorcycle balancing is guaranteed by the system internal equilibria calculation and by the trajectory and system dynamics requirements. The proposed control system is validated by numerical simulations, and is based on a real prototype motorcycle system


Keywords: autonomous motorcycles;balance stabilization control;bicycle caster angle;nonlinear control;steering effect;trajectory tracking control;motorcycles;nonlinear control systems;position control;stability;steering systems;vehicle dynamics;
[Sharma and N, 2006]
Sharma, HD. and N, U. (2006). A fuzzy controller design for an autonomous bicycle system. In Engineering of Intelligent Systems, 2006 IEEE International Conference on, pages 1–6, Islamabad. [ DOI | bib ]
An intelligent controller is developed for stabilizing an autonomous bicycle system. The autonomous bicycle is stabilized by controlling its lean alone. The controller is developed using fuzzy logic approach wherein the rule set is designed using the inherent-characteristic relationship of lean and steer present in a bicycle. The Newtonian mechanics based bicycle model along with the controller is simulated in Matlab. The controller is simulated to actuate at constant time intervals and the simulation results confirm that the controller effort successfully stabilizes the bicycle in unstable velocity regions


Keywords: Newton method, bicycles, control system synthesis, fuzzy control, fuzzy logic, intelligent control, mobile robots, stabilityMatlab, Newtonian mechanics, autonomous bicycle system, fuzzy controller design, fuzzy logic, inherent-characteristic relationship, intelligent controller, stability
[Owen et al., 2006]
Owen, F., Leone, G., Davol, A., and Fey, G. (2006). Cross-cultural bicycle design at cal poly and the munich university of applied sciences. In 2006 International Mechanical Engineering Education Conference, Beijing, China. [ bib ]
[Titlestad et al., 2006]
Titlestad, J., Fairlie-Clarke, T., Whittaker, A., Davie, M., Watt, I., and Grant, S. (2006). Effect of suspension systems on the physiological and psychological responses to sub-maximal biking on simulated smooth and bumpy tracks. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(2):125–135. [ bib | http ]
[Basu-Mandal et al., 2006]
Basu-Mandal, P., Chatterjee, A., and Papadopoulos, J. (2006). Hands-free circular motions of a benchmark bicycle. A pre-print provided by the authors. [ bib ]
We write nonlinear equations of motion for an idealized benchmark bicycle in two different ways and verify their validity. We then present a complete description of handsfree circular motions. Three distinct families exist. (i) A handlebar-forward family, starting from capsize bifurcation off straight-line motion and ending in unstable static equilibrium, with the frame perfectly upright and the front wheel almost perpendicular. (ii) A handlebar-reversed family, starting again from capsize bifurcation but ending with the front wheel again steered straight, the bicycle spinning infinitely fast in small circles while lying flat in the ground plane. (iii) Lastly, a family joining a similar flat spinning motion (with handlebar forward), to a handlebar-reversed limit, circling in dynamic balance at infinite speed, with the frame near upright and the front wheel almost perpendicular; the transition between handlebar forward and reversed is through moderate-speed circular pivoting, with the rear wheel not rotating and the bicycle virtually upright. Small sections of two families are stable.


Keywords: bicycle dynamics, circular motions
[Bjermeland, 2006]
Bjermeland, L. (2006). Modeling, simulation and control system design for an autonomous bicycle. Master's thesis, Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet. [ bib ]
[Capitani et al., 2006]
Capitani, R., Masi, G., Meneghin, A., and Rosti, D. (2006). Handling analysis of a two-wheeled vehicle using msc.adams/motorcycle. Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, 44:698–707. [ DOI | bib ]
In this article, the results of a virtual analysis of a two-wheeled vehicle are described. A virtual prototype of a Piaggio Liberty 150 4T was built to evaluate the handling behavior during some codified maneuvers. The activity was done with the cooperation of Piaggio & C. SpA and MSC Software. The multibody model was built using MSC.Adams/Motorcycle. It reproduces the original vehicle (geometry, inertia, and spring/damper coefficients) and is fully parametrized. The actions between ground and tires are calculated with the "Magic Formula". The multibody model, controlled applying a steering torque to the handlebar, was tested during some maneuvers (turn, ISO lane change, "Figure 8"), and the results were compared with the experimental data acquired with an instrumented vehicle during the same maneuvers. Signal comparison gave a good agreement except for the differences due to the input forces: the multibody model is controlled only with the steering torque, but body movements and feet and hand pressures are applied to the instrumented vehicle.


[Cenciarini and Peterka, 2006]
Cenciarini, M. and Peterka, RJ. (2006). Stimulus-dependent changes in the vestibular contribution to human postural control. Journal of Neurophysiology, 95(5):2733–2750. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
Humans maintain stable stance in a wide variety of environments. This robust behavior is thought to involve sensory reweighting whereby the nervous system adjusts the relative contribution of sensory sources used to control stance depending on environmental conditions. Based on prior experimental and modeling results, we developed a specific quantitative representation of a sensory reweighting hypothesis that predicts that a given reduction in the contribution from one sensory system will be accompanied by a corresponding increase in the contribution from different sensory systems. The goal of this study was to test this sensory-reweighting hypothesis using measures that quantitatively assess the relative contributions of the proprioceptive and graviceptive (vestibular) systems to postural control during eyes-closed stance in different test conditions. Medial/lateral body sway was evoked by side-to-side rotation of the support surface (SS) while simultaneously delivering a pulsed galvanic vestibular stimulus (GVS) through electrodes behind the ears. A model-based interpretation of sway evoked by SS rotations provided estimates of the proprioceptive weighting factor, Wp, and showed that Wp declined with increasing SS amplitude. If the sensory-reweighting hypothesis is true, then the decline in Wp should be accompanied by a corresponding increase in Wg, the graviceptive weighting factor, and responses to the GVS should increase in proportion to the value of Wg derived from responses to SS rotations. Results were consistent with the predictions of the proposed sensory-reweighting hypothesis. GVS-evoked sway increased with increasing SS amplitude, and Wg measures derived from responses to GVS and from responses to SS rotations were highly correlated.


[Chen and Dao, 2006]
Chen, C.-K. and Dao, T.-S. (2006). Fuzzy control for equilibrium and roll-angle tracking of an unmanned bicycle. Multibody System Dynamics, 15:321–346. 10.1007/s11044-006-9013-7. [ bib | http ]
[Chitta and Kumar, 2006]
Chitta, S. and Kumar, V. (2006). Biking without pedaling. Technical report, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania. [ bib ]
[Coetzee et al., 2006]
Coetzee, E., Krauskopf, B., and Lowenberg, M. (2006). Nonlinear aircraft ground dynamics. In International Conference on Nonlinear Problems in Aviation and Aerospace. [ bib ]
[Cossalter, 2006]
Cossalter, V. (2006). Motorcycle dynamics. LULU, second edition. [ bib ]
[Cossalter and Sadauckas, 2006]
Cossalter, V. and Sadauckas, J. (2006). Elaboration and quantitative assessment of manoeuvrability for motorcycle lane change. Vehicle System Dynamics, 44(12):903–920. [ bib ]
[Donida et al., 2006]
Donida, F., Ferretti, G., Savaresi, SM., Schiavo, F., and Tanelli, M. (2006). Motorcycle dynamics library in modelica. In Modelica. [ bib ]
This paper presents a Modelica library developed for the dynamic simulation of a motorcycle, developed within the Dymola environment (see [1], [2], [3]) and tailored to test and validation of active control systems for motorcycle dynamics. As a matter of fact, as a complete analytical model for two-wheeled vehicles is not directly available due to the complexity of their dynamic behavior, a reliable model should be based on multibody modeling tools endowed with automated symbolic manipulation capabilities. In this work we illustrate the modular approach to motorcycle modeling and discuss the tire-road interaction model, which is the crucial part of the simulator. Moreover, we propose a virtual driver model which allows to perform all possible maneuvers.


[Findlay et al., 2006a]
Findlay, C., Moore, JK., and Perez-Maldonado, C. (2006a). Siso control of a bicycle-rider system. MAE 272 Report 2, Winter 2006. [ bib ]
[Findlay et al., 2006b]
Findlay, C., Moore, JK., and Perez-Maldonado, C. (2006b). Siso control of a bicycle-rider system presentation. MAE 272 Report 2, Winter 2006. [ bib ]
[van Gelder, 2006]
van Gelder, E. (2006). A literature review of tilting vehicle dynamics and controls. Technical report, University of California, Davis. [ bib ]
[Gohl et al., 2006]
Gohl, J., Rajamani, R., Starr, P., and Alexander, L. (2006). Development of a novel tilt-controlled narrow commuter vehicle. Technical Report CTS 06-05, University of Michigan, Center of Transportation Studies. [ bib ]
[Hess, 2006]
Hess, RA. (2006). Simplified approach for modelling pilot pursuit control behaviour in multi-loop flight control tasks. In Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, volume 220, pages 85–102. [ DOI | bib ]
Keywords: pilot models, handling qualities, manual control
[Iuchi and Murakami, 2006]
Iuchi, K. and Murakami, T. (2006). An approach to fusion control of stabilization control and human input in electric bicycle. In 32nd Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics, pages 3211–3216, Paris, France. [ DOI | bib ]
As well know, a bicycle is a high efficiency vehicle and is suitable for aging society in the future. In the practical use, however, the bicycle is not always stable and the motion stabilization is required for a widespread application. This paper focuses on the instability of the bicycle. There are few researches which realize the control system supporting driver's operation because human input is regarded as disturbance and make system unstable. This paper realizes the posture control of the electric bicycle which is able to accept human input. Estimating human input from motor reaction torque, control system is constructed without force sensor


[Jones, 2006]
Jones, D. EH. (2006). The stability of the bicycle. Physics Today, pages 51–56. [ bib ]
[Kim, 2006]
Kim, JW. (2006). Geometric design of bicycle linkage suspension. Master's thesis, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE. [ bib ]
[Kooijman, 2006]
Kooijman, J. DG. (2006). Experimental validation of a model for the motion of an uncontrolled bicycle. MSc thesis, Delft University of Technology. [ bib ]
Recently a model of the motion of an uncontrolled bicycle was benchmarked. In this model, many physical aspects of the real bicycle are considered negligible, such as the fexibility of the frame and wheels, play in the bearings, and precise tire characteristics. Apart from fexibility and play, in this model the most un- certain aspect, that had to be verifed was the replacement of the tires by ideal rolling, knife-edge wheels. The admissibility of these assumptions was checked by comparing experimental results with numerical simulation results. The experimental system consisted of an instrumented bicycle without rider. Sensors were installed on the bicycle for measuring the lean rate and the yaw rate, the steering angle and the rear wheel rotation. Sidewheels were added to the bicycle to prevent it from completely falling over under unstable conditions. All twenty five parameters of the instrumented bicycle required for the lin- earised model were measured. The lengths were measured with a tape measure, angles with an integrated protractor and spirit-level and the mass of the different parts with scales accurate to 0.01kg. For the measurement of the mass moment of inertia of the front frame, rear frame, front wheel and rear wheel a torsion pendulum was constructed. Measurements were recorded for the case in which the bicycle coasted freely on a level surface. From the measured data, eigenvalues for the bicycle were extracted by means of curve fitting. These eigenvalues were then compared with the results from the linearised equations of motion of the model. The experimental results show a very good agreement with the results as ob- tained by the linearised analysis of the dynamic model of an uncontrolled bicycle. This shows that the tire slip and frame and fork compliance are not important for the lateral dynamics of the bicycle in the speed range up to 6 m/s.


[Liu et al., 2006]
Liu, CQ., Li, F., and Huston, RL. (2006). Dynamics of a basketball rolling around the rim. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 128(2):359–364. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Keywords: sport; differential equations; integration; rolling friction; mechanical contact
[Meijaard and Popov, 2006]
Meijaard, J. and Popov, A. (2006). Numerical continuation of solutions and bifurcation analysis in multibody systems applied to motorcycle dynamics. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS, 43(1-2):97–116. [ DOI | bib ]
It is shown how the equations of motion for a multibody system can be generated in a symbolic form and the resulting equations can be used in a program for the analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems. Stationary and periodic solutions are continued when a parameter is allowed to vary and bifurcations are found. The variational or linearized equations and derivatives with respect to parameters are also provided to the analysis program, which enhances the efficiency and accuracy of the calculations. The analysis procedure is firstly applied to a rotating orthogonal double pendulum, which serves as a test for the correctness of the implementation and the viability of the approach. Then, the procedure is used for the analysis of the dynamics of a motorcycle. For running straight ahead, the nominal solution undergoes Hopf bifurcations if the forward velocity is varied, which lead to periodic wobble and weave motions. For stationary cornering, wobble instabilities are found at much lower speeds, while the maximal speed is limited by the saturation of the tyre forces.


Keywords: bifurcations; continuation; double pendulum; motorcycle dynamics; multibody dynamics
[Michini and Torrez, 2006]
Michini, B. and Torrez, S. (2006). Autonomous stability control of a moving bicycle. nothing. [ bib ]
[Miyagishi et al., 2006]
Miyagishi, S., Baba, M., Uchiyama, H., Kageyama, I., and Kuriyama, T. (2006). Construction of rider robot proto2 for motorcycles. In Proceedings. JSAE Annual Congress. [ bib ]
Preliminary researches on the rider robot control algorithm and its system configuration have been conducted for evaluating quantitatively of motorcycle dynamic characteristics. Consequently, it has been confirmed that the control is possible by using the control algorithm. However, some problems remained to be resolved. Taking the above-mentioned into considerations, the prototype 2 has been developed with targets at vehicle weight reduction etc. While the already-developed algorithm is applied to the prototype 2, its effectiveness was reviewed using simulation. As for the simulation model, the vehicle part is expressed based on Prof. Sharp's 12 DOF model, and the control part uses MATLAB/Simulink. Consequently, validity of the algorithm was confirmed.


[Saccon, 2006]
Saccon, A. (2006). Maneuver Regulation of Nonlinear Systems: The Challenge of Motorcycle Control. PhD thesis, Universitá Delgi Studi Di Padova. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 2006]
Sharp, R. (2006). Slip and pitch. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, pages 111–115. [ bib ]
[Suprapto, 2006]
Suprapto, S. (2006). Development of a gyroscopic unmanned bicycle. Master's thesis, AIT, Thailand. [ bib ]
Balancing an unstable system is a difficult task to be done. Bicycle is a model of an unstable system, it is impossible to make the bicycle standstill without giving any effort to balance. A gyroscope, a spinning wheel mechanism that tries to prevent its direction when a force is applied at that mechanism is used for torque source to balance the bicycle. By spins gyroscope on the vertical axis, embed the other axis on the bicycle, and control the third axis of the gyroscope, balancing of a bicycle can be done. A PD controller that is implemented using 8 bit microcontroller 68HC11 is used for controlling the gyroscope, an algorithm to shift the center of gravity along control axis of gyroscope is implemented together, resulting a bond control algorithm that balance the bicycle while preventing the gyroscope from saturation. Rear wheel system is used to actuate the bicycle for forward movement. A simple closed loop PD controller is used, and resulting a stable constant speed. Steering system is used to make the bicycle have turning capability. A PD controller is used for position controller, even producing a small steady state error, the performance still acceptable. A mathematical model was developed to be conformed to the real experiment result, simulation is run on Simulink software. Data was taken from the experiment and shows that the system is stable.


[Tanelli et al., 2006]
Tanelli, M., Schiavo, F., Savaresi, SM., and Ferretti, G. (2006). Object-oriented multibody motorcycle modelling for control systems prototyping. In Proc. IEEE Computer Aided Control System Design IEEE International Conference on Control Applications IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, pages 2695–2700. [ DOI | bib ]
This paper presents a simulation model for the dynamic behavior of a motorcycle developed in Modelica, within the Dymola environment, tailored to be employed for test and validation of active control systems for motorcycle dynamics. Specifically, we illustrate the modular approach to motorcycle modeling and discuss the tire-road interaction model, which is the crucial part of the simulator. Moreover, we propose a virtual driver model which allows to track a predefined trajectory and keep a target speed during different maneuvers. Finally, we investigate the problem of active braking control system design for motorcycles, proposing a braking control logic which can handle panic brakes on a curve. This analysis assesses the effectiveness of the proposed model for control systems prototyping.


[Redfield, 2005]
Redfield, R. (2005). Large motion mountain biking dynamics. Vehicle System Dynamics, 43(12):845–865. [ DOI | bib ]
A bond graph model of a mountain bike and rider is created to develop baseline predictions for the performance of mountain bikes during large excursion maneuvers such as drops, jumps, crashes and rough terrain riding. The model assumes planar dynamics, a hard-tail (front suspension only) bicycle and a rider fixed to the bicycle. An algorithm is developed to allow tracking of a virtual tire-ground contact point for events that separate the wheels from the ground. This model would be most applicable to novice mountain bikers who maintain a nearly rigid relationship between their body and the bicycle as opposed to experienced riders who are versed in controlling the bicycle independent of the body. Simulations of a steep drop are performed for various initial conditions to qualitatively validate the predictions of the model. Results from this model are to be compared to experimental data and more complex models in later research, particularly models including a separate rider. ne overarching goals of the research are to examine and understand the dynamics and control of interactions between a cyclist and mountain bike. Specific goals are to understand the improvement in performance afforded by an experienced rider, to hypothesize human control algorithms that allow riders to perform manoeuvres well and safely, to predict structural bike and body forces from these maneuvers and to quantify performance differences between hard-tail and full suspension bicycles.


Keywords: mountain biking; vehicle dynamics; suspension systems; bond graph modelling
[Iuchi et al., 2005]
Iuchi, K., Niki, H., and Murakami, T. (2005). Attitude control of bicycle motion by steering angle and variable cog control. In Industrial Electronics Society, 2005. IECON 2005. 31st Annual Conference of IEEE, pages 6 pp.–. [ DOI | bib ]
As well know, a bicycle is a high efficiency vehicle and is suitable for aging society in the future. In the practical use, however, the bicycle is not always stable and the motion stabilization is required for a widespread application. In an electric bicycle, two strategies are taken up to stabilize the running motion of a bicycle. One is center of gravity (COG) control of bicycle, and the other is a control of steering angle of handle. In the past research, there are few researches that consider an autonomous control of bicycle by using both steering and COG position control. To address this issue, this paper describes a strategy that realizes autonomous motion of bicycle with the use of steering and COG control. Numerical and experimental results are shown to verify the validity of the proposed strategy.


Keywords: attitude control, electric vehicles, position control, steering systems COG position control, attitude control, autonomous control, center of gravity control, electric bicycle, motion stabilization, steering angle control
[Niki and Murakami, 2005b]
Niki, H. and Murakami, T. (2005b). An approach to stable standing motion of electric bicycle. In Proceedings of 2005 CACS Automatic Control Conference, Tainan, Taiwan. [ bib ]
Recently bicycles are widely used as a convenient transportation tool. A mechanical design of bicycle has improved well and it has ability to self-stabilize, but it is essentially unstable and a driving skill of bicycle users is required for a realization of its stable motion. From a viewpoint of wide use for the future aging society, the assist control of the bicycle that makes a bicycle motion more stable independently of the environment condition is expected. As well known, the power assistance bicycle has been developed. And stable running assistance bicycle has been reported. However, stable standing assistance bicycle has not been realized. On the other hand, bicycle accidents (falling down) in the act of stopping are reported a lot. Stable standing assistance bicycle is expected to prevent these accidents. So the purpose of this research is to develop a stable standing assistance bicycle. In this paper, stabilization control by steering angle and square of velocity is proposed. Steering angle and square of velocity are controlled to stabilize the standing bicycle. The feasibility of this method is veried by numerical result.


[Åström et al., 2005a]
Åström, KJ., Klein, RE., and Lennartsson, A. (2005a). Bicycle dynamics and control. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 25(4):26–47. [ DOI | bib ]
This article analyzes the dynamics of bicycles from the perspective of control. Models of different complexity are presented, starting with simple ones and ending with more realistic models generated from multibody software. We consider models that capture essential behavior such as self-stabilization as well as models that demonstrate difficulties with rear wheel steering. We relate our experiences using bicycles in control education along with suggestions for fun and thought-provoking experiments with proven student attraction. Finally, we describe bicycles and clinical programs designed for children with disabilities.


Keywords: bicycles, control engineering computing, control engineering education,design, handicapped aids, nonlinear control systems, nonlinear dynamicalsystems, position control, stability bicycle control, bicycle dynamics, clinical programs, computer simulation, control education, disabled children, dynamic behavior, inverted pendulum, modelling, multibody software, nonminimum phase steering behavior, rear wheel steering difficulties, self-stabilization
[Huyge et al., 2005]
Huyge, K., Ambrósio, J., and Pereira, M. (2005). A control strategy for the dynamics of a motorcycle. In ENOC, Eindhoven, Netherlands. [ bib ]
[Schwab et al., 2005b]
Schwab, AL., Meijaard, JP., and Papadopoulos, JM. (2005b). A multibody dynamics benchmark on the equations of motion of an uncontrolled bicycle. In ENOC, Eindhoven, Netherlands. [ bib ]
[Sharma et al., 2005]
Sharma, H., Kale, S., and UmaShankar, N. (2005). Simulation model for studying inherent stability characteristics of autonomous bicycle. In Mechatronics and Automation, 2005 IEEE International Conference, volume 1, pages 193–198 Vol. 1. [ bib ]
An autonomous bicycle system modeled with a passive rider is simulated in MATLAB-SIMULINK and the stabilizing phenomenon is studied using simulation experiments. The model uses a practical bicycle's data set, being used for the experiment. It has been verified, using variety of constraints on lean & steer that the inherent stability is better at high-speeds w.r.t. steering oscillations, and at low speeds the high steering oscillations add to stabilize it. Also a range of velocities is found for which the bicycle remains self-stable. The intrinsic stability property of the bicycle is revealed effectively in this model.


Keywords: bicycles, mathematics computing, mobile robots, stability, steering systems MATLAB-SIMULINK, autonomous bicycle, inherent stability characteristics, lean, steering oscillations
[Yamakita and Utano, 2005]
Yamakita, M. and Utano, A. (2005). Automatic control of bicycles with a balancer, paper 1511181. In International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pages 1245–1250, Monterey, CA. IEEE/ASME. [ DOI | bib ]
In this paper, trajectory tracking and balancing control for autonomous bicycles with a balancer are discussed. In the proposed control method, an input-output linearization is applied for trajectory tracking control and a nonlinear stabilizing control is used for the balancing control. The control methods are designed independently first and their interference is compensated for later. The stability of the bicycles is ensured with the method even when the desired speed is zero. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by several numerical simulations using a detail model of a bicycle


Keywords: bicycles, control system synthesis, nonlinear control systems, position control, remotely operated vehicles, stabilityautomatic control, autonomous bicycles, balancing control, input-output linearization, trajectory tracking control
[Åström et al., 2005b]
Åström, KJ., Klein, RE., and Lennartsson, A. (2005b). Bicycle dynamics and control. Preprint of Astrom2005. [ DOI | bib ]
This article analyzes the dynamics of bicycles from the perspective of control. Models of different complexity are presented, starting with simple ones and ending with more realistic models generated from multibody software. We consider models that capture essential behavior such as self-stabilization as well as models that demonstrate difficulties with rear wheel steering. We relate our experiences using bicycles in control education along with suggestions for fun and thought-provoking experiments with proven student attraction. Finally, we describe bicycles and clinical programs designed for children with disabilities.


[Chen et al., 2005]
Chen, C.-K., Dao, T.-S., and Yang, C.-K. (2005). Turning dynamics and equilibrium of two-wheeled vehicles. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 19:377–387. 10.1007/BF02916158. [ bib | http ]
The equations of motion of two-wheeled vehicles, e g bicycles or motorcycles, are developed by using Lagranges equations for quasi-coord mates The pure rolling constiatnts between the ground and the two wheels aie considered in the dynamical equations of the system For each wheel, two nonholonomic and two holonomic constraints are introduced in a set of differential-algebraic equations (DAE) The constraint Jacobian matrix is obtained by collecting all the constraint equations and converting them into the velocity form Equilibrium, an algorithm for searching for equilibrium points of two-wheeled vehicles and the associated problems are discussed Formulae foi calculating the radii of curvatures of ground-wheel contact paths and the reference point are also given


[Cossalter and Doria, 2005]
Cossalter, V. and Doria, A. (2005). The relation between contact patch geometry and the mechanical properties of motorcycle tyres. Vehicle System Dynamics, 43:156–167. [ bib ]
[Griffiths et al., 2005]
Griffiths, IW., Watkins, J., and Sharpe, D. (2005). Measuring the moment of inertia of the human body by a rotating platform method. American Journal of Physics, 73(1):85–92. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Keywords: biomechanics; gyroscopes; rotation; angular momentum; readout electronics
[He et al., 2005]
He, Q., Fan, X., and Ma, D. (2005). Full bicycle dynamic model for interactive bicycle simulator. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, 5(4):373–380. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycles; digital simulation; mechanical engineering computing; interactive systems; vibrations; vehicle dynamics
[James, 2005]
James, SR. (2005). Lateral dynamics of motorcycles towing single-wheeled trailers. Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, 43(8):581–599. [ DOI | bib | http ]
A motorcycle towing a single-wheel trailer may provide useful transport for light cargo on narrow tracks and off-road use, particularly in rural areas of developing countries. Four designs of such trailers are described. Linear models are derived for the lateral dynamics of an off-road motorcycle towing this type of trailer straight ahead at constant speed. The trailers were tested behind an instrumented motorcycle. Linear autoregressive models were fitted to the experimental data using system identification techniques. Analytical and experimentally derived models largely agreed on frequency, damping and shape of the weave, wobble and trailer sway normal modes. The trailers made the motorcycle’s steering heavier but the analytical models did not predict this. The location of the articulation axes between the motorcycle and the trailer were found to be critical for stability. The best trailer design handled well with loads up to 200 kg and speeds up to 70 km/h.


[Kuriyama et al., 2005]
Kuriyama, T., Kageyama, I., Baba, M., and Miyagishi, S. (2005). 2102 control system design and construction of rider robot for two-wheel vehicle. The Transportation and Logistics Conference, 14:207–210. [ bib | http ]
[Mammar et al., 2005]
Mammar, S., Espie, S., and Honvo, C. (2005). Motorcycle modelling and roll motion stabilization by rider leaning and steering torque. In Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Toronto Canada, August 28-31, 2005, pages 1421–1426. [ bib ]
[Niki and Murakami, 2005a]
Niki, H. and Murakami, T. (2005a). An approach to self stabilization of bicycle motion by handle controller. IEEJ Transactions on Industry Applications, 125-D(8):779–785. [ bib ]
Recently bicycles are widely used as a convenient transportation tool. A mechanical design of bicycle has improved well and it has an ability to self-stabilize, but it is essentially unstable and a driving skill of bicycle users is required for a realization of its stable motion. From a view point of wide use for the future aging society, the assist control of the bicycle that makes a bicycle motion more stable independently of the environment condition is expected. As well known, the power assistance of a bicycle has been used, but a practical assistance of bicycle motion, in particular, the stable control of bicycle configuration has not been developed. In this paper, the two handle control algorithms for autonomous stable running are proposed with the aim of developing a stable human assistance bicycle. The proposed algorithms are verified by numerical and experimental results.


Keywords: bicycle, stabilization, autonomous runnning, handle control
[Roland et al., 2005]
Roland, ES., Hull, ML., and Stover, SM. (2005). Design and demonstration of a dynamometric horseshoe for measuring ground reaction loads of horses during racing conditions. Journal of Biomechanics, 38(10):2102 – 2112. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Because musculoskeletal injuries to racehorses are common, instrumentation for the study of factors (e.g. track surface), which affect the ground reaction loads in horses during racing conditions, would be useful. The objectives of the work reported by this paper were to (1) design and construct a novel dynamometric horseshoe that is capable of measuring the complete ground reaction loading during racing conditions, (2) characterize static and dynamic measurement errors, and (3) demonstrate the usefulness of the instrument by collecting example data during the walk, trot, canter, and gallop for a single subject. Using electrical resistance strain gages, a dynamometric horseshoe was designed and constructed to measure the complete ground reaction force and moment vectors and the center of pressure. To mimic the load transfer surface of the hoof, the shape of the surface contacting the ground was similar to that of the solar surface of the hoof. Following static calibration, the measurement accuracy was determined. The root mean squared errors (RMSE) were 3 hoof and 9 calibration determined that the natural frequency with the full weight of a typical horse was 1744 Hz. Example data were collected during walking on a ground surface and during trotting, cantering, and galloping on a treadmill. The instrument successfully measured the complete ground reaction load during all four gaits. Consequently the dynamometric horseshoe is useful for studying factors, which affect ground reaction loads during racing conditions.


[Schwab et al., 2005a]
Schwab, AL., Meijaard, JP., and Papadopoulos, JM. (2005a). Benchmark results on the linearized equations of motion of an uncontrolled bicycle. KSME International Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 19(1):292–304. [ bib ]
[Shlens, 2005]
Shlens, J. (2005). A tutorial on principal component analysis. Technical report, University of California, San Diego. [ bib ]
[Troje et al., 2005]
Troje, NF., Westhoff, C., and Lavrov, M. (2005). Person identification from biological motion: Effects of structural and kinematic cues. Perception & Psychophysics, 67(4):667–675. [ bib ]
[Vrajitoru, 2005]
Vrajitoru, D. (2005). Multi-agent autonomous pilot for single-track vehicles. In In Proceedings of the IASTED Conference on Modeling and Simulation. [ bib ]
[Walton et al., 2005]
Walton, D., Dravitzki, VK., Cleland, BS., Thomas, JA., and Jackett, R. (2005). Balancing the needs of cyclists and motorists. Technical Report 273, Land Transport New Zealand. [ bib ]
[Evangelou et al., 2004]
Evangelou, S., Limebeer, D., Sharp, R., and Smith, M. (2004). Steering compensation for high-performance motorcycles. In Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on, volume 1, pages 749–754 Vol.1. [ DOI | bib ]
This paper introduces the idea of using a mechanical steering compensator to influence the dynamic behaviour of a high-performance motorcycle. The compensator is seen as a possible replacement for a conventional steering damper, and comprises a network of a spring, a damper and a less familiar component called the inerter. The inerter was recently introduced to allow the synthesis of arbitrary passive mechanical impedances, and finds a new potential application in the present work. The approach taken here to design the compensator is based on classical Bode-Nyquist frequency response ideas. The vehicle study involves computer simulations, which make use of a state-of-the-art motorcycle model whose parameter set is based on a Suzuki GSX-R1000 sports machine. The study shows that it is possible to obtain significant improvements in the dynamic properties of the primary oscillatory modes, known as "wobble" and "weave", over a full range of lean angles, as compared with the standard machine fitted with a conventional steering damper.


Keywords: compensation, frequency response, motorcycles, position control, springs (mechanical), steering systemsBode-Nyquist frequency response, high-performance motorcycles, inerter, mechanical steering compensator, passive mechanical impedance, spring, steering compensation, steering damper
[Hauser et al., 2004]
Hauser, J., Saccon, A., and Frezza, R. (2004). Achievable motorcycle trajectories. In Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on, volume 4, pages 3944–3949 Vol.4. [ bib ]
The authors show that a (simple, nonholonomic) motorcycle can exactly track a large class of smooth trajectories in the plane. Instability and nontrivial dynamic coupling make the exploration of aggressive motorcycle trajectories a rather challenging task. Previously (Hauser et al., 2004), we developed optimization techniques for constructing a suitable roll trajectory that (approximately) implements the desired plane trajectory. In that work, we found that the tracking error is usually quite small leading to the natural question: Given a smooth trajectory in the plane, does there exist a bounded roll trajectory that allows a simple motorcycle model to exactly track the plane trajectory? In this paper, we develop a technique for proving that such exact tracking is possible and apply it to a number of example cases. Our technique is based on the nonlinear system inversion work of Devasia and Paden (1998). Indeed, our algorithm is in the class that they propose. Unfortunately, we have been unable to directly use their results as the motorcycle system does not appear to satisfy the specific conditions required.


Keywords: motorcycles, optimisation, position control exact tracking, motorcycle trajectories, nonholonomic motorcycle, nonlinear system inversion, nontrivial dynamic coupling, smooth trajectory tracking, tracking error
[Shaeri et al., 2004]
Shaeri, A., Limebeer, D., and Sharp, R. (2004). Nonlinear steering oscillations of motorcycles. In Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on, volume 1, pages 773–778 Vol.1. [ DOI | bib ]
Extensive prior modelling of the three dimensional motions of motorcycles, which has depended heavily on linearization for small perturbations from equilibrium "trim" states, is extended to cover large amplitude, nonlinear operating regimes. For a cornering machine, road undulation displacement forcing is shown to be capable of exciting subharmonic and superharmonic responses. A procedure for identifying particular operating conditions that may be expected to yield internal or combination resonances for a baseline modern machine/rider combination is devised. Interesting cases are examined by simulation and the results analysed using short time Fourier transform processing of the output signals. Internal and combination resonances are shown to occur under specially chosen circumstances. A procedure for choosing these special circumstances is described. Some practical implications are also considered.


Keywords: Fourier transforms, motorcycles, nonlinear control systems, position controlFourier transform processing, motorcycle, nonlinear steering oscillation, road undulation displacement, superharmonic response
[Schwab et al., 2004]
Schwab, AL., Meijaard, JP., and Papadopoulos, JM. (2004). Benchmark results on the linearized equations of motion of an uncontrolled bicycle. In Proceedings of The Second Asian Conference on Multibody Dynamics. [ bib ]
[Lot, 2004]
Lot, R. (2004). A motorcycle tire model for dynamic simulations: Theoretical and experimental aspects. Meccanica, 39(3):207–220. [ bib | http ]
This paper describes a model for motorcycle tires based on a physical interpretation of experimental data. In this model the real shape of the tire carcass is accurately described and its deformability is taken into account. The actual position of the contact point, that is, the center of the contact patch, is calculated. The concept of instantaneous slip is defined by calculating the longitudinal slip and sideslip angles using the velocity of the actual contact point, which moves with respect to the rim. Tire forces and torques are applied on the actual contact point and calculated according to Pacejka’s magic formula. The coupling of sliding properties with elastic ones and the use of the instantaneous slip concept make it possible to properly describe both steady state and transient behavior using the same relations, thus avoiding the use of any auxiliary equations.


[Tanaka and Murakami, 2004b]
Tanaka, Y. and Murakami, T. (2004b). Self sustaining bicycle robot with steering controller. In The 8th IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control, 2004. AMC '04, pages 193–197. [ DOI | bib ]
Bicycle is a transportation device without any environmental burden. However, bicycle is unstable in itself and it is fall down without human assistance like steering handle or moving upper body. In these days, electric power assistance bicycles are used practically, but all of those bicycles merely assist human with pedal driving and there are no bicycles that help to stabilize its position. Hence, stabilizing the posture and realizing stable driving of a bicycle have been researched. Dynamic model of running bicycle is complicated and it's hard to recognize completely. However, assuming that the rider doesn't move upper body, dynamics of bicycle is represented in equilibrium of gravity and centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is risen out from the running velocity and turning radius determined by steering angle. Under these conditions, it is possible to stabilize bicycle posture by controlling its steering. In this paper, the dynamic model derived from equilibrium of gravity and centrifugal force is proposed. Then the control method for bicycle steering based on acceleration control is proposed. Finally, the validity of this method is proved by the simulations and experimental results.


Keywords: acceleration control, electric drives, mobile robots, position control, stability, vehicle dynamics acceleration control, bicycle dynamics, bicycle posture, bicycle steering controller, centrifugal force, electric power assistance bicycles, pedal driving, self sustaining bicycle robot, transportation device
[Cossalter et al., 2004]
Cossalter, V., Lot, R., and Maggio, F. (2004). The modal analysis of a motorcycle in straight running and on a curve. Meccanica, 39(1):1–16. [ bib | http ]
The vibrational modes (generalized) of a two-wheel vehicle are studied in several trim configurations. The modal analysis is carried out on a 3D non-linear mathematical model, developed using the natural coordinates approach. A special procedure for evaluating the steady state solutions in straight running and on a curve is proposed. The paper presents detailed results of the modal analysis for a production sports motorcycle. Furthermore, the influence of speed and lateral (centripetal) acceleration on stability, shape and modal interactions (coupling) is highlighted. Finally, consistency between the first experimental tests and simulation results is shown.


[Antos and Ambrósio, 2004]
Antos, P. and Ambrósio, J. (2004). A control strategy for vehicle trajectory tracking using multibody models. Multibody System Dynamics, 11:365–394. [ bib ]
[Cossalter and Doria, 2004]
Cossalter, V. and Doria, A. (2004). Analysis of motorcycle slalom manoeuvres using the mozzi axis concept. Vehicle System Dynamics, 42(3):3. [ bib ]
[Frezza and Beghi, 2004]
Frezza, R. and Beghi, A. (2004). New Trends in Nonlinear Dynamics and Control and their Applications, volume 295 of Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, chapter Simulating a Motorcycle Driver, pages 175–186. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. [ DOI | bib ]
Controlling a riderless bicycle or motorcycle is a challenging problem because the dynamics are nonlinear and non-minimum phase. Further difficulties are introduced if one desires to decouple the control of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics. In this paper, a control strategy is proposed for driving a motorcycle along a lane, tracking a speed pro.le given as a function of the arc length of the mid lane.


[Galbusera, 2004]
Galbusera, L. (2004). Problemi di stabilizzazione nella guida di una bicicletta. Master's thesis, POLITECNICO DI MILANO. [ bib ]
[Hall, 2004]
Hall, BD. (2004). On the propagation of uncertainty in complex-valued quantities. Metrologia, 41(3):173. [ bib | http ]
This paper explores a recent suggestion to use a bivariate form of the Gaussian 'error propagation law' to propagate uncertainty in the measurement of complex-valued quantities (Ridler N M and Salter M J 2002 Metrologia [/0026-1394/39/3/6] 39 295–302 ). Several alterative formulations of the law are discussed in which the contributions from individual input terms are more explicit. The calculation of complex-valued sensitivity coefficients is discussed and a matrix generalization of the notion of a 'component of uncertainty' in a measurement result is introduced. A form of a 'chain rule' is given for the propagation of uncertainty when several intermediate equations are involved.


[Kageyama et al., 2004]
Kageyama, I., Miyagishi, S., Baba, M., and Uchiyama, H. (2004). Construction of rider robot for motorcycle. Journal of the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, 58:67–73. [ bib ]
This paper deals with the construction of a rider robot for motorcycle. The robot which controls vertical stability and the direction control of the motorcycle is constructed as a tool for evaluation of the two-wheeled vehicle behavior. The control algorithm of the system is constructed based on control action of the human rider. For the lateral control, the system identifies white lane marker using a CCD camera. Sub-handle system which simulates the rider arms is adopted with damper and spring, and it is controlled by servo-motor. As a result, it is shown that the rider robot follows the white lane marker.


[Karnopp, 2004]
Karnopp, D. (2004). Vehicle Stability. Marcel Dekker, Inc. [ bib ]
[Luke, 2004]
Luke, DA. (2004). Multilevel Modeling. Sage Publications. [ bib ]
[Metz, 2004]
Metz, LD. (2004). What constitutes good handling? In Proceedings of the 2004 SAE Motorsports Engineering Conference and Exhibition, number 2004-01-3532. [ bib ]
[Muhich and Wagner, 2004]
Muhich, CM. and Wagner, CD. (2004). Design of a bicycle stabilizer. Technical report, University of Notre Dame. [ bib ]
[Noguchi et al., 2004]
Noguchi, A., Yamawaki, K., Yamamoto, T., and Toratani, T. (2004). Development of a steering angle and torque sensor of contact-type. Furukawa Review, 25:36–41. [ bib ]
[Patterson, 2004]
Patterson, WB. (2004). The Lords of the Chainring. W. B. Patterson. [ bib ]
[Peterka and Loughlin, 2004]
Peterka, RJ. and Loughlin, PJ. (2004). Dynamic regulation of sensorimotor integration in human postural control. Journal of Neurophysiology, 91(1):410–423. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
Upright stance in humans is inherently unstable, requiring corrective action based on spatial-orientation information from sensory systems. One might logically predict that environments providing access to accurate orientation information from multiple sensory systems would facilitate postural stability. However, we show that, after a period in which access to accurate sensory information was reduced, the restoration of accurate information disrupted postural stability. In eyes-closed trials, proprioceptive information was altered by rotating the support surface in proportion to body sway (support surface "sway-referencing"). When the support surface returned to a level orientation, most subjects developed a transient 1-Hz body sway oscillation that differed significantly from the low-amplitude body sway typically observed during quiet stance. Additional experiments showed further enhancement of the 1-Hz oscillation when the surface transitioned from a sway-referenced to a reverse sway-referenced motion. Oscillatory behavior declined with repetition of trials, suggesting a learning effect. A simple negative feedback-control model of the postural control system predicted the occurrence of this 1-Hz oscillation in conditions where too much corrective torque is generated in proportion to body sway. Model simulations were used to distinguish between two alternative explanations for the excessive corrective torque generation. Simulation results favor an explanation based on the dynamic reweighting of sensory contributions to postural control rather than a load-compensation mechanism that scales torque in proportion to a fixed combination of sensory-orientation information.


[Sharp et al., 2004]
Sharp, RS., Evangelou, S., and Limebeer, D. JN. (2004). Advances in the modelling of motorcycle dynamics. Multibody Sytem Dynamics, 12(3):251––283. [ bib ]
[Sharp and Limebeer, 2004]
Sharp, RS. and Limebeer, D. JN. (2004). On steering wobble oscillations of motorcycles. Journal Mechanical Engineer Science, 218(12):1449––1456. [ bib ]
[Tanaka and Murakami, 2004a]
Tanaka, Y. and Murakami, T. (2004a). The bicycle robot driving on an optimal trajectory. In IEEE Conf. Mechatronics &Robotics, pages 235–240. [ bib ]
[Wilson and Papadopoulos, 2004]
Wilson, DG. and Papadopoulos, J. (2004). Bicycling Science. MIT Press, 3rd edition. [ bib ]
[Chidzonga and Eitelberg, 2003]
Chidzonga, RF. and Eitelberg, E. (2003). Controlling velocity and steering for bicycle stabilization. In First African Control Conference, Cape Town, South Africa. [ bib ]
Control of a naturally unstable riderless bicycle around zero equilibrium speed is investigated. A simple parametric model is derived. It predicts basic known dynamics. Jacobian linearization reveals that zero speed tilt stabilization is a MIMO non-minimum phase problem. It is shown that at certain operating conditions, the bicycle can be controlled only through velocity or steering. Combining both loops to maintain vertical balance at all speeds is the challenge. Some control structures and ideas are explored.


Keywords: multi-loop control, bicycle stabilization
[Evangelou, 2003]
Evangelou, S. (2003). The Control and Stability Analysis of Two-Wheeled Road Vehicles. PhD thesis, University of London. [ bib ]
The multibody dynamics analysis software, AUTOSIM, is used to develop automated linear and nonlinear models for the hand derived motorcycle models presented in (Sharp, 1971, 1994b). A more comprehensive model, based on previous work (Sharp and Limebeer, 2001), is also derived and extended. One version of the code uses AUTOSIM to produce a FORTRAN or C program which solves the nonlinear equations of motion and generates time histories, and a second version generates linearised equations of motion as a MATLAB file that contains the state-space model in symbolic form. Local stability is investigated via the eigenvalues of the linearised models that are associated with equilibrium points of the nonlinear systems. The time histories produced by nonlinear simulation runs are also used with an animator to visualise the result. A comprehensive study of the effects of acceleration and braking on motorcycle stability with the use of the advanced motorcycle model is presented. The results show that the wobble mode of a motorcycle is significantly destabilised when the machine is descending an incline, or braking on a level surface. Conversely, the damping of the wobble mode is substantially increased when the machine is ascending an incline at constant speed, or accelerating on a level surface. Except at very low speeds, inclines, acceleration and deceleration appear to have little effect on the damping or frequency of the weave mode. A theoretical study of the effects of regular road undulations on the dynamics of a cornering motorcycle with the use of the same model is also presented. Frequency response plots are used to study the propagation of road forcing signals to the motorcycle steering system. It is shown that at various critical cornering conditions, regular road undulations of a particular wavelength can cause severe steering oscillations. The results and theory presented here are believed to explain many of the stability related road accidents that have been reported in the popular literature. The advanced motorcycle model is improved further to include a more realistic tyre-road contact geometry, a more comprehensive tyre model based on Magic Formula methods utilising modern tyre data, better tyre relaxation properties and other features of contemporary motorcycle designs. Parameters describing a modern high performance machine and rider are also included.


[Karthikeyan et al., 2003]
Karthikeyan, S., Dighole, M., Nellainayagam, TS., and Venkatesan, R. (2003). Stability and control analysis of a scooter. In 2003 SAE/JSAE Small Engine Technology Conference & Exhibition, number 2003-32-0057/20034357, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. [ bib ]
In India, scooters are now being increasingly used by young women because of its lesser weight and ease of riding. Prevalent riding conditions demand higher stability and maneuverability at low speeds, which could be achieved by an in-depth study. A virtual handling model of the scooter has been developed using multibody analysis software for studying the stability and maneuverability. Realizing the role of tire properties on the stability characteristics of two-wheelers, a new tire model that can simulate combined slip conditions has been developed and used in the scooter model. A robust steering controller has been used for maintaining the desired path of the scooter. The virtual model has been analyzed under linear and non-linear conditions for both straight running and cornering maneuvers. The stability characteristics of the scooter have been studied by root locus and eigenvector analysis. The consistency of the model has been verified by a brief plausibility study. Vibrational modes of the scooter have been identified and studied. A very important design criterion has been identified and its effect on rider?s perception of the scooter recognized. Predicted results were found to match with experimental data and rider perception.


[Peterka, 2003]
Peterka, R. (2003). Simplifying the complexities of maintaining balance. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE, 22(2):63 –68. [ DOI | bib ]
Insights are provided by simple closed-loop models of human postural control. In developing a quantitative model to help us understand the postural control system, one might be tempted to capture as much of the complexity as is known about each of the subsystems. However, this article will follow the approach of Occam's Razor. That is, we begin with the simplest possible representation of each of the subsystems and only add complexity as necessary to be consistent with experimental data. For example, a control model with PD control and a positive force feedback loop provides a better explanation of the low-frequency dynamic behavior than the PID control model. Since both models have the same number of parameters, Occam's Razor favors the positive force feedback model over the PID model or any variation on the PID model that includes additional parameters. While there is some experimental evidence that positive force feedback plays a role in some aspects of motor control its contribution to postural control is unknown. Our model that includes positive force feedback represents a quantitative hypothesis that motivates additional experiments to confirm, or refute the contribution of positive force feedback to human postural control and to investigate the dynamic properties of this feedback loop. An important feature clearly revealed by the model-based interpretation of experimental data is the ability of the human postural control system to alter its source of sensory orientation cues as environmental conditions change. Our relatively simple models allowed us to apply systems identification methods in order to estimate the relative contributions (sensory weights) of various sensory orientation cues in different environmental conditions However, our simple models do not predict how the sensory weights should change as a function of environmental conditions or provide insight into the neural mechanisms that cause these changes.


Keywords: Occam Razor;PD control;PID control model;control model;dynamic properties;environmental conditions;human postural control;low-frequency dynamic behavior;maintaining balance complexities;motor control;neural mechanisms;positive force feedback loop;postural control;postural control system;quantitative model;sensory orientation cues;sensory weights;simple closed-loop models;subsystems;systems identification methods;biocontrol;biomechanics;closed loop systems;control system analysis;force feedback;identification;mechanoception;muscle;neurophysiology;physiological models;three-term control;two-term control;Acceleration;Computer Simulation;Feedback;Homeostasis;Humans;Models, Biological;Models, Neurological;Muscle, Skeletal;Musculoskeletal Equilibrium;Orientation;Posture;Proprioception;Stress, Mechanical;Torque;Vestibular Diseases;Vestibule, Labyrinth;
[Biral et al., 2003]
Biral, F., Bortoluzzi, D., Cossalter, V., and Lio, M. (2003). Experimental study of motorcycle transfer functions for evaluating handling. Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, 39(1):1–25. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Summary The transfer functions of a motorcycle, especially that between roll angle and steering torque, qualify input-output characteristics - that is, motion produced as a function of steering torque - and are closely related to ease of use and handling. This paper describes the measurement of the transfer functions of a typical sports motorcycle, resulting from data collected in slalom tests. These functions are then compared to analytical transfer functions derived from known models in the literature. The comparison shows fair to good agreement. Lastly, the formation of steering torque is analysed and the observed transfer functions are interpreted in this framework. It is shown that gyroscopic effects are mostly responsible for the lag between steering torque and roll angle, and that there is a velocity for which the various terms that combine to form steering torque cancel each other out, yielding a ‘maximum gain condition' for torque to roll transfer function which drivers rated ‘good handling'.


Keywords: steer torque, slalom
[Cheng et al., 2003]
Cheng, KY., Bothman, D., and Åström, KJ. (2003). Bicycle torque sensor experiment. Technical report, University of California, Santa Barbara. [ bib ]
This experiment examines the relationship between the steering torque and the turning angle of a bicycle. Initially, a torque wrench experiment was conducted to determine the range of applied torque required to steer a bicycle. With this information, a handle bar assembly involving a load cell and a converter circuit weredesigned and fabricated. A calibration test was conducted on the load cell followed by a verification test to validate the handle bar assembly and the associated calibration data. Prior to conducting the experiment, two test courses were designed to test two types of bicycle turns: straight turns and circular turns. The results of the experiment concluded that a rider must apply large amounts of torque to the handle bars in order to complete a turn that requires a high turning angle. Sources for experimental errors and future improvements to this investigation are suggested.


[Cossalter et al., 2003]
Cossalter, V., Doria, A., Lot, R., Ruffo, N., and Salvador, M. (2003). Dynamic properties of motorcycle and scooter tires: measurment and comparison. Vehicle System Dynamics, 39:329–352. [ bib ]
[Djerassi and Bamberger, 2003]
Djerassi, S. and Bamberger, H. (2003). Constraint forces and the method of auxiliary generalized speeds. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 70(4):568–574. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Keywords: kinematics; vectors; decomposition; N-body problems
[Frezza and Beghi, 2003]
Frezza, R. and Beghi, A. (2003). Simulating a motorcycle driver. In Kang, W., Borges, C., and Xiao, M., editors, New Trends in Nonlinear Dynamics and Control and their Applications, volume 295 of Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, pages 175–186. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. 10.1007/978-3-540-45056-611. [ bib | http ]
[Hall, 2003]
Hall, BD. (2003). Calculating measurement uncertainty for complex-valued quantities. Measurement Science and Technology, 14(3):368. [ bib | http ]
A software technique is described that provides support for uncertainty calculations for complex-valued measurements. The technique is based on classical methods of multivariate statistics and propagation of variance as well as automatic differentiation, which is an established computational method. It facilitates propagation of covariance data by automating the calculation of sensitivity coefficients. The technique introduces a simple abstraction to represent measurement data and defines arithmetic operations and standard functions that manipulate this abstraction. The method is not difficult to implement and is easy to use. An example source code in C++ is included.


[Hess, 2003a]
Hess, RA. (2003a). Principles and Practice of Aviation Psychology, chapter Pilot Control. Number 8. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ. [ bib ]
[Hess, 2003b]
Hess, RA. (2003b). Principles of Aviation Psychology: Human Factors in Transportation, chapter 8: Pilot Control, pages 265–310. CRC Press, New York. [ bib ]
[Kamata and Nishimura, 2003]
Kamata, Y. and Nishimura, H. (2003). System identification and attitude control of motorcycle by computer-aided dynamics analysis. JSAE Review, 24(4):411 – 416. [ DOI | bib | http ]
System identification of the motorcycle model constructed by computer-aided dynamics analysis is introduced to design a control system for attitude stabilization of the motorcycle. The identified model can be reduced to the coupled mode system between the roll and the front steering. The front-steering control system using the roll angle is designed by Hcontrol theory, based on the reduced-order model and the full-order model, respectively. It is verified from simulation results that the motorcycle attitude against disturbance is stabilized by the Hcontroller, and that the reduced-order controller exhibits efficient stabilization performance in comparison with the full-order controller.


[Lai et al., 2003]
Lai, H.-C., Liu, J.-S., Lee, DT., and Wang, L.-S. (2003). Design parameters study on the stability and perception of riding comfort of the electrical motorcycles under rider leaning. Mechatronics, 13(1):49 – 76. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Keywords: Electrical motorcycles
[Marumo and Katayama, 2003]
Marumo, Y. and Katayama, T. (2003). Energy flow method for studying motorcycle straight-running stability effects of rider's vibration characteristics on weave mode. JARI Research Journal, 25:283–286. [ bib ]
[Miyagishi et al., 2003]
Miyagishi, S., Kageyama, I., Takama, K., Baba, M., and Uchiyama, H. (2003). Study on construction of a rider robot for two-wheeled vehicle. JSAE Review, 24(3):321 – 326. [ DOI | bib | http ]
In this study, we constructed a fully autonomous two-wheeled vehicle (the Rider Robot) which was used for evaluation of dynamics. As the first step of the study, we constructed the control algorithms and the control system. The control algorithms consist of the standing stability control which keeps the perpendicular motion, and the directional control which follows the target course. These algorithms were determined based on human rider's behavior. The system was constructed using some actuators and sensors. The results show that Rider Robot could follow the target course while keeping the standing stability. Consequently, there is considerable validly in these constructed algorithms and the system.


[Narasimha, 2003]
Narasimha, R. (2003). How two bicycle mechanics achieved the world's first powered flight. Resonance, pages 61–75. [ bib ]
[SRM, 2003]
SRM (2003). SRM Training System Technical Manual. [ bib ]
[Young, 2003]
Young, LR. (2003). Principles and Practice of Aviation Psychology, chapter Spatial Orientation. Number 3. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ. [ bib ]
[Oda et al., 2002]
Oda, Y., Miyamoto, M., Uchiyama, K., and Shimizu, G. (2002). Study on the autonomous run by integrated control of bicycle. In JSME 11th Conference of Transportation and Logistics Division No.02-50. [ bib ]
[Lee and Ham, 2002]
Lee, S. and Ham, W. (2002). Self stabilizing strategy in tracking control of unmanned electric bicycle with mass balance, paper 1041594. In International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, volume 3, pages 2200–2205, Lausanne, Switzerland. IEEE/RSJ. [ DOI | bib ]
Ingyu Park et al. (2001) investigated an unmanned bicycle system but did not consider the lateral motion of mass. In this paper, we derive a simple kinematic and dynamic formulation of an unmanned electric bicycle with load mass balance system which, plays important role in stabilization. We propose a control algorithm for the self stabilization of unmanned bicycle by using nonlinear control based on the sliding patch and stuck phenomena. In deriving the above control algorithm, we assume that the load mass is located in the middle of the mass balance system. We then propose a control strategy to turn the bicycle system left or right by moving the center of load mass left and right respectively. In the computer simulations, we adopt a low pass filter for the real implementation of the proposed control law which bring. about the chattering problem. From the computer simulation results, we can show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.


Keywords: electric vehicles, low-pass filters, mobile robots, nonlinear control systems, robot dynamics, robot kinematics, stability, tracking chattering problem, dynamic formulation, kinematic formulation, lateral mass motion, low-pass filter, mass balance, nonlinear control, self stabilization, self-stabilizing strategy, sliding patch phenomenon, stuck phenomenon, tracking control, unmanned electric bicycle
[Troje, 2002b]
Troje, NF. (2002b). Decomposing biological motion: A framework for analysis and synthesis of human gait patterns. Journal of Vision, 2(5):371–387. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Biological motion contains information about the identity of an agent as well as about his or her actions, intentions, and emotions. The human visual system is highly sensitive to biological motion and capable of extracting socially relevant information from it. Here we investigate the question of how such information is encoded in biological motion patterns and how such information can be retrieved. A framework is developed that transforms biological motion into a representation allowing for analysis using linear methods from statistics and pattern recognition. Using gender classification as an example, simple classifiers are constructed and compared to psychophysical data from human observers. The analysis reveals that the dynamic part of the motion contains more information about gender than motion-mediated structural cues. The proposed framework can be used not only for analysis of biological motion but also to synthesize new motion patterns. A simple motion modeler is presented that can be used to visualize and exaggerate the differences in male and female walking patterns.


Keywords: gender classification, recognition, social recognition, animate motion
[James, 2002]
James, SR. (2002). Lateral dynamics of an offroad motorcycle by system identification. Vehicle System Dynamics, 38(1):1–22. [ DOI | bib ]
[Lignoski, 2002]
Lignoski, B. (2002). Bicycle stability, is the steering angle proportional to the lean? Technical report, The College of Wooster. [ bib ]
If the steering of a bicycle is proportional to the lean angle, then the motion of the center of mass of the bike can be modeled as a damped simple harmonic oscillator. This would in part explain why a bicycle is stable. An experiment was performed to determine weather or not the steering angle is proportional to the lean. Due to noisy data, the proportionality was not conclusively verified, but evidence does suggest that the steer angle is proportional to the lean angle for small angles. The constant of proportionality was determined to be k=2.40±0.15. Improvements for future versions of this investigation are suggested.


[Suryanarayanan et al., 2002]
Suryanarayanan, S., Tomizuka, M., and Weaver, M. (2002). System dynamics and control of bicycles at high speeds. In Proceedings of the 2002 American Control Conference (IEEE Cat. No.CH37301), volume 2, pages 845–850, Danvers, MA, USA. American Autom. Control Council; IFAC; SICE, American Automatic Control Council. Proceedings of 2002 American Control Conference, 8-10 May 2002, Anchorage, AK, USA. [ bib ]
This paper presents the system dynamics and automated roll-rate control of front and rear-wheel steered bicycles. Automated steering control of bicycles gains importance in the context of a recent effort, initiated by bicycle designer Matt Weaver, to develop controllers to steer bicycles at very high speeds (70-100 mph). This paper extends earlier work on rear-wheel steered bikes, importantly Klein's unridable bicycle. Controllers for both front and rear-wheel steered bicycles are designed based on classical control techniques. Simulation results demonstrate good robustness and disturbance rejection properties. Implementation is currently underway.


Keywords: Practical, Theoretical or Mathematical/ control system analysis; controllers; feedback/ system dynamics; automated roll-rate control; rear-wheel steered bicycles; automated steering control; Klein unridable bicycle; simulation results; robustness/ C3220 Controllers; C1310 Control system analysis and synthesis methods
[Karchin and Hull, 2002]
Karchin, A. and Hull, M. (2002). Experimental optimization of pivot point height for swing-arm type rear suspensions in off-road bicycles. Transactions of the ASME. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 124(1):101–6. [ bib ]
Towards the ultimate goal of designing dual suspension off-road bicycles which decouple the suspension motion from the pedaling action, this study focused on determining experimentally the optimum pivot point height for a swing-arm type rear suspension such that the suspension motion was minimized. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the effect of interaction between the front and rear suspensions on the optimal pivot point height, (2) to investigate the sensitivity of the optimal height to the pedaling mechanics of the rider in both the seated and standing postures, (3) to determine the dependence of the optimal height on the rider posture. Eleven experienced subjects rode a custom-built adjustable dual suspension off-road bicycle, [Needle, S., and Hull, M. L., 1997, “An Off-Road Bicycle With Adjustable Suspension Kinematics,” Journal of Mechanical Design /b 119/, pp. 370-375], on an inclined treadmill. The treadmill was set to a constant 6 percent grade at a constant velocity of 24.8 km/hr. With the bicycle in a fixed gear combination of 38*14, the corresponding cadence was 84 rpm. For each subject, the pivot point height was varied randomly while the motions across both the front and rear suspension elements were measured. Subjects rode in both the seated and standing postures and with the front suspension active and inactive. It was found that the power loss from the rear suspension at the optimal pivot point height was not significantly dependent on the interaction between the front and rear suspensions. In the seated posture, the optimal pivot point height was 9.8 cm on average and had a range of 8.0-12.3 cm. The average optimal pivot point height for the seated posture corresponded to an average power loss for the rear suspension that was within 10 percent of the minimum power loss for each subject for 8 of the 11 subjects. In the standing posture, the average height was 5.9 cm and ranged from 5.1-7.2 cm. The average height for the standing posture was within 10 percent of the minimum power loss for each subject for 9 of the 11 subjects. While the optimum height was relatively insensitive to pedaling mechanics in both the seated and standing postures, the choice of the optimal pivot point height in production bicycles necessitates some compromise in performance given the disparity in the averages between the seated and standing postures.


Keywords: Experimental/ biomechanics; mechanical engineering; sport/ optimum pivot point height; front suspensions; sensitivity; pedaling mechanics; rider; seated postures; standing postures; optimal height; custom-built adjustable dual suspension off-road bicycle; inclined treadmill; constant velocity; fixed gear combination; cadence; active front suspension; swing-arm type rear suspensions; off-road bicycles; design; dual suspension off-road bicycles; suspension motion; pedaling action; inactive front suspension; power loss; average height; production bicycles; experimental optimization; 24.8 km/h; 9.8 cm; 5.9 cm; 8.0 to 12.3 cm; 5.1 to 7.2 cm/ A8745D Physics of body movements/ velocity 6.89E+00 m/s; size 9.8E-02 m; size 5.9E-02 m; size 8.0E-02 to 1.23E-01 m; size 5.1E-02 to 7.2E-02 m
[Berritta and Mitolo, 2002]
Berritta, R. and Mitolo, L. (2002). Evaluation of motorcycle performance inuturn test using multibody code lms dads. In HIGH-TECH CARS AND ENGINES, COMPONENTS, MATERIALS, TECNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIVE SYSTEMS. [ bib ]
[Chaplin, 2002]
Chaplin, L. (2002). Parking Lot Exercises to develop bicycle handling proficiency. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. [ bib ]
[Cossalter and Lot, 2002]
Cossalter, V. and Lot, R. (2002). A motorcycle multi-body model for real time simulations based on the natural coordinates approach. Vehicle System Dynamics, 37(6):423–447. [ bib ]
[Cossalter et al., 2002]
Cossalter, V., Lot, R., and Maggio, F. (2002). The influence of tire properties on the stability of a motorcycle in straight running and curves. In SAE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS P, pages 87–94. [ bib ]
[Foale, 2002]
Foale, T. (2002). Motorcycle handling and chassis design: the art and science. Tony Foale Designs. [ bib ]
[Gustafsson, 2002]
Gustafsson, F. (2002). Methods for estimating the roll angel and pitch angle of a two-wheeled vehicle system and a computer program to perform the methods. [ bib ]
[Hess et al., 2002]
Hess, RA., Zeyada, Y., and Heffley, RK. (2002). Modeling and simulation for helicopter task analysis. Journal of the American Helicopter Society, 47(4):243–252. [ bib ]
[Jolliffe, 2002]
Jolliffe, I. (2002). Principal Component Analysis. Springer Series in Statistics. Springer, New York, 2nd edition. [ bib ]
[Kageyama and Tagami, 2002]
Kageyama, I. and Tagami, N. (2002). Development of a riding simulator for two-wheeled vehicles. JSAE Review, 23:347–352. [ bib ]
This paper describes the development of a riding simulator for two-wheeled vehicles, which use to analyze the human factor of riders. We have already produced longitudinal motion of the simulator system. Therefore, in this study, we constructed a model for lateral motion of simulator system using transfer function from the equations of motion and scale factor from the results of experiments. And finally, we confirmed the total simulator system using ridersheart rate when they control the riding simulator.


[Karnopp, 2002]
Karnopp, D. (2002). Tilt control for gyro-stabilized two-wheeled vehicles. Vehicle System Dynamics, 37(2):145–156. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
Fully enclosed motorcycles could form the basis for extremely fuel and space efficient vehicles, but their inherent instability upon encountering even a momentary loss of traction renders them unsuitable for general use. It will be shown that a relatively simple tilt control system using a gyroscope to provide a tilt control moment is capable of stabilizing the vehicle at still stand or at speed on a very low traction surface. Furthermore, the system can achieve a coordinated turn on high traction surfaces. Since the gyro is an energy storage device, it can be used also in a hybrid system to provide extra power for acceleration and to recover some energy during braking. This relatively old idea should be reconsidered in light of the improved electromechanical devices, which have been developed recently for hybrid electric vehicles.


[Khalil, 2002]
Khalil, HK. (2002). Nonlinear Systems. Prentice Hall, 3rd edition. [ bib ]
[Kwon et al., 2002]
Kwon, D.-S., Yang, G.-H., Park, Y., Kim, S., Lee, C.-W., Shin, J.-C., Han, S., Lee, J., Wohn, K., Kim, S., Lee, DY., Lee, K., Yang, J.-H., and Choi, Y.-M. (2002). Kaist interactive bicycle racing simulator: the 2nd version with advanced features. In Intelligent Robots and System, 2002. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, volume 3, pages 2961–2966 vol.3. [ DOI | bib ]
This paper presents the KAIST interactive bicycle racing simulator system, which consists of a pair of bicycle simulators. The rider on the racing simulator experiences realistic sensations of motion, while being able to see the other bicycle simulator and having the audio-visual experience of riding in a velodrome or on the KAIST campus. The 2nd bicycle of the racing simulator system consists of a bicycle, a 4-DOF platform, a handlebar and a pedal resistance system to generate motion feelings; a real-time visual simulator a HMD and beam projection system; and a 3D sound system. The system has an integrating control network with an AOIM (Area Of Interest Management) based network structure for multiple simulators.


Keywords: digital simulation, sport, virtual reality AOIM, KAIST, handlebar, interactive bicycle racing simulator, motion feelings, pedal resistance, racing simulator
[McKenna et al., 2002]
McKenna, SP., Hill, MR., and Hull, ML. (2002). A single loading direction for fatigue life prediction and testing of handlebars for off-road bicycles. International Journal of Fatigue, 24(11):1149 – 1157. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Components for off-road bicycles including handlebars continue to be recalled with regularity because of problems with structural failure as a result of high cycle fatigue in the off-road environment. The objectives of this study were to 1) devise a method for determining the point on the handlebar cross section that experiences the maximum cumulative damage when the handlebar is subjected to loads applied by the rider's hands that vary randomly in both magnitude and direction, 2) use this method with an existing database of handlebar loads (DeLorenzo and Hull, J Biomech Eng, 1999) to determine a single loading direction to be used in design and testing of the handlebar, and 3) determine the sensitivity of the point of maximum cumulative damage to structural and material properties of the handlebar. The load database was generated by seven subjects who rode a rough downhill course in the standing posture and provided a total of 28 trials for analysis. For each of the 28 trials, the stress histories at 1-degree increments around the handlebar circumference were determined. The cumulative damage at each of the 360 points for each of the 28 trials was computed using rainflow counting in conjunction with Walker's equation to represent the S-N diagram for the handlebar material. The maximum cumulative damage varied by more than six orders of magnitude between trials and the location of the point of maximum damage ranged from 110° to 343° (angle measured from horizontal axis pointing forward with positive counterclockwise rotation viewed from the right side of the bicycle). The median location was 142°. To create a tensile stress in bending at 142°, a load would have to be applied at 322° (322° = 142°+180°). Thus, 322° was found to be the single loading direction representative of the variable-direction load database. This direction did not change for a handlebar with different structural and material properties and coincided approximately with a vector drawn along the line of the arms of the rider. This loading direction can be used in conjunction with information on the effects of assembly of the handlebar with a stem to analytically predict the high cycle fatigue life of a particular stem/handlebar assembly. Furthermore, this loading direction can also be used to experimentally determine the expected in-service fatigue life of a particular stem/handlebar assembly.


[Muraoka, 2002]
Muraoka, D. (2002). Stable running control of autonomous bicycle robot. Master's thesis, Keio University. in Japanese. [ bib ]
[Peterka, 2002]
Peterka, RJ. (2002). Sensorimotor integration in human postural control. Journal of Neurophysiology, 88(3):1097–1118. [ arXiv | bib | http ]
It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5–8°) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. “Sensory channel reweightingcould account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60 stability and avoid resonant behavior, an increase in stiffness should be accompanied by a corresponding increase in damping. Increased damping was achieved primarily by decreasing the apparent time delay of feedback control rather than by changing the damping coefficient (i.e., corrective torque related to body-sway velocity). In normal subjects, stiffness and damping were highly correlated with body mass and moment of inertia, with stiffness always about 1/3 larger than necessary to resist the destabilizing torque due to gravity. The stiffness parameter in some VL subjects was larger compared with normal subjects, suggesting that they may use increased stiffness to help compensate for their loss. Overall results show that the simple act of standing quietly depends on a remarkably complex sensorimotor control system.


[Schneider et al., 2002]
Schneider, S., Holdren, JP., Bongaarts, J., Lovejoy, T., and Rennie, J. (2002). Misleading math about the earth. Scientific American, 286(1):61–71. [ bib ]
Science defends itself against The Skeptical Environmentalist


[Stevens, 2002]
Stevens, DM. (2002). The influence of roll dynamics on motorcycle navigation systems. Master's thesis, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY. [ bib ]
[Takama et al., 2002a]
Takama, K., Kageyama, I., Miyagishi, S., Baba, M., and Uchiyama, H. (2002a). Study on construction of a rider robot for two wheeled vehicle. 日本機械学会関東支部総会講演会講演論文集, 8:155–156. [ bib | http ]
[Takama et al., 2002b]
Takama, K., Miyagishi, S., Kageyama, I., Kuriyagawa, Y., Baba, M., and Uchiyama, H. (2002b). Construction of autonomous system for two wheeled vehicle. The Transportation and Logistics Conference, 11:113–116. [ bib | http ]
In this study, we construct autonomous two wheeled vehicle (the Rider Robot) which uses for evaluation of two wheeled vehicle dynamics. The Rider Robot consists of electromechanical device and is operated by the control algorithm without a human rider. We consider the control algorithm which is separated into two parts, directional and standing control. The algorithm of standing stability is constructed for the model using the data based on maneuver of the rider using multiple regression analysis. The desired roll angle is adopted for the directional control by using of image processing and second order prediction model.


[Troje, 2002a]
Troje, N. (2002a). The little difference: Fourier based synthesis of genderspecific biological motion. In Würtz, RP. and Lappe, M., editors, Dynamic Perception, pages 115–120, Berlin. AKA Press. [ bib ]
[Udwadia and Kalaba, 2002]
Udwadia, FE. and Kalaba, RE. (2002). What is the general form of the explicit equations of motion for constrained mechanical systems? Journal of Applied Mechanics, 69(3):335–339. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Keywords: classical mechanics; dynamics; kinematics
[Waechter et al., 2002]
Waechter, M., Riess, F., and Zacharias, N. (2002). A multibody model for the simulation of bicycle suspension systems. Vehicle System Dynamics, 37(1):3–28. [ bib ]
[Watkins, 2002]
Watkins, GK. (2002). The dynamic stability of a fully faired single track human powered vehicle. PhD thesis, University of North Carolina, Charlotte. [ bib ]
[Mitiguy and Reckdahl, 2001]
Mitiguy, PC. and Reckdahl, KJ. (2001). Efficient dynamical equations for gyrostats. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 24(6):1144–1156. [ bib ]
To formulate equations of motion, the analyst must choose constants that characterize the mass distribution of system components. Traditionally, one chooses as constants the mass of each particle and the mass and central inertia scalars of each rigid body. However, this characterization of the mass distribution leads to inefficient equations of motion for gyrostats and necessitates the determination of an unnecessary large number of mass and inertia scalars. For gyrostats, there exist special formulas and a methodology for characterizing mass distribution that lead to efficient dynamic equations. In this context, efficient refers to relative simplicity, ease of manipulation for purposes of designing automatic control systems, and minimal consumption of computer time during numerical solution.


[Åström and Lunze, 2001]
Åström, KJ. and Lunze, J. (2001). Why are we able to ride a bicycle? Automatisierungstechnik, 49(10):427–435. [ bib ]
[Kwak and Park, 2001]
Kwak, B. and Park, Y. (2001). Vehicle states observer using adaptive tire-road friction estimator. JSME INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL SERIES C-MECHANICAL SYSTEMS MACHINE ELEMENTS AND MANUFACTURING, 44(3):668–675. [ bib ]
Vehicle stability control system is a new idea which can enhance the vehicle stability and handling in the emergency situation. This system requires the information of the yaw rate, sideslip angle and road friction in order to control the traction and braking forces at the individual wheels. This paper proposes an observer for the vehicle stability control system. This observer consisted of the state observer for vehicle motion estimation and the road condition estimator for the identification of the coefficient of the road friction. The state observer uses 2 degrees-of-freedom bicycle model and estimates the system variables based on the Kalman filter. The road condition estimator uses the same vehicle model and identifies the coefficient of the tire-road friction based on the recursive least square method. Both estimator,,; make use of each other information. We show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed scheme under various road conditions through computer simulations of a fifteen degree-of-freedom non-linear vehicle model.


Keywords: stability control; extended Kalman filter; tire road friction; recursive least square method
[Hess and Siwakosit, 2001]
Hess, RA. and Siwakosit, W. (2001). Assessment of flight simulator fidelity in multiaxis tasks including visual cue quality. Journal of Aircraft, 38(4):607–614. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 2001]
Sharp, RS. (2001). Stability, control and steering responses of motorcycles. Vehicle System Dynamics, 35(4–5):291–318. [ DOI | bib ]
[Bullen and Wilkinson, 2001]
Bullen, F. and Wilkinson, S. (2001). Bicycle accidents caused by steering instability. Technical report, The Federal Office of Road Safety, Australia. [ bib ]
[Erb, 2001]
Erb, R. (2001). Zum problem der stabilität beim fahrradfahren. MNU, 5:279–284. [ bib ]
[Gallaspy and Hung, 2001]
Gallaspy, JM. and Hung, JY. (2001). Gyroscopic stabilization of a stationary unmanned bicycle. a planned journal article of the same name as his thesis. [ bib ]
This paper presents a method for stabilizing an unmanned bicycle in the upright position. Nonlinear dynamics of the bicycle and control gyroscope are modeled using Lagrange’s method. Then, a linear approximate model is developed to design a controller to stabilize the bicycle. An 8-bit fixed-point microcontroller computes control commands to actuate the gyroscope gimbal axis, thus producing a restoring torque on the bicycle frame. Simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK are analyzed, and experimental results are summarized. Finally, recommendations for further work are given in the concluding remarks.


[Kwon et al., 2001]
Kwon, D.-S., Yang, G.-H., Lee, C.-W., Shin, J.-C., Park, Y., Jung, B., Lee, DY., Le, K., Kim, S., Han, S., Yoo, B.-H., Wohn, K., and Ahn, J.-H. (2001). Kaist interactive bicycle simulator. In Proceedings 2001 ICRA. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. [ bib ]
[Limebeer et al., 2001]
Limebeer, D., Sharp, R., and Evangelou, S. (2001). The stability of motorcycles under acceleration and braking. J. Mech. Eng. Sci, 215(9):1095–1109. [ bib ]
[Lucia et al., 2001]
Lucia, A., HOYOS, J., CHICHARRO, and L., J. (2001). Preferred pedalling cadence in professional cycling. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(8):1361–1366. [ bib ]
[Miyagishi et al., 2001]
Miyagishi, S., Kageyama, I., Takama, K., Baba, M., and Uchiyama, H. (2001). 1411 a study on a rider robot for two wheeled vehicle. The Transportation and Logistics Conference, 10:125–128. [ bib | http ]
In this study, we constructed autonomous two wheeled vehicle (the Rider Robot) which use for evaluation of two wheeled vehicle dynamics. The Rider Robot consist electromechanical device and operate by the control algorithm without the need for a human rider. We consider the control algorithm was separated directory and standing control. The model of standing control was constructed for the model using the data based on maneuver of the rider using multiple regression analysis. And direction control was giving the purpose of dynamic roll angle, which from purpose turning radius that acquired the difference between image analysis and second order prediction model.


[Park et al., 2001]
Park, I., Han, S., and Ham, W. (2001). Control algorithm for stabilization of attitute of unmanned electric bicycle. In The Proceedings of 2001 INCOM, Wien, Austria. [ bib ]
[Salvucci et al., 2001]
Salvucci, DD., Boer, ER., and Liu, A. (2001). Toward an integrated model of driver behavior in cognitive architecture. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1779:9–16. [ bib ]
Driving is a multitasking activity that requires drivers to manage their attention among various driving- and non-driving-related tasks. When one models drivers as continuous controllers, the discrete nature of drivers' control actions is lost and with it an important component for characterizing behavioral variability. A proposal is made for the use of cognitive architectures for developing models of driver behavior that integrate cognitive and perceptual-motor processes in a serial model of task and attention management. A cognitive architecture is a computational framework that incorporates built-in, well-tested parameters and constraints on cognitive and perceptual-motor processes. All driver models implemented in a cognitive architecture necessarily inherit these parameters and constraints, resulting in more predictive and psychologically plausible models than those that do not characterize driving as a multitasking activity. These benefits are demonstrated with a driver model developed in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. The model is validated by comparing its behavior to that of human drivers navigating a four-lane highway with traffic in a fixed-based driving simulator. Results show that the model successfully predicts aspects of both lower-level control, such as steering and eye movements during lane changes, and higher-level cognitive tasks, such as task management and decision making. Many of these predictions are not explicitly built into the model but come from the cognitive architecture as a result of the model's implementation in the ACT-R architecture.


[Seffen et al., 2001]
Seffen, KA., Parks, GT., and Clarkson, PJ. (2001). Observations on the controllability of motion of two-wheelers. In Proceedings of the Institute of Mechincal Engineers, volume 215. [ bib ]
[Sharp and Limebeer, 2001]
Sharp, RS. and Limebeer, D. JN. (2001). A motorcycle model for stability and control analysis. Multibody Syst. Dyn., 6(2):123–142. [ bib ]
[Tezuka et al., 2001]
Tezuka, Y., Ishii, H., and Kiyota, S. (2001). Application of the magic formula tire model to motorcycle maneuverability analysis. JSAE Review, 22(3):305 – 310. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The Magic Formula Tire Model, recently utilized in maneuverability analysis for automobiles, was applied to a motorcycle simulation model. The correlation between the simulated and measured characteristics for straight running stability and turning performance was compared with those of the current Carpet Plotted Tire Model. Further, the ease of use of the Magic Formula was investigated. The results show that correlation with actual tire characteristics is high for the Magic Formula Tire Model and that the changing of tire properties can be easily accomplished with this model.


[Zappa et al., 2001]
Zappa, B., Legnani, G., van den Bogert, AJ., and Adamini, R. (2001). On the number and placement of accelerometers for angular velocity and acceleration determination. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 123(3):552–554. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Keywords: accelerometers; angular velocity measurement; acceleration measurement
[Zeyada and Hess, 2000]
Zeyada, Y. and Hess, RA. (2000). Modeling human pilot cue utilization with applications to simulator fidelity assessment. Journal of Aircraft, 37(4):588–598. [ bib ]
[Siwakosit et al., 2000]
Siwakosit, W., Snell, S., and Hess, R. (2000). Robust flight control design with handling qualities constraints using scheduled linear dynamic inversion and loop-shaping. Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on, 8(3):483–494. [ DOI | bib ]
A technique for obtaining a full-envelope decoupled linear flight control design is presented. The methodology begins with a reduced-order linear dynamic-inversion technique that is scheduled over the flight envelope. The reduced order dynamic inverter can offer a significant reduction in the number of state variables to be sensed or estimated as compared to typical applications of inverse dynamic control. The technique can provide desired input-output characteristics including control decoupling. The required gain scheduling of the reduced order dynamic inversion is straightforward. Uncertainty is introduced by perturbing the stability derivatives in the vehicle model at each of the flight conditions considered. The effects of uncertainty are then reduced by additional feedback loops involving a diagonal compensation matrix obtained through application of a loop shaping procedure based upon a quantitative feedback theory predesign technique. The tendency of quantitative feedback theory to produce high-bandwidth conservative designs is mitigated by the scheduling and decoupling associated with the dynamic inversion. Finally, handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillation tendencies are evaluated using a structural model of the human pilot implemented in an interactive computer program that can include the effects of nuisance nonlinearities such as actuator saturation. The proposed methodology is applied to the design of a lateral-directional flight control system for a piloted supermaneuvarable fighter aircraft


Keywords: aircraft control, compensation, control nonlinearities, control system synthesis, feedback, interactive systems, man-machine systems, matrix algebra, robust controlI/O characteristics, actuator saturation, diagonal compensation matrix, dynamic inversion, feedback loops, full-envelope decoupled linear flight control design, gain scheduling, handling qualities, handling qualities constraints, high-bandwidth conservative designs, input-output characteristics, interactive computer program, inverse dynamic control, lateral-directional flight control system design, loop-shaping, nuisance nonlinearities, pilot-induced oscillation tendencies, piloted supermaneuvarable fighter aircraft, quantitative feedback theory predesign technique, reduced-order linear dynamic-inversion technique, robust flight control design, uncertainty
[Berry et al., 2000]
Berry, MJ., Koves, TR., and Benedetto, JJ. (2000). The influence of speed, grade and mass during simulated off road bicycling. Applied Ergonomics, 31:531–536. [ bib ]
[Bortoluzzi et al., 2000]
Bortoluzzi, D., Doria, A., and Lot, R. (2000). Experimental investigation and simulation of motorcycle turning performance. In 3rd International Motorcycle Conference. [ bib ]
Keywords: steer torque
[Chen, 2000]
Chen, PH. (2000). A scheme of fuzzy training and learning applied to elebike control system. In Ninth IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems. [ bib ]
[Evangelou and Limebeer, 2000a]
Evangelou, S. and Limebeer, D. JN. (2000a). Animation of the "sl2001" motorcycle model. Technical report, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine. [ bib ]
[Evangelou and Limebeer, 2000b]
Evangelou, S. and Limebeer, D. JN. (2000b). Lisp programming of the "sharp 1971" motorcycle model. Technical report, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine. [ bib ]
[Evangelou and Limebeer, 2000c]
Evangelou, S. and Limebeer, D. JN. (2000c). Lisp programming of the "sharp 1994" motorcycle model. Technical report, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine. [ bib ]
[Fajans, 2000]
Fajans, J. (2000). Steering in bicycles and motorcycles. American Journal of Physics, 68(7):654–659. [ bib ]
[Gallaspy, 2000]
Gallaspy, JM. (2000). Gyroscopic stabilization of an unmanned bicycle. Master's thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA. [ bib ]
This paper presents a method for stabilizing an unmanned bicycle upright. The system uses a gimbaled gyroscope to apply a restoring torque on the bicycle frame if a leaning angle is sensed. First, a dynamic model is developed by determining state equations from mechanical and electrical principles. This model is used to design a controller to stabilize the bicycle, which is implemented using a digital microcontroller. Simulations using MATLAB/Simulink are analyzed, and experimental results are summarized. Finally, recommendations for further work are included in the concluding remarks.


[Horiuchi and Yuhara, 2000]
Horiuchi, S. and Yuhara, N. (2000). An analytical approach to the prediction of handling qualities of vehicles with advanced steering control system using multi-input driver model. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 122(3):490–497. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Keywords: road vehicles; transport control; human factors; user modelling
[Kane and Levinson, 2000]
Kane, TR. and Levinson, DA. (2000). Dynamics Online: Theory and Implementation with AUTOLEV. Online Dynamics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA. [ bib ]
[Kelly and Hubbard, 2000]
Kelly, A. and Hubbard, M. (2000). Design and construction of a bobsled driver training simulator. Sports Engineering, 3:13–24. [ bib ]
[Peterka, 2000]
Peterka, RJ. (2000). Postural control model interpretation of stabilogram diffusion analysis. Biological Cybernetics, 82:335–343. 10.1007/s004220050587. [ bib | http ]
Collins and De Luca [Collins JJ, De Luca CJ (1993) Exp Brain Res 95: 308–318] introduced a new method known as stabilogram diffusion analysis that provides a quantitative statistical measure of the apparently random variations of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories recorded during quiet upright stance in humans. This analysis generates a stabilogram diffusion function (SDF) that summarizes the mean square COP displacement as a function of the time interval between COP comparisons. SDFs have a characteristic two-part form that suggests the presence of two different control regimes: a short-term open-loop control behavior and a longer-term closed-loop behavior. This paper demonstrates that a very simple closed-loop control model of upright stance can generate realistic SDFs. The model consists of an inverted pendulum body with torque applied at the ankle joint. This torque includes a random disturbance torque and a control torque. The control torque is a function of the deviation (error signal) between the desired upright body position and the actual body position, and is generated in proportion to the error signal, the derivative of the error signal, and the integral of the error signal [i.e. a proportional, integral and derivative (PID) neural controller]. The control torque is applied with a time delay representing conduction, processing, and muscle activation delays. Variations in the PID parameters and the time delay generate variations in SDFs that mimic real experimental SDFs. This model analysis allows one to interpret experimentally observed changes in SDFs in terms of variations in neural controller and time delay parameters rather than in terms of open-loop versus closed-loop behavior.


[Rosales and Sclaroff, 2000]
Rosales, R. and Sclaroff, S. (2000). Specialized mappings and the estimation of human body pose from a single image. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Human Motion (HUMO'00), pages 19–24. [ DOI | bib ]
Keywords: computer vision, image recognition, learning (artificial intelligence), maximum likelihood estimation, probabilitySpecialized Mappings Architecture, articulated body pose, expectation maximization, feedback matching function, forward mapping functions, human body pose esimation, maximum likelihood estimation, monocular images, nonlinear supervised learning architecture, probabilistic model
[Sooraksa and Sritheerawirojana, 2000]
Sooraksa, P. and Sritheerawirojana, U. (2000). A bicycle robot: part 1 modeling and control. In Proceedings of the 17th ISARC, pages 1–5, Taipei, Taiwan. [ bib ]
In this paper, a simple fuzzy logic based intelligent architecture is developed for controlling a bicycle robot. The approximated model for membership functions and control gains can be obtained by simply considering the robot as an inverted pendulum in 3-dimensional space. The obtained model is merely a conceptually estimating one because the mismatch modeling and the uncertainty will be taken care by the intelligent controller. Simulation results are carried out. The hardware realization and implementation will be shown in Part 2.


Keywords: bicycle robot, fuzzy logic control, modeling, intelligent control, two wheeled robot
[Sooraksa et al., 2000]
Sooraksa, P., Uthairat, T., Kaopratum, S., Sritheerawirojana, U., and Monyakul, V. (2000). A bicycle robot: part 2 system implementation. In Proceedings of the 17th ISARC, Taipei, Taiwan. [ bib ]
This paper presents the realization and implementation of a bicycle robot using the control scheme designed in Part 1. The control hardware architecture of the robot consists of tilt sensors, a turning control unit, a driving unit and a microcontroller. In a control cycle, the functional mechanism can be described as follows: First, the tilt sensors sense the state of the robot?s balance position and then send the signal to the microcontroller for generating a control decision based on the control law. After the final fuzzy control decision has been made, the output signal will be sent to the turning and the driving control units to track the desired path while retaining the robot in balance.


Keywords: bicycle robot, fuzzy logic control, modeling, intelligent control, two wheeled robot
[Taro et al., 2000]
Taro, S., Michiharu, O., and Hiroyasu, N. (2000). Analysis of motorcycle's behavior in the pylon course slalom. experimental study on the pylon course slalom of motorcycles. In JSAE Annual Congress, volume 58-00. [ bib ]
The pylon slalom by motorcycle is different from the four-wheeled vehicle in the driving control; because of a motorcycle doesn't need only the required steer angle, but also the large roll angle that is necessary in a cornering. This paper shows above differences by the experimental study. To sum up the major characteristics of the motorcycle behaviors, the shape of steer torque isn't the sine curve when the running path expresses the sine curve and the various displacement motorcycles occur the maximum steering torque at the same velocity. The results will be useful to the construction of the rider model.


[Zupan et al., 2000]
Zupan, LH., Peterka, RJ., and Merfeld, DM. (2000). Neural processing of gravito-inertial cues in humans. i. influence of the semicircular canals following post-rotatory tilt. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84(4):2001–2015. [ arXiv | bib | http ]
Sensory systems often provide ambiguous information. Integration of various sensory cues is required for the CNS to resolve sensory ambiguity and elicit appropriate responses. The vestibular system includes two types of sensors: the semicircular canals, which measure head rotation, and the otolith organs, which measure gravito-inertial force (GIF), the sum of gravitational force and inertial force due to linear acceleration. According to Einstein's equivalence principle, gravitational force is indistinguishable from inertial force due to linear acceleration. As a consequence, otolith measurements must be supplemented with other sensory information for the CNS to distinguish tilt from translation. The GIF resolution hypothesis states that the CNS estimates gravity and linear acceleration, so that the difference between estimates of gravity and linear acceleration matches the measured GIF. Both otolith and semicircular canal cues influence this estimation of gravity and linear acceleration. The GIF resolution hypothesis predicts that inaccurate estimates of both gravity and linear acceleration can occur due to central interactions of sensory cues. The existence of specific patterns of vestibuloocular reflexes (VOR) related to these inaccurate estimates can be used to test the GIF resolution hypothesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured eye movements during two different protocols. In one experiment, eight subjects were rotated at a constant velocity about an earth-vertical axis and then tilted 90° in darkness to one of eight different evenly spaced final orientations, a so-calleddumpingprotocol. Three speeds (200, 100, and 50°/s) and two directions, clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW), of rotation were tested. In another experiment, four subjects were rotated at a constant velocity (200°/s, CW and CCW) about an earth-horizontal axis and stopped in two different final orientations (nose-up and nose-down), a so-calledbarbecueprotocol. The GIF resolution hypothesis predicts that post-rotatory horizontal VOR eye movements for both protocols should include aninducedVOR component, compensatory to an interaural estimate of linear acceleration, even though no true interaural linear acceleration is present. The GIF resolution hypothesis accurately predicted VOR and induced VOR dependence on rotation direction, rotation speed, and head orientation. Alternative hypotheses stating that frequency segregation may discriminate tilt from translation or that the post-rotatory VOR time constant is dependent on head orientation with respect to the GIF direction did not predict the observed VOR for either experimental protocol.


[Bloomfield, 1999]
Bloomfield, LA. (1999). Tricks of a two-wheeler – `look, ma, no hands' not as tough as it sounds. [ bib ]
[de Lorenzo and Hull, 1999]
de Lorenzo, D. and Hull, M. (1999). Quantification of structural loading during off-road cycling. Transactions of the ASME. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 121(4):399–405. [ bib ]
To provide data for fatigue life prediction and testing of structural components in off-road bicycles, the objective of the research described herein was to quantify the loads input to an off-road bicycle as a result of surface-induced loads. A fully instrumented test bicycle was equipped with dynamometers at the pedals, handlebars, and hubs to measure all in-plane structural loads acting through points of contact between the bicycle and both the rider and the ground. A portable data acquisition system carried by the standing rider allowed, for the first time, this loading information to be collected during extended off-road testing. In all, 7 experienced riders rode a downhill trail test section with the test bicycle in both front-suspension and full-suspension configurations. The load histories were used quantitatively to describe the bad components through the computation of means, standard deviations amplitude probability density functions, and power spectral density functions. For the standing position, the coefficients of variation for the load components normal to the ground were greater than 1.2 for handlebar forces and 0.3 and 0.5-0.6 for the pedal and hub forces, respectively. Thus the relative contribution of the dynamic loading was much greater than the static loading at the handlebars but less so at the pedals and hubs. As indicated by the rainflow count, high amplitude loading was developed approaching 3 and 5 times the weight of the test subjects at the front and rear wheels, respectively. The power spectral densities showed that energy was concentrated in the band 0-50 Hz. Through stress computations and knowledge of material properties, the data can be used analytically to predict the fatigue life of important structural components such as those for steering. The data can also be used to develop a fatigue testing protocol for verifying analytical predictions of fatigue life.


Keywords: Practical, Experimental/ biomechanics; fatigue testing; sport/ fatigue life prediction; structural components testing; surface-induced loads; pedals; handlebars; hubs; in-plane structural loads; portable data acquisition system; experienced riders; downhill trail test section; bad components; amplitude probability density functions; power spectral density functions; standing position; static loading; 0 to 50 Hz/ A8745D Physics of body movements/ frequency 0.0E+00 to 5.0E+01 Hz
[Park et al., 1999]
Park, SJ., Kim, C., and Park, SC. (1999). Anthropometric and biomechanical characteristics on body segments of koreans. Applied Human Sciences, 18(3):91–9. [ bib ]
This paper documents the physical measurements of the Korean population in order to construct a data base for ergonomic design. The dimension, volume, density, mass, and center of mass of Koreans whose ages range from 7 to 49 were investigated. Sixty-five male subjects and sixty-nine female subjects participated. Eight body segments (head with neck, trunk, thigh, shank, foot, upper arm, forearm and hand) were directly measured with a Martin-type anthropometer, and the immersion method was adopted to measure the volume of body segments. After this, densities were computed by the density equations in Drillis and Contini (1966). The reaction board method was employed for the measurement of the center of mass. Obtained data were compared with the results in the literature. The results in this paper showed different features on body segment parameters comparing with the results in the literature. The constructed data base can be applied to statistical guideline for product design, workspace design, design of clothing and tools, furniture design and construction of biomechanical models for Korean. Also, they can be extended to the application areas for Mongolian.


[Aoki, 1999]
Aoki, A. (1999). Effectiveness of the basic model for motorcycle dynamics. JSME Journal Series C, 65(636):110–116. [ bib ]
[Aoki et al., 1999]
Aoki, A., Katayama, T., Nishimi, T., and Okayama, T. (1999). Effects of rider's vibrational characteristics on straight-running stability of motorcycles. Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. C, 65(634):2294–2301. Japanese. [ bib | http ]
A six-degree-of-freedom model and a twelve-degree-of freedom model incorporating a rider's vibrational characteristics have been developed. The models include a mechanical model of the rider's body which consists of a leaning motion of the upper body and a lateral movement of the lower body. Damping properties and natural frequencies of weave and wobble modes were calculated using these models. Conclusions are drawn about effects of the rider's vibrational characteristics on the stability of motorcycles during straight running from the calculations in the six degree of freedom model. Implications for accurate modeling of motorcycle stability are derived from differences between the calculations in the twelve-degree-of-freedom model and running experiments.


[Berriah and Lachiver, 1999]
Berriah, S. and Lachiver, G. (1999). Control of equilibrium and trajectory of a remotely controlled bicycle. In Engineering Solutions for the Next Millennium. 1999 IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering. [ bib ]
[Cossalter et al., 1999]
Cossalter, V., Doria, A., and Lot, R. (1999). Steady turning of two-wheeled vehicles. Vehicle System Dynamics, 31(3):157–181. [ bib | http ]
When driving along a circular path, the driver of a motorcycle controls the vehicle mainly by means of steering torque. If low steering torque is necessary, the driver feels that the vehicle is manoeuvrable. In this paper, a mathematical model concerning steering torque is developed; it takes into account the actual kinematic behaviour of the vehicle and the properties of motorcycle tyres. Tyre forces act at the contact points of toroidal tyres, which are calculated according to kinematic analysis. Non-linear equations are solved using an iterative approach. Several numerical results are presented, and the influence of tyre properties and some geometrical and inertial properties of the vehicle on steering torque are discussed.


Keywords: handling
[Hess, 1999]
Hess, RA. (1999). Book review: Advances in aircraft flight control. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 44(4):887–889. [ bib ]
[Indiveri, 1999]
Indiveri, G. (1999). Kinematic time-invariant control of a 2d nonholonomic vehicle. In Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. [ bib ]
[Neptune and Hull, 1999]
Neptune, RR. and Hull, ML. (1999). A theoretical analysis of preferred pedaling rate selection in endurance cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 32(4):409 – 415. [ DOI | bib | http ]
One objective of this study was to investigate whether neuromuscular quantities were associated with preferred pedaling rate selection during submaximal steady-state cycling from a theoretical perspective using a musculoskeletal model with an optimal control analysis. Specific neuromuscular quantities of interest were the individual muscle activation, force, stress and endurance. To achieve this objective, a forward dynamic model of cycling and optimization framework were used to simulate pedaling at three different rates of 75, 90 and 105 rpm at 265 W. The pedaling simulations were produced by optimizing the individual muscle excitation timing and magnitude to reproduce experimentally collected data. The results from these pedaling simulations indicated that all neuromuscular quantities were minimized at 90 rpm when summed across muscles. In the context of endurance cycling, these results suggest that minimizing neuromuscular fatigue is an important mechanism in pedaling rate selection. A second objective was to determine whether any of these quantities could be used to predict the preferred pedaling rate. By using the quantities with the strongest quadratic trends as the performance criterion to be minimized in an optimal control analysis, these quantities were analyzed to assess whether they could be further minimized at 90 rpm and produce normal pedaling mechanics. The results showed that both the integrated muscle activation and average endurance summed across all muscles could be further minimized at 90 rpm indicating that these quantities cannot be used individually to predict preferred pedaling rates.


Keywords: Muscle force
[Sharp, 1999]
Sharp, RS. (1999). Vehicle Performance: Understanding Human Monitoring and Assessment, chapter Vehicle dynamics and the judgement of quality, pages 87–96. Swets and Zeitlinger B. V., Lisse. [ bib ]
The paper is concerned with the objective specification of required vehicle dynamics qualities, in such a way that meeting the objectives specified will guarantee good subjective reaction to those aspects of the vehicle behaviour which are within the envelope of concern. Two basic types of vehicle dynamics problems are distinguished, one being essentially a machine problem while the other is distinctly a man-machine problem. The current status of quality judging is outlined and its shortcomings are exposed. The basic nature of the driving activity is discussed and a framework for the specification of what is required of the vehicle to be most amenable to the needs of the man is put forward. This leads to some ideas about research directions and improved industrial practices for the future.


[Sharp et al., 1999]
Sharp, RS., Limebeer, D. JN., and Gani, M. (1999). A motorcycle model for stability and control analysis. In Proc. Euromech Colloquium 404, Advances Computational Multibody Dynamics, pages 287––312. [ bib ]
[Smak et al., 1999]
Smak, W., Neptune, RR., and Hull, ML. (1999). The influence of pedaling rate on bilateral asymmetry in cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 32(9):899 – 906. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The objectives of this study were to (1) determine whether bilateral asymmetry in cycling changed systematically with pedaling rate, (2) determine whether the dominant leg as identified by kicking contributed more to average power over a crank cycle than the other leg, and (3) determine whether the dominant leg asymmetry changed systematically with pedaling rate. To achieve these objectives, data were collected from 11 subjects who pedaled at five different pedaling rates ranging from 60 to 120 rpm at a constant workrate of 260 W. Bilateral pedal dynamometers measured two orthogonal force components in the plane of the bicycle. From these measurements, asymmetry was quantified by three dependent variables, the percent differences in average positive power ( power ( to the leg generating the greater total average for each power quantity at 60 rpm disregarding the measure of dominance, and with respect to the dominant leg as determined by kicking. Simple linear regression analyses were performed on these quantities both for the subject sample and for individual subjects. For the subject sample, only the percent difference in average negative power exhibited a significant linear relationship with pedaling rate; as pedaling rate increased, the asymmetry decreased. Although the kicking dominant leg contributed significantly greater average crank power than the non-dominant leg for the subject sample, the non-dominant leg contributed significantly greater average positive power and average negative power than the dominant leg. However, no significant linear relationships for any of these three quantities with pedaling rate were evident for the subject sample because of high variability in asymmetry among the subjects. For example, significant linear relationships existed between pedaling rates and percent difference in total average power per leg for only four of the 11 subjects and the nature of these relationships was different (e.g. positive versus negative slopes). It was concluded that pedaling asymmetry is highly variable among subjects and that individual subjects may exhibit different systematic changes in asymmetry with pedaling rate depending on the quantity of interest.


Keywords: Asymmetry
[Cossalter et al., 1998]
Cossalter, V., Lio, MD., Biral, F., and Fabbri, L. (1998). Evaluation of motorcycle maneuverability with the optimal maneuver method. In Motorsports Engineering Conference & Exposition, number 983022, Dearbon, Michigan, USA. SAE. [ bib ]
This paper deals with the application of the optimal maneuver method to the assessment of motorcycle maneuverability.
The optimal maneuver method is a novel approach to the analysis of vehicle performance. The essence of this method is the solution of an optimal control problem which consists in moving the vehicle, according to holding trajectory constraints, between two given endpoints in the "most efficient way". The concept of "most efficient" is defined by a proper penalty function defined to express maneuverability.
In this paper we briefly outline the method and give examples of its application to three classical maneuvers commonly used to test motorcycle handling: a slalom test, a lane change maneuver and a U-curve.


[Fuchs, 1998]
Fuchs, A. (1998). Trim of aerodynamically faired single-track vehicles in crosswinds. In Proceedings of the 3rd European Seminar on Velomobiles, Roskilde, Denmark. [ bib ]
This paper is about minimizing the disturbing effects of steady crosswinds on singletrack vehicles (velomobiles and hpv / bicycles / motorcycles). A solution of the static problem ‘aerodynamically faired single-track vehicle in crosswind’ is presented. The Cornell Bicycle Model (Cornell Bicycle Research Project) describes the physical behavior of an idealized bicycle (single-track vehicle) at no wind. Other equations in a previous paper describe the torques on fairings due to aerodynamic forces which induce lean of single-track vehicles and lead to steering-action. These equations are combined with those of the bicycle model to describe the conditions for equilibrium at some lean but zero steering angle. Parameters affecting equilibrium are mass distribution, vehicleand fairing geometry and the relative position of fairing and vehicle structure. Faired single-track velomobiles whose parameters are such that the equilibrium-equation (‘trim equation’) is fullfilled could be easier to ride in steady crosswind than those designed at random. Because the trim equation derived in this paper does not describe the dynamic behavior e.g. of a velomobile coming from a no-wind situation into one with steady, alternating or impulse-input crosswind, further investigations will be needed for even better hpv- or other single-track vehicle design.


[Rowe et al., 1998]
Rowe, T., Hull, M., and Wang, E. (1998). A pedal dynamometer for off-road bicycling. Transactions of the ASME. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 120(1):160–4. [ bib ]
Describes the design and accuracy evaluation of a dynamometric pedal, which measures the 2 pedal force components in the plane of the bicycle. To realize a design that could be used during actual off-road cycling, a popular clipless pedal available commercially was modified so that both the form and the function of the original design were maintained. To measure the load components of interest, the pedal spindle was replaced with a spindle fixed to the pedal body and instrumented with 8 strain gages connected into 2 Wheatstone bridge circuits. The new spindle is supported by bearings in the crank arm. Static calibration and a subsequent accuracy check revealed root mean square errors of less than 1 percent full scale (FS) when only the force components of interest were applied. Application of unmeasured load components created an error less than 2 percent FS. The natural frequency with half the weight of a 75 kgf person standing on the pedal was greater than 135 Hz. These performance capabilities make the dynamometer suitable for measuring either pedaling loads due to the rider's muscular action or inertial loads due to surface-induced acceleration. To demonstrate this suitability, sample pedal load data are presented both for steady-state ergometer cycling and coasting over a rough surface while standing.


Keywords: Practical, Experimental/ biological techniques; biomechanics; dynamometers; force measurement/ pedal dynamometer; off-road bicycling; dynamometric pedal; accuracy evaluation; force components; clipless pedal; load components measurement; unmeasured load components; natural frequency; steady-state ergometer cycling; coasting over rough surface; standing; Wheatstone bridge circuits; bearings; crank arm; static calibration; muscular action; inertial loads; surface-induced acceleration; 135 Hz/ A8780 Biophysical instrumentation and techniques; A8745D Physics of body movements; B7510 Biomedical measurement and imaging; B7320G Mechanical variables measurement/ frequency 1.35E+02 Hz
[Andriacchi et al., 1998]
Andriacchi, TP., Alexander, EJ., Toney, MK., Dyrby, C., and Sum, J. (1998). A point cluster method for in vivo motion analysis: applied to a study of knee kinematics. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 120(6):743–749. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Beznos, 1998]
Beznos, A.V.; Formalsky, A. ea. (1998). Control of autonomous motion of two-wheel bicycle with gyroscopic stabilization. In Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pages 2670–2675, Leuven, Belgium. [ bib ]
[Hess and Stout, 1998]
Hess, RA. and Stout, PW. (1998). Predicting handling qualities levels for vehicles with nonlinear dynamics. In 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, number AIAA 98-0494, Reno, NV, USA. AIAA. [ bib ]
[Imaizumi et al., 1998]
Imaizumi, Hirohide, Fujioka, and Takehiko (1998). Motorcycle-rider system dynamics by multibody dynamics analysis: Effects of the rear load on wobble motions and the control assembly. JSAE Review, 19(1):54–57. [ bib ]
Keywords: dynamics, man machine systems, oscillations, loads, computer simulation, vehicle suspensions, motion control
[Jackson and Dragovan, 1998]
Jackson, AW. and Dragovan, M. (1998). An experimental investigation of bicycle dynamics. [ bib ]
Keywords: steer torque, no hands, experiements, instrumented bicycle
[Neptune and Hull, 1998]
Neptune, RR. and Hull, ML. (1998). Evaluation of performance criteria for simulation of submaximal steady-state cycling using a forward dynamic model. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 120(3):334–341. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Ovaska and Valiviita, 1998]
Ovaska, SJ. and Valiviita, S. (1998). Angular acceleration measurement: a review. In Proc. IEEE IMTC/98 Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conf, volume 2, pages 875–880. [ DOI | bib ]
This paper gives <span class='snippet'>a</span> <span class='snippet'>review</span> of sensors, methods, and algorithms available for the <span class='snippet'>measurement</span> of <span class='snippet'>angular</span> <span class='snippet'>acceleration</span>. The emphasis is in delay-sensitive, real-time applications. Although the <span class='snippet'>angular</span> <span class='snippet'>acceleration</span> can be measured indirectly using either <span class='snippet'>a</span> rotating angle sensor or <span class='snippet'>a</span> velocity sensor, the noise-amplification problem related to the differentiation process has motivated the efforts to develop transducers for direct sensing of <span class='snippet'>angular</span> <span class='snippet'>acceleration</span>. Direct measuring of linear <span class='snippet'>acceleration</span> is widely in everyday use, but the <span class='snippet'>angular</span> <span class='snippet'>acceleration</span> sensors, particularly those with unlimited rotation angle, can still be considered as emerging devices. Consequently, there exist two principal challenges for the research and development community: to develop economical and accurate <span class='snippet'>angular</span> accelerometers with unlimited rotation range, and to create wideband indirect techniques with small lag and high signal-to-error ratio


[Sharp, 1998]
Sharp, RS. (1998). Multibody dynamics applications in vehicle engineering. In I. Mech. E. Conference Transactions, pages 215–228, London. Professional Engineering Publishers. invited keynote paper for Multibody Dynamics: New Techniques and Applications. [ bib ]
The paper includes discussion of the implications of modern multibody systems analysis methods and computer software for vehicle dynamics. The different points of view and interests of users are considered, together with appropriate strategies for organising relevant activities. The main dynamical foundations for commercially available software systems are explained briefly and their implications are mentioned. The immense differences in speed of simulation between systems with different fundamental multibody strategies are exposed. Other customer requirements from software suppliers are noted.


[Snell, 1998]
Snell, A. (1998). An active roll-moment control strategy for narrow tilting commuter vehicles. Vehicle System Dynamics, 29(5):277–307. [ bib ]
[Wolchok et al., 1998]
Wolchok, JC., Hull, ML., and Howell, SM. (1998). The effect of intersegmental knee moments on patellofemoral contact mechanics in cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 31(8):677 – 683. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bicycle pedal design on the mechanics of the patellofemoral joint. Previous research determined that for certain riders the non-driving varus and internal knee moments could be reduced by switching from fixed to free floating pedals (Ruby and Hull, 1993). It was postulated that the presence of varus and internal knee moments during fixed pedal cycling may adversely affect patellofemoral joint contact mechanics which could lead to the development of anterior knee pain. To investigate the effect of pedal design the hypothesis that varus and internal intersegmental knee moments significantly increase patellofemoral contact pressure, contact area and contact force was tested. To test this hypothesis cycling loads were simulated in vitro using a six-degree-of-freedom load application system (LAS). Using the LAS, varus moments ranging from 0-20 Nm and internal knee moments ranging from 0-10 Nm were applied simultaneously with quadriceps force at knee flexion angles of 60 and 90 degrees. Patellofemoral contact patterns were measured using pressure sensitive film. An applied 10 Nm internal moment significantly increased both contact area by 16 by 22 modestly yet significantly increased contact area by 6 force by 5 moments increased contact area and force by as much as 29 respectively. The mean contact pressure was not significantly increased by either of the two moments. The results suggest that non-driving intersegmental knee moments subject the patellofemoral joint to loads and contact patterns which may accelerate the development of chondromalacia.


Keywords: Cycling
[Yavin, 1998]
Yavin, Y. (1998). Navigation and control of the motion of a riderless bicycle. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 160:193–202. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1997b]
Hess, RA. (1997b). Unified theory for aircraft handling qualities and adverse aircraft-pilot coupling. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 20(6):1141–1148. [ bib ]
[Wang and Hull, 1997a]
Wang, E. and Hull, M. (1997a). A dynamic system model of an off-road cyclist. Transactions of the ASME. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 119(3):248–53. [ bib ]
To optimize the performance of off-road bicycle suspension systems, a dynamic model of the bicycle/rider system would be useful. This paper takes a major step toward this goal by developing a dynamic system model of the cyclist. To develop the cyclist model, a series of four vibrational tests utilizing random inputs was conducted on seven experienced off-road cyclists. This allowed the transfer functions for the arms and legs to be determined. To reproduce the essential features (i.e., resonance peaks) of the experimental transfer functions, the system model included elements representing the visceral mass along with the arms and legs. Through simulations, frequency responses of the system model of the rider in each of the four tests were computed. Optimal stiffness and damping parameter values for each subject were determined by minimizing the difference between the experimental and simulation results. Good agreement between experimental and simulation results indicates that modeling the rider as a lumped parameter system with linear springs and dampers is possible.


Keywords: Theoretical or Mathematical/ biomechanics; damping; physiological models; vibrations/ dynamic system model; transfer functions; off-road bicycle suspension systems; bicycle/rider system; vibrational tests; random inputs; experienced off-road cyclists; arms; legs; resonance peaks; visceral mass; frequency responses; optimal stiffness parameter value; optimal damping parameter values; rider; lumped parameter system; linear springs/ A8745 Biomechanics, biorheology, biological fluid dynamics; A8710 General, theoretical, and mathematical biophysics
[Gani et al., 1997b]
Gani, M., Limebeer, D., and Sharp, R. (1997b). Multibody simulation software in the study of two-wheeled road vehicles. In Proc. 8th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS Symposium on Transportation Systems '97, Chania, Greece. [ bib ]
Due to the model complexity, the manual derivation of the equations of motion of two-wheeled road vehicles is not practical, particularly if one wishes to study complex modes of operation such as certain cornering phenomena. We establish the feasibility of using multi-body model building software to study the straight running properties of a motorcycle. Our results accurately match those found by Sharp [6], who hand derived the equations of motion, with the added advantage of a significant reduction in the time taken to model the system. Furthermore, we demonstrate the agreement between the results of the linear model and the time responses obtained from a small perturbation non-linear system derived by the multi-body package. We also contend that the probability of incorrectly modelling the system, using these software tools, is less than that found in manual methods. Three examples are given to demonstrate how these tools can reduce the time and effort needed in improving motorcycle design. Firstly, a motorcycle model is used to predict the change in stability resulting from changes in the mechanical trail. Then we show how this base model used by Sharp [6] can be extended to include bounce, pitch and suspension freedoms. Finally, we implement a simple rider control mechanism to study the counter steering phenomenon.


[Boyd et al., 1997]
Boyd, TF., Neptune, RR., and Hull, ML. (1997). Pedal and knee loads using a multi-degree-of-freedom pedal platform in cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 30(5):505 – 511. [ DOI | bib | http ]
To provide a scientific basis for the design of bicycle pedals which possibly alleviate over-use knee injuries, two hypotheses were tested in the present study. The two hypotheses were: (1) that the three-dimensional pedal constraint loads; and (2) that the three-dimensional intersegmental knee loads would be reduced more significantly by a foot/pedal platform allowing both adduction/abduction and inversion/eversion rotations simultaneously than by a platform which allowed either rotation individually. To test these hypotheses, pedal load and lower limb kinematic data were collected from 10 subjects who pedaled with four pedal platforms which allowed zero, one, and two degrees of freedom. A number of quantities describing both pedal loads and intersegmental knee loads was computed for each of the four pedal platforms using a previously reported biomechanical model. The quantities included the positive and negative extremes, averages, and areas, as well as the total absolute area and RMS. Quantities were compared using analysis of variance techniques. The key results were that there were significant reductions in the coupled nondriving moments at the pedal for the dual-rotation platform compared to each of the single-rotation cases. The significant reductions in the coupled moments at the pedal were not manifest at the knee. However, a general nonsignificant reduction in both coupled knee moments was evident. Also, the valgus knee moment was significantly reduced by the dual-rotation platform compared to the inversion/eversion only design. Although the axial knee moment was not significantly reduced by the dual-rotation platform over the adduction/abduction design, there was a general nonsignificant reduction. The lack of significance in knee load results occurred because of high intersubject variability. Accordingly, load reduction benefits made by introducing the second degree of freedom need to be considered individually.


Keywords: Cycling
[de Falco and Riviezzo, 1997]
de Falco, D. and Riviezzo, E. (1997). Bond graph modeling the longitudinal dynamics of motorcycles. In International Conference on Bond Graph Modeling and Simulation. [ bib ]
[Gani et al., 1997a]
Gani, M., Limebeer, D., and Sharp, R. (1997a). Multi-body simulation software in the analysis of motorcycle dynamics. In Transportation Systems. Proceedings volume from the 8th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS Symposium.bib ]
[Gani et al., 1997c]
Gani, M., Limebeer, D. JN., and Sharp, R. (1997c). The analysis of motorcycle dynamics and control. In Proceedings of the Workshop Modelling and Control of Mechanical Systems. [ bib ]
[Genin et al., 1997]
Genin, J., Hong, J., and Xu, W. (1997). Accelerometer placement for angular velocity determination. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 119(3):474–477. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Hess, 1997a]
Hess, RA. (1997a). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics, chapter Feedback Control Models: Manual Control and Tracking, pages 1249–1294. Number 38. Wiley, New York, second edition. [ bib ]
[Katayama et al., 1997]
Katayama, T., Nishimi, T., Okayama, T., and Aoki, A. (1997). A simulation model for motorcycle riders control behaviors. Transactions of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, 28(3):137–142. in Japanese with English summary. [ DOI | bib ]
[Koon and Marsden, 1997]
Koon, WS. and Marsden, JE. (1997). The hamiltonian and lagrangian approaches to the dynamics of nonholonomic systems. Reports on Mathematical Physics, 40:21–62. [ bib ]
[de Lorenzo, 1997]
de Lorenzo, DS. (1997). Quantification of structural loading during off-road cycling. Master's thesis, Univeristy of California, Davis. [ bib ]
[Nakano et al., 1997]
Nakano, Y., Iwasaki, H., and Iwane, S. (1997). Stabilizing control of un-manned bicycle with piezoelectric micro-gyroscope. In Proceeding of SICE Conference, volume 40, pages 343–344. in Japanese. [ bib ]
[Needle and Hull, 1997]
Needle, SA. and Hull, ML. (1997). An off-road bicycle with adjustable suspension kinematics. Transactions of the ASME, 119:370–375. [ bib ]
[Neptune et al., 1997]
Neptune, RR., Kautz, SA., and Hull, ML. (1997). The effect of pedaling rate on coordination in cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 30(10):1051 – 1058. [ DOI | bib | http ]
To further understand lower extremity neuromuscular coordination in cycling, the objectives of this study were to examine the effect of pedaling rate on coordination strategies and interpret any apparent changes. These objectives were achieved by collecting electromyography (EMG) data of eight lower extremity muscles and crank angle data from ten subjects at 250 W across pedaling rates ranging from 45 to 120 RPM. To examine the effect of pedaling rate on coordination, EMG burst onset and offset and integrated EMG (iEMG) were computed. In addition, a phase-controlled functional group (PCFG) analysis was performed to interpret observed changes in the EMG patterns in the context of muscle function. Results showed that the EMG onset and offset systematically advanced as pedaling rate increased except for the soleus which shifted later in the crank cycle. The iEMG results revealed that muscles responded differently to increased pedaling rate. The gastrocnemius, hamstring muscles and vastus medialis systematically increased muscle activity as pedaling rate increased. The gluteus maximus and soleus had significant quadratic trends with minimum values at 90 RPM, while the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris showed no significant association with pedaling rate. The PCFG analysis showed that the primary function of each lower extremity muscle remained the same at all pedaling rates. The PCFG analysis, which accounts for muscle activation dynamics, revealed that the earlier onset of muscle excitation produced muscle activity in the same region of the crank cycle. Also, while most of the muscles were excited for a single functional phase, the soleus and rectus femoris were excited during two functional phases. The soleus was classified as an extensor-bottom transition muscle, while the rectus femoris was classified as a top transition-extensor muscle. Further, the relative emphasis of each function appeared to shift as pedaling rate was increased, although each muscle remained bifunctional.


Keywords: Muscle coordination
[Sharp, 1997a]
Sharp, R. (1997a). Design for good motorcycle handling qualities. In Proc. SETC 1997, pages 359–366, Yokohama. SAE of Japan. paper invited by Japan Society of Automotive Engineers. [ bib ]
An overview of the handling qualities of motorcycles is given. Firstly, the problems are discussed from a practical standpoint with reference to responses to steering control inputs, to self-excited oscillations arising from instabilities and to motions caused by road irregularities. The theoretical basis for understanding the behaviour is then outlined, with sections on the analysis problem itself, on small perturbations from straight running, on small perturbations from steady turning and on general motions. The need for advanced, automated approaches to modelling is stressed and relationships between design and operating conditions and steering behaviour are described. A brief account of experimental work on motorcycle steering responses is included and conclusions are drawn relating to motorcycle design issues.


[Sharp, 1997b]
Sharp, R. (1997b). The measurement of mass and inertial properties of vehicles and components. In AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES, AUTOTECH 1997, Mech. Eng. Publ., pages 209–217, Bury St Edmunds. [ bib ]
A special facility for the measurement of the mass centre location and the inertial properties of general rigid bodies ranging in mass from about 100 kg to 2500 kg is described. It is based on a large hemispherical air bearing mounted on a garage hydraulic lift, together with a selection of purpose built components, which allow the rig to be reconfigured quite quickly. Data acquisition and computations are automated in a PC based system. A long established test procedure, based on the assumption that the test body has a plane of symmetry, has been extended recently to generalise the period measurement process. In the new procedure, a set of different reference directions is used for data acquisition, following which computer analysis involving eigenvalue determination can be employed to find principal axes and principal inertias for objects without symmetry. The paper describes the facility and its use and includes the theory of the general body problem. Examples of results obtained are given.


[Sharp, 1997c]
Sharp, RS. (1997c). Motorcycle wobble and weave. In ITAI Conference, Telford. paper invited by Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators. [ bib ]
Motorcycle and rider are considered as a man-machine system and the skills needed to control a motorcycle successfully are discussed. The vibration problems wobble and weave are described and they are placed in the context of system dynamics through considerations of resonance and damping factors of natural modes of motion. How the rider may interact with the vibrations is discussed and machine design parameters which are influential on the stability are highlighted. How to investigate an accident, after the event, is considered also.


[Sharp, 1997d]
Sharp, RS. (1997d). Use of the symbolic multibody modelling code autosim for vehicle dynamics. In AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES, AUTOTECH 1997, Mech. Eng. Publ., pages 189–197, Bury St Edmunds. [ bib ]
Large three dimensional multibody model building and simulation systems have become commonplace in the automotive industry but there are small, modular alternatives to the market dominant systems, having a substantially different philosophy. AUTOSIM is a module in such an alternative arrangement, forming only a part of a fully functioning simulation system, which “writes” simulation code for C or FORTRAN compilation or linearises system equations and “writes” MATLAB.M code. These outputs are fully documented and ready to use, as if they had been written by hand with great skill and diligence. Thus, FORTRAN code needs compiling, linking to appropriate libraries, running and post-processing (graphics, animation etc.). MATLAB.M files need loading and processing through MATLAB functions (eigenvalues, frequency responses, optimisation etc.). It follows that, once the software has been used to build a model, the model becomes independent of AUTOSIM and is completely accessible, as if it were hand-written. One installation can serve many users. The paper describes what AUTOSIM is, what it is like to use and what skills are needed to use it and it demonstrates the forms in which results can be obtained. Model building in a vehicle dynamics context is illustrated by a detailed account of a three dimensional suspension kinematics analysis. Significant sections of the code and of the FORTRAN program written automatically are described.


[So and Karnopp, 1997]
So, SG. and Karnopp, D. (1997). Active dual mode tilt control for narrow ground vehicles. Vehicle System Dynamics, 27:19–36. [ bib ]
[Wang and Hull, 1997b]
Wang, EL. and Hull, M. (1997b). Minimization of pedaling induced energy losses in off-road bicycle rear suspension systems. Vehicle System Dynamics, 28(4):291–306. [ bib ]
This paper presents the results of an optimization analysis performed on off-road bicycles in which the energy loss induced as a result of pedaling action was minimized. A previously developed computer-based dynamic system model (Wang and Hull, Vehicle System Dynamics, 25:3, 1996) was used to evaluate the power dissipated by a single pivot point rear suspension while pedalling uphill on a smooth surface. By systematically varying the location of the pivot point, the relationship between power dissipated and pivot location was determined. The optimal location was defined as the location which resulted in the least power dissipated. The simulation results show that the power dissipated was very dependent on the height above the bottom bracket but not the fore-aft location of the pivot point. If the pivot point is constrained to the seat tube, then the optimal pivot point was found to be 11 cm above the bottom bracket. Compared to a commercially available design, the optimal pivot point reduced the power dissipated from 6.9 to 1.2 Watts. Furthermore, the optimal pivot point was found to be very insensitive to pedaling mechanics, and both the spring and damping parameter values. The optimal pivot point did, however, have a linear dependence on the height of the chainline; as the chainline height increased so too did the optimal pivot point height.


[Yavin, 1997]
Yavin, Y. (1997). Navigation and control of the motion of a riderless bicycle by using a simplified dynamic model. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 25:67–74. [ bib ]
[Zenkov et al., 1997]
Zenkov, DV., Bloch, AM., and Marsden, JE. (1997). The energy-momentum method for the stability of nonholonomic systems. Technical Report. [ bib ]
In this paper we analyze the stability of relative equilibria of nonholonomic systems (that is, mechanical systems with nonintegrable constraints such as rolling constraints). In the absence of external dissipation, such systems conserve energy, but nonetheless can exhibit both neutrally stable and asymptotically stable, as well as linearly unstable relative equilibria. To carry out the stability analysis, we use a generalization of the energy-momentum method combined with the Lyapunov-Malkin Theorem and the center manifold theorem. While this approach is consistent with the energy-momentum method for holonomic systems, it extends it in substantial ways. The theory is illustrated with several examples, including the the rolling disk, the roller racer, and the rattleback top.


[Gani et al., 1996]
Gani, M., Sharp, R., and Limebeer, D. (1996). Multi-body simulation software in the study of two-wheeled road vehicles. In Proceedings of the 35th Conference on Decision and Control, Kobe, Japan. [ bib ]
[Wu and Liu, 1996c]
Wu, JC. and Liu, TS. (1996c). Stabilization control for rider-motorcycle model in hamiltonian form. Vehicle System Dynamics, 26(6):431–448. [ bib ]
[Cloyd et al., 1996]
Cloyd, SO., Hubbard, M., and Alaways, LW. (1996). A control scheme for an opposed recumbent tandem human-powered bicycle. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 212(4):480–492. [ bib ]
[Huffman and Hubbard, 1996]
Huffman, K. and Hubbard, M. (1996). A motion-based virtual reality training simulator for bobsled drivers. In Haake, S., editor, The Engineering of Sport, pages 195–203, Balkema, Rotterdam. [ bib ]
[Cho and Kim, 1996]
Cho, Y. and Kim, J. (1996). Stability analysis of the human controlled vehicle moving along a curved path. Vehicle System Dynamics, 25:51–69. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1996]
Hess, RA. (1996). CRC Control Handbook, chapter Human-in-the-Loop Control. Number 80. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. [ bib ]
[Hull and Wootten, 1996]
Hull, T. B. ML. and Wootten, D. (1996). An improved accuracy six-load component pedal dynamometer for cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 29(8):1105 – 1110. [ DOI | bib | http ]
This paper describes a new six-load component pedal dynamometer designed for study of knee overuse injury in cycling. A unique capability of the dynamometer is the ability to interface with multiple pedal platforms of varying height while maintaining a desired elevation of the foot above the pedal spindle axis. The dynamometer was designed using a concept described in an earlier article by Quinn and Mote (1991, Exp. Mech.30, 40-48) which measures shear strain across multiple, thin cross-sections. An optimal design technique was used for choosing dimensions of the load measuring cross-sections. A dynamometer was designed and built using the optimal results. Calibration, accuracy results, and sample data are presented. A comparison of accuracy reveals that the new dynamometer is more accurate than previously reported instruments.


Keywords: Six-load component
[Imaizumi et al., 1996]
Imaizumi, H., Fujioka, T., and Omae, M. (1996). Rider model by use of multibody dynamics analysis. JSAE Review, 17:65–77. [ bib ]
[Kageyama and Owada, 1996a]
Kageyama, I. and Owada, Y. (1996a). An analysis of a riding control algorithm for two wheeled vehicles with a neural network modeling. In Sauvage, G., editor, The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and on Tracks. Proceedings of 14th IAVSD-symposium., pages 317–326. [ bib ]
[Kageyama and Owada, 1996b]
Kageyama, I. and Owada, Y. (1996b). An analysis of a riding control algorithm for two wheeled vehicles with a neural network modeling. Vehicle System Dynamics, 25:317–326. [ bib ]
[Kyle, 1996a]
Kyle, CR. (1996a). Abbreviated tire test report, u. s. cycling team. Technical report, General Motors. [ bib ]
[Kyle, 1996b]
Kyle, CR. (1996b). Coast down tests in a university hallway using an instrumented and weighted tricycle. Technical report, University of California, Long Beach`. [ bib ]
[de Leva, 1996]
de Leva, P. (1996). Joint center longitudinal positions computed from a selected subset of chandler’s data. Journal of Biomechanics, 29. [ bib ]
[de Lorenzo and Hubbard, 1996]
de Lorenzo, DS. and Hubbard, M. (1996). Dynamic bicycle stability of a flexibly coupled rider. Internal report UC Davis. [ bib ]
[Mitiguy and Kane, 1996]
Mitiguy, P. and Kane, TR. (1996). Motion variables leading to efficient equations of motion. The International Journal of Robotics Research, 15(5):522–532. [ bib ]
[Wu and Liu, 1996a]
Wu, J. and Liu, T. (1996a). Fuzzy control stabilization with applications to motorcycle control. IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., 26(6):836–847. [ bib ]
[Wu and Liu, 1996b]
Wu, JC. and Liu, TS. (1996b). A sliding-mode approach to fuzzy control design. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 4(2):141–151. [ bib ]
[Wu and Liu, 1996d]
Wu, JC. and Liu, TS. (1996d). Stabilization control of non-holonomic systems with application to rider-motorcycle systems. International Journal of Systems Science, 27(11):1165–1175. [ bib ]
[Getz, 1995]
Getz, NH. (1995). Internal equilibrium control of a bicycle. In Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (Cat. No.95CH35803), volume 4, pages 4285–4287, New York, NY, USA. IEEE Control Syst. Soc, IEEE. Proceedings of 1995 34th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 13-15 December 1995, New Orleans, LA, USA. [ bib ]
Internal equilibrium control is applied to the problem of path-tracking with balance for the bicycle using steering and rear-wheel torque as inputs. From the internal dynamics of the bicycle an internal equilibrium manifold, a submanifold of the state-space, is constructed. The internal equilibrium controller makes a neighborhood of the manifold attractive and invariant. This results in approximate tracking of time-parameterized paths in the plane while retaining balance.


Keywords: Theoretical or Mathematical/ dynamics; motion control; vehicles/ internal equilibrium control; bicycle; steering; rear-wheel torque; internal equilibrium manifold; internal dynamics; state-space submanifold/ C3360F Control of other land traffic systems; C3120C Spatial variables control
[Winter, 1995]
Winter, DA. (1995). Human balance and posture control during standing and walking. Gait & Posture, 3:193–214. [ bib ]
[Anonymous, 1995]
Anonymous (1995). International symposium on advanced vehicle control 1994. avec '94. In Vehicle System Dynamics, volume 24. [ bib ]
[Wu and Liu, 1995]
Wu, JC. and Liu, TS. (1995). Fuzzy control of rider-motorcycle system using genetic algorithm and auto-tuning. Mechatronics, 5(4):441–455. [ bib ]
[Getz and Marsden, 1995]
Getz, NH. and Marsden, JE. (1995). Control for an autonomous bicycle, paper 525473. In International Conference on Robotics and Automation, volume 2, pages 1397–1402, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. IEEE. [ DOI | bib ]
The control of nonholonomic and underactuated systems with symmetry is illustrated by the problem of controlling a bicycle. We derive a controller which, using steering and rear-wheel torque, causes a model of a riderless bicycle to recover its balance from a near fall as well as converge to a time parameterized path in the ground plane. Our construction utilizes new results for both the derivation of equations of motion for nonholonomic systems with symmetry, as well as the control of underactuated robotic systems


Keywords: mobile robots autonomous bicycle, nonholonomic systems, rear-wheel torque, riderless bicycle, steering, symmetry, time-parameterized path convergence, underactuated robotic systems
[Ljung, 1995b]
Ljung, L. (1995b). System identification. Technical report, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1995]
Hess, R. (1995). Modeling the effects of display quality upon human pilot dynamics and perceived vehicle handling qualities. Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on, 25(2):338–344. [ DOI | bib ]
A model-based technique addressing the effect of display or visual scene quality upon human pilot dynamics is introduced. The technique builds upon a methodology proposed for the preliminary assessment of flight simulator fidelity which uses a structural model of the human pilot. This model is incorporated in what is termed the primary control loop(s) for the task at hand. It is shown that the measured effects of degradations in display quality upon human pilot dynamics can be modeled by simple reductions in the gains associated with error and proprioceptive signals in the structural model. A control theoretic rationale for these gain reductions is presented. The effect of display quality upon perceived handling qualities is discussed and demonstrated in a simple example. Although the research had its genesis in flight simulator fidelity studies, the modeling procedure is applicable to any continuous control task involving degraded visual conditions


Keywords: aerospace simulation, aircraft control, aircraft displays, human factors, man-machine systemsdisplay quality, flight simulator fidelity, human factor, human pilot dynamics, model-based technique, perceived vehicle handling, primary control loop, proprioceptive signals
[Kuroiwa et al., 1995]
Kuroiwa, O., Baba, M., and Nakata, N. (1995). Study of motorcycle handling characteristics and rider feeling during lane change. In SAE International Congress and Exposition, number 950200, Detroit, Michigan, USA. SAE. [ bib ]
[Bjørnstrup, 1995]
Bjørnstrup, J. (1995). Estimation of human body segment parameters - historical background. [ bib ]
[Hikichi and Tezuka, 1995]
Hikichi, T. and Tezuka, Y. (1995). Study on improving the motorcycle high speed stability using a rear wheel self-steering system. In SAE International Congress and Exposition, number 950198, Detroit, Michigan, USA. [ bib ]
[Kageyama, 1995]
Kageyama, I. (1995). The relationship between rider and two-wheeled vehicle: a view to handling and safety. IATSS Research, 19:37–42. [ bib ]
[Kautz and Hull, 1995]
Kautz, SA. and Hull, ML. (1995). Dynamic optimization analysis for equipment setup problems in endurance cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 28(11):1391 – 1401. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The goals of the work reported by this article are two-fold. The first is to develop a dynamic optimization framework for analysis of equipment setup problems in endurance cycling. The second is to illustrate the application of the approach by determining an optimal chainring shape. To achieve these goals, a mathematical model of the pedaling motion for given trajectories of the net joint moments and the rate of change of the chainring radius was derived, and chainring optimization was posed as an optimal control problem. The cost functional produced a chainring shape that reduced the cost of endurance cycling at 250 W and 90 rpm, apparently by taking advantage of mechanical interactions that arise as a natural consequence of the movement. However, the predicted joint moments required larger peak values during phases of significantly increased joint velocity. Thus, the [`]optimal' performance predicted by the cost functional appears opposed to expectations based on muscle mechanics and illustrates the need for further analysis of endurance cycling with a physiologically based cost functional.


[Kyle, 1995]
Kyle, CR. (1995). Gm test of tire characteristics on a flat track slow speed steel band. Technical report, General Motors. [ bib ]
[Lenkeit, 1995]
Lenkeit, JF. (1995). A servo rider for the automatic and remote path control of a motorcycle. In SAE International Congress and Exposition, number 950199. [ bib ]
[Liu and Huston, 1995]
Liu, CQ. and Huston, RL. (1995). An energy theorem for developing testing functions for numerical simulations of dynamic systems. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 117(2):193–198. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Ljung, 1995a]
Ljung, L. (1995a). System Identification, chapter 58, pages 1033–1054. CRC Press. [ bib ]
[Loduha and Ravani, 1995]
Loduha, TA. and Ravani, B. (1995). On first-order decoupling of equations of motion for constrained dynamical systems. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 62(1):216–222. [ bib | http ]
[Neptune and Hull, 1995]
Neptune, RR. and Hull, ML. (1995). Accuracy assessment of methods for determining hip movement in seated cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 28(4):423 – 437. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The goal of this research was to examine the accuracy of three methods used to indicate the hip joint center (HJC) in seated steady-state cycling. Two of the methods have been used in previous studies of cycling biomechanics and included tracking a marker placed over the superior aspect of the greater trochanter, a location that estimates the center of rotation of the hip joint, and assuming that the hip is fixed. The third method was new and utilized an anthropometric relationship to determine the hip joint location from a marker placed over the anterior-superior iliac spine. To perform a comparative analysis of errors inherent in the three methods, a standard method which located the true hip joint center was developed. The standard method involved establishing a pelvis-fixed coordinate system using a triad of video markers attached to an intracortical pin. Three-dimensional motion analysis quantified the true hip joint center position coordinates. To provide data for the comparative analysis, the intracortical pin was anchored to a single subject who pedaled at nine cadence-workrate combinations while data for all four methods were simultaneously recorded. At all cadence-workrate combinations the new method was more accurate than the trochanter method with movement errors lower by a factor of 2 in the vertical direction and a factor of 3 in the horizontal direction. Relative to the errors introduced by the fixed hip assumption, the new method was also generally more accurate by at least a factor of 2 in the horizontal direction and had comparable accuracy in the vertical direction. For computed kinetic quantities, the new method most accurately indicated hip joint force power but the fixed hip method most accurately indicated the work produced by the hip joint force over the crank cycle.


[Stone and Hull, 1995]
Stone, C. and Hull, ML. (1995). The effect of rider weight on rider-induced loads during common cycling situations. Journal of Biomechanics, 28(4):365 – 375. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Motivated by the desire to provide information useful in the design analysis of bicycle frames, the hypothesis tested was that a simple linear model would relate the maximum magnitudes of rider-induced loads to rider weight. Rider-induced loads are loads developed as a result of weight and muscular actions during pedalling. To test this hypothesis, five riders spanning a wide weight range rode a bicycle unrestrained on a treadmill. Dynamometers measured six components of pedal loads and five components of both seat and handlebar loads while riders rode three common cycling situationsseated cruising, seated climbing, and standing climbing. Average, average maximum, and average minimum values were computed for all load components and each was analyzed statistically. For all three test cases, the regression slope was significant for the force component normal to the pedal surface. Because the normal pedal force component has been shown previously to dominate frame stress at the point most likely to fatigue (Hull and Bolourchi, 1988, J. Strain. Anal. 23, 105-114), the results of this study should be useful in designing frames optimized for minimum weight and acceptable structural reliability.


[Zhang et al., 1995]
Zhang, Y., Hubbard, M., and Huffman, K. (1995). Optimum control of bobsled steering. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 85(1):1–19. [ bib ]
[Cloud, 1994]
Cloud, C. (1994). Teaching kids how to ride a bike [fuzzy control]. In NAFIPS/IFIS/NASA '94. Proceedings of the First International Joint Conference of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society Biannual Conference. The Industrial Fuzzy Control and Intelligent Systems Conference, and the NASA Joint Technolo, pages 175–176. [ DOI | bib ]
The usual way to teach a kid to ride a bike is by using training wheels. This creates a somewhat stable bike so the kid will hardly ever fall. After the kid has mastered a bike with training wheels, the wheels are taken away, and the second stage of learning starts. At this moment, since the kid is not completely prepared for a bike without training wheels, the kid may (and does) fall. So we either risk the kid hurting him/herself, or we have to have the kid under time-consuming adult supervision. The main problem with the control is that there is an abrupt transition between the two stages, so the kid goes into the second training stage unprepared. A natural solution is to make this transition gradual. We propose Fuzzy Control


Keywords: Fuzzy Control, bike, training stage, training wheels, transition
[Hubbard, 1994]
Hubbard, M. (1994). Simulating sensitive dynamic control of a bobsled. In Proceedings of 2nd Conference on Mathematics and Computers in Sport. Bond University, Queensland, Australia. [ bib ]
[Getz, 1994]
Getz, NH. (1994). Control of balance for a nonlinear nonholonomic non-minimum phase model of a bicycle. In American Control Conference, volume 1, pages 148–151, Baltimore, MD. AACC. [ DOI | bib ]
A feedback control law is derived that causes a nonlinear, nonholonomic, nonminimum phase model of a riderless powered two-wheeled bicycle to stably track arbitrary smooth trajectories of roll-angle and non-zero rear-wheel velocity.


Keywords: dynamics, feedback, motion control, nonlinear control systems, stability, tracking balance control, feedback control, nonlinear nonholonomic non-minimum phase model, roll-angle, trajectory tracking, two-wheeled bicycle, velocity
[Sharp, 1994]
Sharp, RS. (1994). Vibrational modes of motorcycles and their design parameter sensitivities. In Proc. Int Conf. Vehicle NVH Refinement, page 3–5, Birmingham. [ bib ]
[Ljung and Glad, 1994]
Ljung, L. and Glad, T. (1994). On global identifiability of arbitrary model parameterizations. Automatica, 30(2):265–276. [ bib ]
[Box et al., 1994]
Box, G. EP., Jenkins, GM., and Reinsel, GC. (1994). Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control. Prentice Hall, third edition. [ bib ]
[Kautz et al., 1994]
Kautz, S., Hull, M., and Neptune, R. (1994). A comparison of muscular mechanical energy expenditure and internal work in cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 27(12):1459 – 1467. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The hypothesis that the sum of the absolute changes in mechanical energy (internal work) is correlated with the muscular mechanical energy expenditure (MMEE) was tested using two elliptical chainrings, one that reduced and one that increased the internal work (compared to circular). Upper and lower bounds were put on the extra MMEE (work done by net joint torques in excess of the external work) with respect to the effect of intercompensation between joint torques due to biarticular muscles. This was done by having two measures of MMEE, one that allowed no intercompensation and one that allowed complete intercompensation between joints spanned by biarticular muscles. Energy analysis showed no correlation between internal work and the two measures of MMEE. When compared to circular, the chainring that reduced internal work increased MMEE, and phases of increased crank velocity associated with the elliptical shape resulted in increased power absorbed by the upstroke leg as it was accelerated against gravity. The resulting negative work necessitated additional positive work. Thus, the hypothesis that the internal work is correlated with MMEE was found to be invalid, and the total mechanical work done cannot be estimated by summing the internal and external work. Changes in the dynamics of cycling caused by a non-circular chainring may affect performance and must be considered during the non-circular chainring design process.


[Wu and Liu, 1994]
Wu, JC. and Liu, TS. (1994). Fuzzy model of rider control for a motorcycle undergoing lane change. International Journal of Vehicle Design, 15(1–2):27–44. [ bib ]
[Huffman et al., 1993]
Huffman, R., Hubbard, M., and Reus, J. (1993). Use of an interactive bobsled simulator in driver training. In Advances in Bioengineering, New York. ASME, ASME. presented at ASME Winter Annual Meeting , New Orleans. [ bib ]
[Morchin and Oman, 1993]
Morchin, WC. and Oman, H. (1993). Power control for electric bicycles. In Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, volume 2, pages 251–258, Atlanta, GA, USA. [ bib ]
[Piedboeuf, 1993]
Piedboeuf, J.-C. (1993). Kane's equations or jourdain's principle? pages 1471–1474 vol.2. [ DOI | bib ]
This paper discusses the relationships between Kane's equations and Jourdain's principle. In 1961 Kane published a paper: “Dynamics of Nonholonomic Systems”. The method detailed in that paper, since named Kane's equations, has been popular in the modelling of mechanical systems especially in robotics. It was often stated that Kane's equations were a novel way of modelling. However, in 1909, Jourdain published a paper titled “Note on an analogue of Gauss' principle of least constraint” where he established the principle of virtual power that is equivalent to Kane's equations


Keywords: modelling, robot dynamicsGauss' principle, Jourdain's principle, Kane's equations, least constraint, mechanical systems modelling, nonholonomic systems, robotics, virtual power
[Kautz and Hull, 1993]
Kautz, S. and Hull, M. (1993). A theoretical basis for interpreting the force applied to the pedal in cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 26(2):155 – 165. [ DOI | bib | http ]
This article presents an analytical technique for decomposing the pedal force in cycling into a muscular component due directly to the net intersegmental moments and a nonmuscular component due to gravitational and inertial effects. The decomposition technique uses the Newton-Euler system of dynamic equations for the leg segments to solve for the two components, given the planar segmental kinematics and the intersegmental moments. Applications of the technique to cycling studies of muscle function, pedalling effectiveness, and optimization analyses based on inverse dynamics are discussed. While this article focuses on the pedal force in cycling, the decomposition method can be directly applied to analyze the reaction forces during a general planar movement of the leg when the segmental kinematics and intersegmental moments are specified. This article also demonstrates the significance of the nonmuscular component relative to the muscular component by performing the decomposition of the pedal forces of an example subject who pedalled at three different cadences against a common work load. The key results were that the nonmuscular components increased in magnitude as the cadence increased, whereas the magnitude of the muscular component remained relatively constant over the majority of the crank cycle. Also, even at the slowest pedalling rate of 70 rpm, the magnitude of the nonmuscular component was substantial.


[de Leva, 1993]
de Leva, P. (1993). Validity and accuracy of four methods for locating the center of mass of young male and female athletes. In Bouisset, S., Metral, S., and Monod, H., editors, International Society of Biomechanics XIVth Congress-Abstracts, pages 318–319, France. Universite Paris-Sud. [ bib ]
[Liu and Wu, 1993]
Liu, T. and Wu, J. (1993). A model for a rider-motorcycle system using fuzzy control. Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on, 23(1):267–276. [ DOI | bib ]
A rider-motorcycle system is a representative man-machine system in view of the major role that the rider plays in determining the performance of the integrated system. The handling property of motorcycles influences safety during riding. In the study, a motorcycle model subjected to fuzzy control representing rider's perception and action is investigated to facilitate motorcycle design. A mathematical model of three-dimensional (3D) multibody dynamics is constructed, which accounts for not only motorcycle structures but also the rider's posture change. The fuzzy controller based on control rules and fuzzy reasoning methods plays the role of the rider in a rider-motorcycle system. The fuzzy control is facilitated by the construction of look-up tables. A rider-motorcycle system undergoing circular motion is simulated. The study provides a viable means for computer-aided design of a representative man-machine control system


Keywords: fuzzy control, model-based reasoning, road vehicles3D multibody dynamics, circular motion, control rules, fuzzy control, fuzzy reasoning methods, look-up tables, man-machine system, motorcycle structures, posture change, rider-motorcycle system, safety
[Modjtahedzadeh and Hess, 1993]
Modjtahedzadeh, A. and Hess, RA. (1993). A model of driver steering control behavior for use in assessing vehicle handling qualities. Journal of Dynamics, Systems, Measurement. and Control, 115:456–464. [ bib ]
A control theoretic model of driver steering control behavior is presented. The resulting model is shown capable of producing driver/vehicle steering responses which compare favorably with those obtained from driver simulation. The model is simple enough to be used by engineers who may not be manual control specialists. The model contains both preview and compensatory steering dynamics. An analytical technique for vehicle handling qualities assessment is briefly discussed. Driver/vehicle responses from two driving tasks evaluated in a driver simulator are used to evaluate the overall validity of the driver/vehicle model. Finally, the model is exercised in predictive fashion in the computer simulation of a lane keeping task on a curving roadway where the simulated vehicle possessed one of three different steering systems: a conventional two-wheel steering system and a pair of four-wheel steering systems.


[Ruby and Hull, 1993]
Ruby, P. and Hull, M. (1993). Response of intersegmental knee loads to foot/pedal platform degrees of freedom in cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 26(11):1327 – 1340. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The hypothesis tested in this article was that the three-dimensional intersegmental knee loads would be reduced in cycling by foot/pedal platforms which permitted relative motion between the foot and pedal. To test this hypothesis, pedal load and lower limb kinematic data were collected from 11 subjects who pedaled with four foot/pedal platforms mounted on a six-load-component dynamometer. One of the four platforms did not allow any relative foot/pedal movement while the other three permitted either medial/lateral translation, adduction/abduction rotation or inversion/eversion rotation. Three-dimensional intersegmental knee loads were computed for each of the four platforms using a previously reported biomechanical model. A number of quantities describing each of the intersegmental knee load components was computed and compared using analysis of variance techniques. The key results were that the medial/lateral translation platform did not cause significant differences in intersegmental knee load quantities relative to those for the fixed platform. However, both of the platforms permitting rotations significantly reduced many but did not significantly increase any intersegmental knee load quantities. Of these two platforms, the adduction/abduction platform significantly reduced both the axial and varus/valgus knee moments while the inversion/eversion platform significantly reduced only varus/valgus moments. These results have application to bicycle pedal design where the goal is to reduce intersegmental knee loads, hence possibly alleviating overuse knee injuries.


[Stone and Hull, 1993]
Stone, C. and Hull, M. (1993). Rider/bicycle interaction loads during standing treadmill cycling. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 9(3). [ bib ]
This paper provides measurements of rider-induced loads during standing cycling. Two strain gauge dynamometers were used to measure these loads while three subjects rode bicycles on a large motorized treadmill; the cycling situation simulated hill climbing while standing. Comparing the results to those previously published for seated cycling revealed that the loading for standing cycling differed fundamentally from that for seated cycling in certain key respects. One respect was that the maximum magnitude normal pedal force reached substantially higher values, exceeding the weight of the subject, and the phase occurred later in the crank cycle. Another respect was that the direction of the handlebar forces alternated indicating that the arms pulled up and back during the power stroke of the corresponding leg and pushed down and forward during the upstroke. Inasmuch as these forces were coordinated (i.e., in phase) with the leaning of the bicycle, the arms developed positive power.


[Zatsiorsky et al., 1993]
Zatsiorsky, VM., Raitsin, LM., Seluyanov, VN., Aruin, AS., and Prilutzky, BJ. (1993). Biomechanical characteristics of the human body. In Baumann, W., editor, Biomechanics and Performance in Sport, pages 71–83, Germany. Bundeninstitut für Sportwissenschaft. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 1992]
Sharp, RS. (1992). Motorcycle stability. Automotive Engineer, 17(6):25. [ bib ]
[Yokomori et al., 1992]
Yokomori, M., Higuchi, K., and Ooya, T. (1992). Rider's operation of a motorcycle running straight at low speed. JSME International Journal, Series 3: Vibration, Control Engineering, Engineering For Industry, 35(4):553–559. [ bib ]
[Mitchell et al., 1992]
Mitchell, DG., Aponso, BL., and Klyde, DH. (1992). Effects of cockpit lateral stick characteristics on handling qualities and pilot dynamics. Technical Report CR 4443, NASA. [ bib ]
[Chou, 1992]
Chou, J. (1992). Quaternion kinematic and dynamic differential equations. Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on, 8(1):53–64. [ DOI | bib ]
Keywords: differential equations, dynamics, kinematics, vectors3D vector space, acceleration, angular displacement, dynamic differential equations, momentum, multiplicative commutativity, quaternion kinematic differential equations, quaternion multiplications, rotations, vector quaternions, velocity
[Forouhar, 1992]
Forouhar, F. (1992). Robust stabilization of high-speed oscillations in single track vehicles by feedback control of gyroscopic moments of crankshaft and engine inertia. PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley. [ bib ]
[Kageyama and Pacejka, 1992]
Kageyama, I. and Pacejka, HB. (1992). On a new driver model with fuzzy control. In Sauvage, G., editor, The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and on Tracks. Proceedings of 12th IAVSD-symposium., pages 314–324. [ bib ]
[Lesser, 1992]
Lesser, M. (1992). A geometrical interpretation of kane's equations. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 436(1896):69–87. [ bib | http ]
The method for the development of the equations of motion for systems of constrained particles and rigid bodies, developed by T. R. Kane and called Kane's Equations, is discussed from a geometric viewpoint. It is shown that what Kane calls partial velocities and partial angular velocities may be interpreted as components of tangent vectors to the system's configuration manifold. The geometric picture, when attached to Kane's formalism shows that Kane's Equations are projections of the Newton-Euler equations of motion onto a spanning set of the configuration manifold's tangent space. One advantage of Kane's method, is that both non-holonomic and non-conservative systems are easily included in the same formalism. This easily follows from the geometry. It is also shown that by transformation to an orthogonal spanning set, the equations can be diagonalized in terms of what Kane calls the generalized speeds. A further advantage of the geometric picture lies in the treatment of constraint forces which can be expanded in terms of a spanning set for the orthogonal complement of the configuration tangent space. In all these developments, explicit use is made of a concrete realization of the multidimensional vectors which are called K-vectors for a K-component system. It is argued that the current presentation also provides a clear tutorial route to Kane's method for those schooled in classical analytical mechanics.


[Liu and Huston, 1992]
Liu, CQ. and Huston, RL. (1992). Another look at orthogonal curvilinear coordinates in kinematic and dynamic analyses. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 59(4):1033–1035. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Liu and Chen, 1992]
Liu, T. and Chen, J. (1992). Nonlinear analysis of stability for motorcycle-rider systems. International Journal Of Vehicle Design, 13(3):276–294. [ bib ]
[Ruby et al., 1992a]
Ruby, P., Hull, M., and Hawkins, D. (1992a). Three-dimensional knee joint loading during seated cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 25(1):41 – 53. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The hypothesis which motivated the work reported in this article was that neglecting pure moments developed between the foot and pedal during cycling leads to a substantial error in computing axial and varus/valgus moments at the knee. To test this hypothesis, a mathematical procedure was developed for computing the three-dimensional knee loads using three-dimensional pedal forces and moments. In addition to data from a six-load-component pedal dynamometer, the model used pedal position and orientation and knee position in the frontal plane to determine the knee joint loads. Experimental data were collected from the right leg of 11 male subjects during steady-state cycling at 90 rpm and 225 W. The mean peak varus knee moment calculated was 15.3 N m and the mean peak valgus knee moment was 11.2 N m. Neglecting the pedal moment about the anterior/posterior axis resulted in an average absolute error of 2.6 N m and a maximum absolute error of 4.0 N m in the varus/valgus knee moment. The mean peak internal and external axial knee moments were 2.8 N m and 2.3 N m, respectively. The average and maximum absolute errors in the axial knee moment for not including the moment about an axis normal to the pedal were found to be 2.6 N m and 5.0 N m, respectively. The results strongly support the use of three-dimensional pedal loads in the computation of knee joint moments out of the sagittal plane.


[Ruby et al., 1992b]
Ruby, P., Hull, M., Kirby, KA., and Jenkins, DW. (1992b). The effect of lower-limb anatomy on knee loads during seated cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 25(10):1195 – 1207. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Overuse knee joint injuries are the primary injuries to cyclists. Overuse injuries have been intuitively linked to the anatomic structure of the foot because external loads are applied to the foot in cycling. Thus, the structure and function of the foot should dictate in part how the loads are transmitted to the knee joint. Therefore, it was hypothesized that patterns in knee loads are related to the anatomic structure of the foot. To test this hypothesis, peak knee loads (dependent variables) were related to anatomical variables (independent variables) through statistical analyses. This required first the detailed evaluation (i.e. measurement) of the anatomical structure of the foot and leg for 23 subjects. Next, three-dimensional knee joint loads were determined for a standardized riding condition. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that a group of cyclists with the most extreme inversion of the forefoot relative to the transverse plane developed significantly greater average posterior knee force and extensive knee moment. In addition, a number of anatomical variables significantly accounted for the variability in peak values of the posterior force, the extensive moment, the varus/valgus moment and the external axial moment. Based on these results, the hypothesis is accepted.


[Stevens and Lewis, 1992]
Stevens, BL. and Lewis, FL. (1992). Aircraft Control and Simulation. John Wiley & Sons. [ bib ]
[Sayers, 1991]
Sayers, MW. (1991). A symoblic computer language for multibody systems. Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, 14(6):1153–1163. [ bib ]
[Roe and Thorpe, 1991]
Roe, G. and Thorpe, T. (1991). Motorcycle instability on undulating road surfaces. In 91 Small Engine Technol Conf Proc, pages 685–693. Soc Of Automotive Engineers Of Japan. [ bib ]
[Klein, 1991]
Klein, R. (1991). The bicycle project approach-a vehicle to relevancy and motivation. In Frontiers in Education Conference, 1991. Twenty-First Annual Conference. 'Engineering Education in a New World Order.' Proceedings., pages 47–52. [ DOI | bib ]
The author's pedagogical experience with the bicycle project approach at the University of Illinois where open-ended projects are used to supplement lecture mode course material is presented. The focus is on the stable single track trailer (SSTT) design challenge. The SSTT design challenge was to achieve a towed riderless bicycle which will follow, steer, and balance of its own accord behind a lead bicycle. Design constraints included using a tow linkage that would not transmit a torque. The project design approach permitted students to come to grips with an unstructured problem, one for which the answer was not readily available at the back of the text. Problem clarification, synthesis, visualization of spatial mechanisms, stability of mechanisms, report writing, success, and failure were all inherent in the design challenge


Keywords: education, project engineering Illinois University, bicycle project, mechanisms stability, open-ended projects, problem clarification, report writing, spatial mechanisms visualisation, stable single track trailer, tow linkage, towed riderless bicycle, pedagodgy
[Yokomori et al., 1991]
Yokomori, M., Higuchi, K., and Ooya, T. (1991). Rider's operation on the motorcycle in straight running at low speed. Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, C Hen/Transactions Of The Japan Society Of Mechanical Engineers, Part C, 57(540):2621–2626. 2621-2626 0387-5024. [ bib ]
[Hull et al., 1991]
Hull, M., Kautz, S., and Beard, A. (1991). An angular velocity profile in cycling derived from mechanical energy analysis. Journal of Biomechanics, 24(7):577 – 586. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The contributions of this article are twofold. One is a procedure for determining the angular velocity profile in seated cycling that maintains the total mechanical energy of both legs constant. A five-bar linkage model (thigh, shank, foot, crank and frame) of seated (fixed hip) cycling served for the derivation of the equations to compute potential and kinetic energies of the leg segments over a complete crank cycle. With experimentally collected pedal angle data as input, these equations were used to compute the total combined mechanical energy (sum of potential and kinetic energies of the segments of both legs) for constant angular velocity pedalling at 90 rpm. Total energy varied indicating the presence of internal work. Motivated by a desire to test the hypothesis that reducing internal work in cycling will reduce energy expenditure, a procedure was developed for determining the angular velocity profile that eliminated any change in total energy. Using data recorded from five subjects, this procedure was used to determine a reference profile for an average equivalent cadence of 90 rpm. The pahse of this profile is such that highest and lowest angular velocities occur when the cranks are near vertical and horizontal respectively. The second contribution is the testing of the hypothesis that the reference angular velocity profile serves to effectively reduce internal work for the subjects whose data were used to develop this profile over the range of pedalling rates (80-100 rpm) naturally preferred. In this range, the internal work was decreased a minimum of 48 associated with constant angular velocity pedalling. The acceptance of this hypothesis has relevance to the protocol for future experiments which explore the effect of reduced internal work on energy expenditure in cycling.


[Liu and Hsiao, 1991]
Liu, T. and Hsiao, I. (1991). Taguchi method applied to motorcycle handling. International Journal Of Vehicle Design, 12(3):345–356. [ bib ]
[Pacejka and Sharp, 1991]
Pacejka, HB. and Sharp, RS. (1991). Shear force development by pneumatic tires in steady-state conditions - a review of modeling aspects. Vehicle System Dynamics, 20(3-4):121–175. [ bib ]
Modelling of the generation of shear forces by pneumatic tyres under steady state conditions is reviewed. The review is placed in a practical context, through reference to the uses to which models may be put by the vehicle dynamicist and the tyre designer. It will be of interest also to the student of rolling contact problems. The subject is divided into sections, covering physically founded models which require computation for their solution, physically based models which are sufficiently simplified to allow analytical solutions and formula based, empirical models. The classes are more nearly continuous than this strict division would imply, since approximations in obtaining analytical solutions may be made, empirical correction factors may be applied to analytical results and formula based methods may take into account tyre mechanical principles. Such matters are discussed in the relevant sections. Attention is given to the important matter of choosing model parameters to best represent the behaviour of a particular tyre. Conclusions relate to the structural and frictional mechanisms present in the shear force generation process, the contributions of carcass and tread elastic properties and of geometrical and frictional factors to the determination of the distributions of force through the contact region, the relationship between accuracy and computational load and the selection of methods for modelling tyre forces in a road vehicle dynamics context. Reference to the most pertinent literature in the field is made and possibilities for the further development of the state of the art are mentioned.


[Wu et al., 1991]
Wu, H., Najafi, SM., and Hagglund, RR. (1991). Effect of a luggage carrier and weight distribution on motorcycle stability. In American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Design Engineering Division (Publication) DE, volume 40, Atlanta, GA, USA. ASME. [ bib ]
[Hess and Modjtahedzadeh, 1990]
Hess, R. and Modjtahedzadeh, A. (1990). A control theoretic model of driver steering behavior. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 10(5):3–8. [ DOI | bib ]
Following well established feedback control design principles, a control theoretic model of driver steering behavior is presented. While accounting for the inherent manual control limitations of the human, the compensation dynamics of the driver are chosen to produce a stable, robust, closedloop driver/vehicle system with a bandwidth commensurate with the demands of the driving task being analyzed. A technique for selecting driver model parameters is a natural by-product of the control theoretic modeling approach. Experimental verification shows the ability of the model to produce driver/vehicle responses similar to those obtained in a simulated lane-keeping driving task on a curving road. A technique for selecting driver model parameters is a natural byproduct of the control theoretic modeling approach. Experimental verification shows the ability of the model to produce driver/vehicle responses similar to those obtained in a simulated lane-keeping driving task on a curving road.


Keywords: automobiles, closed loop systems, control system synthesis, feedback, man-machine systemsautomobiles, closed loop systems, control theoretic model, driver steering behavior, driver-vehicle responses, feedback control design, man machine systems
[Hess, 1990a]
Hess, R. (1990a). A model of the human's use of motion cues in vehicular control. Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, 13:476–482. [ bib ]
[Li and Canny, 1990]
Li, Z. and Canny, J. (1990). Motion of two rigid bodies with rolling constraint. Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on, 6(1):62–72. [ DOI | bib ]
The motion of two rigid bodies under rolling constraint is considered. In particular, the following two problems are addressed: (1) given the geometry of the rigid bodies, determine the existence of an admissible path between two contact configurations; and (2) assuming that an admissible path exists, find such a path. First, the configuration space of contact is defined, and the differential equations governing the rolling constraint are derived. Then, a generalized version of Frobenius's theorem, known as Chow's theorem, for determining the existence of motion is applied. Finally, an algorithm is proposed that generates a desired path with one of the objects being flat. Potential applications of this study include adjusting grasp configurations of a multifingered robot hand without slipping, contour following without dissipation or wear by the end-effector of a manipulator, and wheeled mobile robotics


Keywords: differential equations, matrix algebra, robotsChow's theorem, Frobenius's theorem, admissible path, configuration space, contact configurations, contour following, differential equations, end-effector, matrix algebra, multifingered robot hand, rigid bodies, rolling constraint, wheeled mobile robotics
[Beckwith and Marangoni, 1990]
Beckwith, TG. and Marangoni, R. (1990). Mechanical Measurements. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., fourth edition. [ bib ]
[Franke et al., 1990]
Franke, G., Suhr, W., and Rieß, F. (1990). An advanced model of bicycle dynamics. European Journal of Physics, 11(2):116–121. [ bib | http ]
A theoretical model of a moving bicycle is presented for arbitrary bicycle geometries at finite angles. The nonlinear equations of motion are derived and solved with the help of a computer. The solutions are tested for energy conservation, and examined with respect to inherent stability. For common bicycles, velocity and lean angle ranges of self-stable motion are predicted.


[Genta and Albesiano, 1990]
Genta, G. and Albesiano, R. (1990). Mathematical model for assessing the driveabilty of motorcycles. In Proceedings - Society Of Automotive Engineers May 7-11 1990, number 707-714 8756-8470. SAE. SAE Paper 905211. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1990b]
Hess, RA. (1990b). Control and Dynamic Systems, volume 33, chapter Identification of Pilot Dynamics From Simulation and Flight Test, pages 151–176. Academic Press. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1990c]
Hess, RA. (1990c). Control and Dynamic Systems, volume 33, chapter Methodology for the Analytical Assessment of Aircraft Handling Qualities, pages 129–149. Academic Press. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1990d]
Hess, RA. (1990d). Identification of pilot-vehicle dynamics from simulation and flight test. Control and Dynamic Systems, Advances in Aerospace Systems Dynamics and Control Systems, 33:151–175. [ bib ]
[Hinrichs, 1990]
Hinrichs, RN. (1990). Adjustments to the segment center of mass proportions of clauser et al. (1969). Journal of Biomechanics, 23. [ bib ]
[Hull et al., 1990]
Hull, M., Beard, A., and Varma, H. (1990). Goniometric measurement of hip motion in cycling while standing. Journal of Biomechanics, 23(7):687 – 689, 691–703. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for quantifying the motion of the hip relative to the bicycle while cycling in the standing position. Because of the need to measure hip motion on the road as well as in the laboratory, a goniometer which locates the hip using spherical coordinates was designed. The goniometer is presented first, followed by the development of the equations that enable the distance from the joint center to the pedal spindle to be determined. The orientation of this line segment is specified by calculating two angles referenced to the frame. Also outlined are the procedures used to both calibrate the goniometer and perform an accuracy check. The results of this check indicate that the attachment point of the goniometer to the rider can be located to within 2.5 mm of the true position. The goniometer was used to record the hip movement patterns of six subjects who cycled in the standing position on a treadmill. Representative results from one test subject who cycled at 6 and 25 km h-1 are presented. Results indicate that the bicycle is leaned from side to side with the frequency of leaning equal to the frequency of pedalling. Extreme lean angles are ±6°. The distance from the hip to the pedal varies approximately sinusoidally with frequency equal to pedalling rate and amplitude somewhat less than crank arm length. The absolute elevation of the hip, however, exhibits two cycles for each crank cycle. Asymmetry in the plot of elevation over a single crank cycle indicates that the pelvis rocks from side to side and that the elevation of the pelvis midpoint changes. Extreme values of the pelvis rocking angle are ±12°. Highest pelvis midpoint elevations, however, do not occur at the same crank angles as those angles at which the pelvis rocking is extreme. It appears that the vertical motion of the hips affects pedalling mechanics when cycling in the standing position.


[Klein, 1990]
Klein, RE. (1990). Simulation of bicycle lateral dynamics: an opportunity in dynamic systems education. In Simulation in Engineering Education Including Supplemental Papers. Proceedings of the SCS Multiconference on Modeling and Simulation on Microcomputers. [ bib ]
[Papadopoulos, 1990]
Papadopoulos, JM. (1990). Governing equations. Lost text of Jim P. [ bib ]
[Papadopoulos et al., 1990]
Papadopoulos, JM., Hand, RS., and Ruina, A. (1990). Bicycle and motorcycle balance and steer dynamics. NA. [ bib ]
[Sayers, 1990]
Sayers, MW. (1990). Symbolic Computer Methods to Automatically Formulate Vehicle Simulation Codes. PhD thesis, The University of Michigan. [ bib ]
[Schweers and Remde, 1990]
Schweers, TF. and Remde, D. (1990). Objective assessment of motorcycle manoeuvrability. Technical Report 93-1551, Institute for Automotive Engineering, Technical University Aachen. [ bib ]
[Stone, 1990]
Stone, CK. (1990). Rider/bicycle interaction loads during seated and standing treadmill cycling. Master's thesis, University of California, Davis. [ bib ]
[Yeadon, 1990a]
Yeadon, MR. (1990a). The simulation of aerial movementi. the determination of orientation angles from film data. Journal of Biomechanics, 23(1):59 – 66. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Quantitative mechanical analyses of human movement require the time histories of the angles which specify body configuration and orientation. When these angles are obtained from a filmed performance they may be used to evaluate the accuracy of a simulation model. This paper presents a method of determining orientation angles and their rates of change from film data. The stages used comprise the synchronization of data obtained from two camera views, the determination of three-dimensional coordinates of joint centres, the calculation of an angle from a sequence of sine and cosine values and the curve fitting of angles using quintic splines. For each state, other possible approaches are discussed. Original procedures are presented for obtaining individual error estimates of both the film data and the calculated angles to permit the automatic fitting of quintic splines for interpolation and differentiation and for deriving the time history of an angle as a continuous function from a sequence of sine and cosine values. The method is applied to a forward somersault with twists and the average error estimate of 17 orientation angles is obtained as 2.1 degrees.


[Yeadon, 1990c]
Yeadon, MR. (1990c). The simulation of aerial movement-ii. a mathematical inertia model of the human body. Journal of Biomechanics, 23:67–74. [ bib ]
A mathematical inertia model which permits the determination of personalized segmental inertia parameter values from anthropometric measurements is described. The human body is modelled using 40 geometric solids which are specitkd by 95 anthropometric measurements. A ‘stadium’ solid is introduced for modelling the torso segments using perimeter and width measurements. This procedure is more accurate than the use of elliptical dixs of given width and depth and permits a smaller number of such solids to be used. Inertia parameter values may be obtained for body models of up to 20 segments. Errors in total body mass estimates from this and other models are discussed with reference to the unknown lung volumes.


[Yeadon, 1990b]
Yeadon, MR. (1990b). The simulation of aerial movementiii. the determination of the angular momentum of the human body. Journal of Biomechanics, 23(1):75 – 83. [ DOI | bib | http ]
A method is presented for determining the angular momentum of the human body about its mass centre for general three-dimensional movements. The body is modelled as an 11 segment link system with 17 rotational degrees of freedom and the angular momentum of the body is derived as a sum of 12 terms, each of which is a vector function of just one angular velocity. This partitioning of the angular momentum vector gives the contribution due to the relative segmental movement at each joint rather than the usual contribution of each segment. A method of normalizing the angular momentum is introduced to enable the comparison of rotational movements which have different flight times and are performed by athletes with differing inertia parameters. Angular momentum estimates were calculated during the flight phases of nine twisting somersaults performed on trampoline. Errors in film digitization made large contributions to the angular momentum error estimates. For individual angular momentum estimates the relative error is estimated to be about 10 estimates the relative error is estimated to be about 1%.


[Yeadon et al., 1990]
Yeadon, MR., Atha, J., and Hales, FD. (1990). The simulation of aerial movementiv. a computer simulation model. Journal of Biomechanics, 23(1):85 – 89. [ DOI | bib | http ]
A computer simulation model of human airborne movement is described. The body is modelled as 11 rigid linked segments with 17 degrees of freedom which are chosen with a view to modelling twisting somersaults. The accuracy of the model is evaluated by comparing the simulation values of the angles describing somersault, tilt and twist with the corresponding values obtained from film data of nine twisting somersaults. The maximum deviations between simulation and film are found to be 0.04 revolutions for somersault, seven degrees for tilt and 0.12 revolutions for twist. It is shown that anthropometric measurement errors, from which segmental inertia parameters are calculated, have a small effect on a simulation, whereas film digitization errors can account for a substantial part of the deviation between simulation and film values.


[Yeh and Chen, 1990]
Yeh, EC. and Chen, Y.-L. (1990). Handling analysis of a motorcycle with added cambering of the front frame. Vehicle System Dynamics, 19:49–70. [ bib ]
Through linear analysis, the handling characteristics of the motorcycle with fixed control of added cambering of front frame are invesitgated under the variation of fixed and free controls of steering axis. The cornering responses and stability characteristics of the motorcycle are presented with the aid of the handling diagram. From numerical results for a typical motorcycle, it is found that the influence of the cambering of front frame on the cornering response of fixed steering control is opposite to that of free steering control. Moreover, the design philosophy of a so-called semi-direct steering mechanism, which cambers the front frame for cornering, is studied.


[Zatsiorsky et al., 1990a]
Zatsiorsky, V., Seluyanov, V., and Chugunova, L. (1990a). In vivo body segment inertial parameters determination using a gamma-scanner method. In Berme, N. and Cappozzo, A., editors, Biomechanics of Human Movement: Applications in Rehabilitation, Sports and Ergonomics, pages 186–202, Ohio. Bertec. [ bib ]
[Zatsiorsky et al., 1990b]
Zatsiorsky, VM., Seluyanov, VN., and Chugunova, LG. (1990b). Methods of determining mass-inertial characteristics of human body segments. In G., CG. and Regirer, SA., editors, Contemporary Problems of Biomechanics, pages 272–291, Massachusetts. CRC Press. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1989]
Hess, RA. (1989). A theory for handling qualities based upon a structural pilot model. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 12(6):792–797. [ bib ]
[Hess and Modjtahedzadeh, 1989]
Hess, R. and Modjtahedzadeh, A. (1989). A preview control model of driver steering behavior. In Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 1989. Conference Proceedings., IEEE International Conference on, pages 504–509 vol.2. [ DOI | bib ]
A preview control model of driver steering behavior is introduced which is an outgrowth of a model of the human pilot. This model was developed to describe the preview control behavior of the human pilot in low-level flight tasks. The model describes preview behavior as a natural extension of compensatory and pursuit tracking. The preview model is exercised in analyzing driving tasks such as lane tracking on a cured roadway, and lane change maneuvers


Keywords: behavioural sciences, human factorsdriver steering behavior, human pilot, lane change maneuvers, lane tracking, preview control model
[Goyal, 1989]
Goyal, S. (1989). Second order kinematic constraint between two bodies rolling, twisting and slipping against each other while maintaining point contact. Technical Report TR 89-1043, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. [ bib ]
[Hubbard et al., 1989a]
Hubbard, M., Kallay, M., Joy, K., Reus, J., and Rowhani, P. (1989a). Simulation of vehicle and track performance in the bobsled. In Proceedings 3rd ASME/ASCE Mechanics Symposium, San Diego, CA. [ bib ]
[Klein, 1989]
Klein, R. (1989). Using bicycles to teach system dynamics. Control Systems Magazine, IEEE, 9(3):4–9. [ DOI | bib ]
The author reports on an innovative approach, based on open-ended design questions related to bicycles, for the teaching of dynamic systems concepts in an undergraduate mechanical engineering environment. He outlines needs for improved classroom learning, pedagogical methods and underlying philosophy, how the bicycle was introduced as a main portion of the instruction, how the class was managed, supporting materials used, and a summary of major benefits achieved. The results to date show that: (1) the notion of using the bicycle in the classroom as a teaching tool and research topic is feasible; (2) the associated economics are attractive; (3) students are able to apply the abstract notions of systems theory to a concrete problem; (4) the professor can improve his or her expertise in a designated area (such as two-wheeled vehicle dynamics); (5) the percentage and quality of students electing follow-up courses in the systems area increase; and (6) students improve their professional confidence


Keywords: dynamics, educational aids, mechanical engineering, system theory, teachingbicycles, concepts, educational aids, mechanical engineering, system dynamics, systems theory, teaching
[Gonzalez and Hull, 1989]
Gonzalez, H. and Hull, M. (1989). Multivariable optimization of cycling biomechanics. Journal of Biomechanics, 22(11-12):1151 – 1161. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Relying on a biomechanical model of the lower limb which treats the leg-bicycle system as a five-bar linkage constrained to plane motion, a cost function derived from the joint moments developed during cycling is computed. At constant average power of 200 W, the effect of five variables on the cost function is studied. The five variables are pedalling rate, crank arm length, seat tube angle, seat height, and longitudinal foot position on the pedal. A sensitivity analysis of each of the five variables shows that pedalling rate is the most sensitive, followed by the crank arm length, seat tube angle, seat height, and longitudinal foot position on the pedal (the least sensitive). Based on Powell's method, a multivariable optimization search is made for the combination of variable values which minimize the cost function. For a rider of average anthropometry (height 1.78 m, weight 72.5 kg), a pedalling rate of 115 rev min-1, crank arm length of 0.140 m, seat tube angle of 76°, seat height plus crank arm length equal to 97 on the pedal equal to 54 global minimum. The effect of anthropometric parameter variations is also examined and these variations influence the results significantly. The optimal crank arm length, seat height, and longitudinal foot position on the pedal increase as the size of rider increases whereas the optimal cadence and seat tube angle decrease as the rider's size increases. The dependence of optimization results on anthropometric parameters emphasizes the importance of tailoring bicycle equipment to the anthropometry of the individual.


[Gordon et al., 1989]
Gordon, CC., Churchill, T., Clauser, CE., Bradtmiller, B., McConville, J. T.and Tebbetts, I., and Walker, RA. (1989). 1988 anthropometric survey of u.s. army personnel: summary statistics interim report. Technical Report NATICK/TR-89/027, U.S. Army Natick RD&E Center, Massachusetts. [ bib ]
[Hubbard and Alaways, 1989]
Hubbard, M. and Alaways, LW. (1989). Rapid and accurate estimation of release conditions in the javelin throw. Journal of Biomechanics, 22:583–595. [ bib ]
[Hubbard et al., 1989b]
Hubbard, M., Kallay, M., and Rowhani, P. (1989b). Three dimensional bobsled turning dynamics. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 5:222–237. [ bib ]
[Wierda and Wolf, 1989]
Wierda, M. and Wolf, J. (1989). Drie typen kinderfietsen op manoeuvreerbaarheid en remweg vergeleken. Haren. [ bib ]
Keywords: braking, bicycle, maneuvrability, experimental, traffic situation
[Yeadon and Morlock, 1989]
Yeadon, MR. and Morlock, M. (1989). The appropriate use of regression equations for the estimation of segmental inertial properties. Journal of Biomechanics, 22:683–689. [ bib ]
[Sugizaki and Hasegawa, 1988]
Sugizaki, M. and Hasegawa, A. (1988). Experimental analysis of transient response in motorcycle-rider systems. Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE Paper 881783. [ bib ]
An experimental analysis has been made concerning rider sensation using several motorcycles. More specifically, the sensations evaluated are those which are related to the transient motions which are generated by a rider in an attempt to make two transient running patterns, one is to avoid obstacles and the other is lane change. Measurements were made of the steering torque, the accelerations of the major portions of the motorcycle, and the yaw and roll rates.


Keywords: motorcycle, handling, steer torque
[Hess and Tran, 1988]
Hess, RA. and Tran, PM. (1988). Pilot/vehicle analysis of a twin-lift helicopter configuration in hover. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 11(5):465–472. [ bib ]
[Hand, 1988]
Hand, RS. (1988). Comparison and stability analysis of linearized equations of motion for a basic bicycle model. Master's thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. [ bib ]
[Amirouche and Huston, 1988]
Amirouche, F. ML. and Huston, RL. (1988). Dynamics of large constrained flexible structures. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 110(1):78–83. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Desloge, 1988]
Desloge, EA. (1988). The gibbs-appell equations of motion. American Journal of Physics, 56(9):841–846. [ DOI | bib | http ]
A particularly simple and direct derivation of the Gibbs-Appell equations of motion is given. In addition to the conventional results, a relatively unknown but elegant and useful form of the equations of motion is also obtained. The role of virtual displacements in generating generalized equations of motion is discussed. The relationship between the Gibbs-Appell equations of motion and Langrange's equations of motion is discussed. Auxiliary results that facilitate the application of the Gibbs-Appell equations of motion to rigid bodies are presented. The theory is demonstrated by generating equations of motion for a disk rolling on a horizontal plane.


[Doyle, 1988]
Doyle, A. JR. (1988). The essential human contribution to bicycle riding. Training, Human Decision Making and Control, pages 351–370. [ bib ]
[Garcia and Hubbard, 1988]
Garcia, A. and Hubbard, M. (1988). Spin reversal of the rattleback: Theory and experiment. Proceedngs of the Royal Society London A, 418:165–197. [ bib ]
[Gonzalez and Hull, 1988]
Gonzalez, H. and Hull, M. (1988). Multivariable optimization of cycling biomechanics. Journal of Biomechanics, 21(10):872 – 872. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Hull and Gonzalez, 1988]
Hull, M. and Gonzalez, H. (1988). Bivariate optimization of pedalling rate and crank arm length in cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 21(10):839 – 849. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The contribution of this paper is a bivariate optimization of cycling performance. Relying on a biomechanical model of the lower limb, a cost function derived from the joint moments developed during cycling is computed. At constant average power, both pedalling rate (i.e. rpm) and crank arm length are systematically varied to explore the relation between these variables and the cost function. A crank arm length of 170 mm and pedalling rate of 100 rpm correspond closely to the cost function minimum. In cycling situations where the rpm deviates from 100 rpm, however, crank arms of length other than 170 mm yield minimum cost function values. In addition, the sensitivity of optimization results to both increased power and anthropometric parameter variations is examined. At increased power, the cost function minimum is more strongly related to the pedalling rate, with higher pedalling rates corresponding to the minimum. Anthropometric parameter variations influence the results significantly. In general it is found that the cost function minimum for tall people occurs at longer crank arm lengths and lower pedalling rates than the length and rate for short people.


[Hull et al., 1988]
Hull, M., Gonzalez, H., and Redfield, R. (1988). Optimization of pedaling rate in cycling using a muscle stress-based objective function. International Journal Of Sports Biomechanics, 4:1–20. [ bib ]
[Katayama et al., 1988]
Katayama, T., Aoki, A., and Nishimi, T. (1988). Control behaviour of motorcycle riders. Vehicle System Dynamics, 17:211–229. [ bib ]
[Klein, 1988]
Klein, RE. (1988). Novel systems and dynamics teaching techniques using bicycles. In Proceedings of the 1988 American Control Conference. [ bib ]
[Kyle, 1988]
Kyle, CR. (1988). GM Sunraycer case history, chapter 3-3: The Sunraycer, Wheels, Tires and Brakes. Number M-101. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, USA. [ bib ]
[MacAdam, 1988]
MacAdam, CC. (1988). Development of driver/vehicle steering interaction models for dynamics analysis. Technical report, University of Michigan. [ bib ]
[Newmiller et al., 1988]
Newmiller, J., Hull, M., and Zajac, F. (1988). A mechanically decoupled two force component bicycle pedal dynamometer. Journal of Biomechanics, 21(5):375 – 379, 381–386. [ DOI | bib | http ]
A design is presented for a bicycle pedal dynamometer that measures both normal and tangential forces (i.e. driving forces). Mechanical decoupling is used to reduce the cross-sensitivity of the dynamometer to loads doing no work to propel the bicycle. This obviates the need to measure all six loads for accurate data reduction. A compact strain ring is the transducer element, and a monolithic design eliminates mechanical hysteresis between the strain ring and the dynamometer frame. The angular orientation of the dynamometer with respect to the crank arm is determined with a continuous-rotation potentiometer. Design criteria and design implementation are discussed, sample data are presented, and the performance of the dynamometer is evaluated.


[Papadopoulos, 1988b]
Papadopoulos, JM. (1988b). A single-step method of aligning a bicycle frame so no handlebar torque is required for straight-line riding. Method. [ bib ]
[Papadopoulos, 1988a]
Papadopoulos, JM. (1988a). Explaining the coefficients. NA. [ bib ]
[Wierda and Roos, 1988]
Wierda, M. and Roos, E. (1988). Gangbare kinderfietsen op comfort, manoeuvreerbaarheid en remweg vergeleken. Haren: Verkeerskundig Studiecentrum, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle, experimental, maneuvrability, stability, braking, comfort, traffic situation
[Papadopoulos, 1987a]
Papadopoulos, JM. (1987a). Bicycle handling experiments you can do. NA. [ bib ]
[Kyle, 1987]
Kyle, CR. (1987). Gm tire test report on 17" moulton tires. Technical report, General Motors. [ bib ]
[Anonymous, 1987]
Anonymous (1987). Icts international school of applied dynamics 3rd seminar on advanced vehicle system dynamics. In Vehicle System Dynamics, volume 16. [ bib ]
[Bridges and Russell, 1987]
Bridges, P. and Russell, JB. (1987). The effect of topboxes on motorcycle stability. Vehicle System Dynamics, 16(5–6):345–354. [ bib ]
[Doyle, 1987]
Doyle, A. JR. (1987). The Skill of Bicycle Riding. PhD thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield. [ bib ]
The principal theories of human motor skill are compared. Disagreements between them centre around the exact details of the feedback loops used for control. In order to throw some light on this problem a commonplace skill was analysed using computer techniques to both record and model the movement. Bicycle riding was chosen as an example because it places strict constraints on the freedom of the rider's actions and consequently allows a fairly simple model to be used. Given these constraints a faithful record of the delicate balancing movements of the handlebar must also be a record of the rider's actions in controlling the machine. An instrument pack, fitted with gyroscopic sensors and a handlebar potentiometer, recorded the roll, yaw and steering angle changes during free riding in digital form on a microcomputer disc. A discrete step computer model of the rider and machine was used to compare the output characteristic of various control systems with that of the experimental subjects. Since the normal bicycle design gives a measure of automatic stability it is not possible to tell how much of the handlebar movement is due to the rider and how much to the machine. Consequently a bicycle was constructed in which the gyroscopic and castor stability were removed. In order to reduce the number of sensory contributions the subjects were blindfolded. The recordings showed that the basic method of control was a combination of a continuous delayed repeat of the roll angle rate in the handle-bar channel, with short intermittent ballistic acceleration inputs to control angle of lean and consequently direction. A review of the relevant literature leads to the conclusion that the proposed control system is consistent with current physiological knowledge. Finally the bicycle control system discovered in the experiments is related to the theories of motor skills discussed in the second chapter.


[Hess, 1987a]
Hess, R. (1987a). A qualitative model of human interaction with complex dynamic systems. IEEE Transactions on Sytems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-17(1):33–51. [ bib ]
Abstract-A qualitative model describing human interaction with complex dynamic systems is developed. The model is hierarchical in nature and consists of three parts: a behavior generator, an internal model, and a sensory information processor. The behavior generator is responsible for action decomposition, turning higher level goals or missions into physical action at the human-machine interface. The internal model is an internal representation of the environment which the human is assumed to possess and is divided into four submodel categories. The sensory information processor is responsible for sensory composition. All three parts of the model act in consort to allow anticipatory behavior on the part of the human in goal-directed interaction with dynamic systems. Human workload and error are interpreted in this framework, and the familiar example of an automobile commute is used to illustrate the nature of the activity in the three model elements. Finally, with the qualitative model as a guide, verbal protocols from a manned simulation study of a helicopter instrument landing task are analyzed with particular emphasis on the effect of automation on human-machine performance.


[Hess, 1987b]
Hess, RA. (1987b). Handbook of Human Factors, chapter Feedback Control Models, pages 1212–1242. John Wiley & Sons, first edition. [ bib ]
[le Hénaff, 1987]
le Hénaff, Y. (1987). Dynamical stability of the bicycle. European Journal of Physics, 8:207–210. [ bib ]
[Lobas, 1987]
Lobas, LG. (1987). Controllability, stabilizability and observability of the motion of wheeled vehicles. Prikladnaya Mekhanika, 23(4):93–98. Translated from the Russian: UDC 62-50:629.113. [ bib ]
[Olsen and Papadopoulos, 1987]
Olsen, J. and Papadopoulos, J. (1987). Bicycle dynamics: The meaning behind the math. Bike Tech, pages 13–15. [ bib ]
[Papadopoulos and Ruina, 1987]
Papadopoulos, J. and Ruina, A. (1987). Discussion of Le Hénaff's paper. Short write up by Jim P. [ bib ]
[Papadopoulos, 1987b]
Papadopoulos, JM. (1987b). Bicycle steering dynamics and self-stability: A summary report on work in progress. NA. [ bib ]
[Papadopoulos, 1987c]
Papadopoulos, JM. (1987c). Forces in bicycle pedaling. NA. [ bib ]
[Wang and Huston, 1987]
Wang, JT. and Huston, RL. (1987). Kane's equations with undetermined multipliersapplication to constrained multibody systems. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 54(2):424–429. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Fujikawa and Hubbard, 1986]
Fujikawa, H. and Hubbard, M. (1986). Optimal human control and stability of the skateboard. In Proceedings of the 25th Conference, Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, Tokyo, Japan. Society of Instrument and Control Engineers,. [ bib ]
[Desloge, 1986]
Desloge, EA. (1986). A comparison of kane's equations of motion and the gibbsappell equations of motion. American Journal of Physics, 54(5):470–472. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Harper and Cooper, 1986]
Harper, RP. and Cooper, GE. (1986). Handling qualities and pilot evaluation. Journal of Guidance, 9(5):515–529. [ bib ]
[Hess and Mcnally, 1986]
Hess, R. and Mcnally, B. (1986). Automation effects in a multiloop manual control system. Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on, 16(1):111–121. [ DOI | bib ]
An experimental and analytical study was undertaken to investigate human interaction with a simple multiloop manual control system in which the human's activity was systematically varied by changing the level of automation. The system simulated was the longitudinal dynamics of a hovering helicopter. The automation-systems-stabilized vehicle responses from attitude to velocity to position and also provided for display automation in the form of a flight director. The control-loop structure resulting from the task definition can be considered a simple stereotype of a hierarchical control system. The experimental study was complemented by an analytical modeling effort which utilized simple crossover models of the human operator. It was shown that such models can be extended to the description of multiloop tasks involving preview and precognitive human operator behavior. The existence of time optimal manual control behavior was established for these tasks and the role which internal models may play in establishing human-machine performance was discussed.


[Jolliffe, 1986]
Jolliffe, IT. (1986). Principal Component Analysis. Springer Series in Statistics. Springer-Verlag. [ bib ]
[Jorge and Hull, 1986]
Jorge, M. and Hull, M. (1986). Analysis of emg measurements during bicycle pedalling. Journal of Biomechanics, 19(9):683 – 694. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Activity of eight leg muscles has been monitored for six test subjects while pedalling a bycycle on rollers in the laboratory. Each electromyogram (EMG) data channel was digitized at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by a minicomputer. Data analysis entailed generating plots of both EMG activity regions and integrated EMG (IEMG). For each test subject, data were recorded for five cases of pedalling conditions. The different pedalling conditions were defined to explore a variety of research hypotheses. This exploration has led to the following conclusions: 1. (1) Muscular activity levels of the quadriceps are influenced by the type of shoes worn and activity levels increase with soft sole shoes as opposed to cycling shoes with cleats and toeclips. 2. (2) EMG activity patterns are not strongly related to pedalling conditions (i.e. load, seat height and shoe type). The level of muscle activity, however, is significantly affected by pedalling conditions. 3. (3) Muscular activity bears a complex relationship with seat height and quadriceps activity level decreases with greater seat height. 4. (4) Agonist (i.e. hamstrings) and antagonist (i.e. quadriceps) muscles of the hip/knee are active simultaneously during leg extension. Regions of peak activity levels, however, do not overlap. The lack of significant cocontraction of agonist/antagonist muscles enables muscle forces during pedalling action to be computed by solving a series of equilibrium problems over different regions of the crank cycle. Regions are defined and a solution procedure is outlined.


[Redfield and Hull, 1986a]
Redfield, R. and Hull, M. (1986a). Prediction of pedal forces in bicycling using optimization methods. Journal of Biomechanics, 19(7):523 – 540. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The bicycle-rider system is modeled as a planar five-bar linkage with pedal forces and pedal dynamics as input. The pedal force profile input is varied, maintaining constant average bicycle power, in order to obtain the optimal pedal force profile that minimizes two cost functions. One cost function is based on joint moments and the other is based on muscle stresses. Predicted (optimal) pedal profiles as well as joint moment time histories are compared to representative real data to examine cost function appropriateness. Both cost functions offer reasonable predictions of pedal forces. The muscle stress cost function, however, better predicts joint moments. Predicted muscle activity also correlates well with myolectric data. The factors that lead to effective (i.e. low cost) pedalling are examined. Pedalling effectiveness is found to be a complex function of pedal force vector orientation and muscle mechanics.


[Redfield and Hull, 1986b]
Redfield, R. and Hull, ML. (1986b). On the relation between joint moments and pedalling rates at constant power in bicycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 19(4):317 – 329. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Joint moments are of interest because they bear some relation to muscular effort and hence rider performance. The general objective of this study is to explore the relation between joint moments and pedalling rate (i.e. cadence). Joint moments are computed by modelling the leg-bicycle system as a five-bar linkage constrained to plane motion. Using dynamometer pedal force data and potentiometer crank and pedal position data, system equations are solved on a computer to produce moments at the ankle, knee and hip joints. Cadence and pedal forces are varied inversely to maintain constant power. Results indicate that average joint moments vary considerably with changes in cadence. Both hip and knee joints show an average moment which is minimum near 105 rotations min-1 for cruising cycling. It appears that an optimum rotations min-1 can be determined from a mechanical approach for any given power level and bicycle-rider geometry.


[Ruijs and Pacejka, 1986]
Ruijs, P. and Pacejka, H. (1986). Recent research in lateral dynamics of motorcycles. In Procedings of 9th IAVSD Symposium on The Dynamics Of Vehicles on roads and on tracks, Sweden June 24-28 1985, volume supplement to Vehicle System Dynamics, Volume 15, pages 467– 480. [ bib ]
[Wilson, 1986]
Wilson, DG. (1986). Understanding pedal power. Technical report, Volunteers in Technical Assistance. [ bib ]
This paper is one of a series published by Volunteers in Technical Assistance to provide an introduction to specific state-of-the-art technologies of interest to people in developing countries. The papers are intended to be used as guidelines to help people choose technologies that are suitable to their situations. They are not intended to provide construction or implementation details. People are urged to contact VITA or a similar organization for further information and technical assistance if they find that a particular technology seems to meet their needs. The papers in the series were written, reviewed, and illustrated almost entirely by VITA Volunteer technical experts on a purely voluntary basis. Some 500 volunteers were involved in the production of the first 100 titles issued, contributing approximately 5,000 hours of their time. VITA staff included Betsy Eisendrath as editor, Suzanne Brooks handling typesetting and layout, and Margaret Crouch as project manager. The author of this paper, VITA Volunteer David Gordon Wilson, is a mechanical engineer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The reviewers are also VITA Volunteers. John Furber is a consultant in the fields of renewable energy, computers, and business development. His company, Starlight Energy Technology, is based in California. Lawrence M. Halls is a retired mechanical engineer who designed farm machinery for Sperry-New Holland for 23 years. Lauren Howard is a thinker, inventor, and bicycling advocate. She lives in Charlottesville, Virginia. VITA is a private, nonprofit organization that supports people working on technical problems in developing countries. VITA offers information and assistance aimed at helping individuals and groups to select and implement technologies appropriate to their situations. VITA maintains an international Inquiry Service, a specialized documentation center, and a computerized roster of volunteer technical consultants; manages long-term field projects; and publishes a variety of technical manuals and papers.


[Alden and Qureshy, 1985]
Alden, R. and Qureshy, F. (1985). Eigenvalue tracking due to parameter variation. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, AC-30(9):923–925. [ bib ]
This note describes an efficient eigenvalue tracking algorithm, which is applicable in many engineerings ystems where the effect of parameter variation on system stability is to be determined. Starting with the original system eigenvalues, the algorithm uses determinants to compute first-order eigenvalue sensitivities which are used in an iterative method that converges rapidly to the new eigenvalues corresponding to the parameter change. The algorithm tracks all the system eigenvalues starting from a given base case. It is shown to be less costly than repeated eigenvalue evaluation and is illustrated by means of a simple power system example.


[Hess, 1985]
Hess, RA. (1985). Advances in Man-Machine Systems Research, volume 2, chapter A Model-Based Theory for Analyzing Human Control Behavior, pages 129–175. JAI Press. [ bib ]
[Hull and Jorge, 1985]
Hull, M. and Jorge, M. (1985). A method for biomechanical analysis of bicycle pedalling. Journal of Biomechanics, 18(9):631 – 644. [ DOI | bib | http ]
This paper reports a new method, which enables a detailed biomechanical analysis of the lower limb during bicycling. The method consists of simultancously measuring both the normal and tangential pedal forces, the EMGs of eight leg muscles, and the crank arm and pedal angles. Data were recorded for three male subjects of similar anthropometric characteristics. Subjects rode under different pedalling conditions to explore how both pedal forces and pedalling rates affect the biomechanics of the pedalling process. By modelling the leg-bicycle as a five bar linkage and driving the linkage with the measured force and kinematic data, the joint moment histories due to pedal forces only (i.e. no motion) and motion only (i.e. no pedal forces) were generated. Total moments were produced by superimposing the two moment histories. The separate moment histories, together with the pedal forces and EMG results, enable a detailed biomechanical analysis of bicycle pedalling. Inasmuch as the results are similar for all three subjects, the analysis for one subject is discussed fully. One unique insight gained via this new method is the functional role that individual leg muscles play in the pedalling process.


[Kageyama and Kogo, 1985]
Kageyama, I. and Kogo, A. (1985). Human factors in the steering system of two-wheeled vehicles. Bulletin of JSME, 28(240):1233–1239. [ bib | http ]
This study analyzes the role of human factors in the steering system of two-wheeled vehicles, using equivalent mechanical elements as the first step toward systems analysis of the man/vehicle relationship. This steering system, including human factors, has approximately one torsional degree of freedom. These factors can be obtained by the frequency response of a steering bench model with a rider. First, the repeatability and linearity of human factors are checked. Then, the human factor values are shown to change accordingly as the rider's handle grip and press forces vary. Finally, an equation for two-wheeled vehicle motion is derived, and the result of these calculations makes it clear that human factors play a major role in the behavior of two-wheeled vehicles.


[Kane and Levinson, 1985]
Kane, TR. and Levinson, DA. (1985). Dynamics: Theory and Applications. McGraw Hill, New York, NY. [ bib ]
This textbook is intended to provide a basis for instruction in dynamics. Its purpose is not only to equip students with the skills they need to deal effectively with present-day dynamics problems, but also to bring them into position to interact smoothly with those trained more conventionally.


[Ruijs and Pacejka, 1985]
Ruijs, PA. and Pacejka, HB. (1985). Research in lateral dynamics of motorcycles. Vehicle System Dynamics, 14(1–3):149–152. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 1985]
Sharp, RS. (1985). The lateral dynamics of motorcycles and bicycles. Vehicle System Dynamics, 14(6):265–283. [ bib ]
[Huston, 1984]
Huston, RL. (1984). Unicycle dynamics and stability. Society of Automotive Engineers. [ bib ]
Governing equations of motion for a unicycle with a rider are presented. The system is assumed to be moving on a flat horizontal surface. Two specific cases are investigated: straight-line rolling and stationary positioning. Criteria for stability are explored. It is shown that stability can be obtained through active pedal monitoring by the rider.


[Takahashi et al., 1984]
Takahashi, T., Yamada, T., and Nakamura, T. (1984). Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of tires on straight-running motorcycle weave response. Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE Paper 840248. [ bib ]
The influence of tires on straight-running motorcycle weave oscillation has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Three sets of front and rear tires were used. The weave oscillation was excited by “Nitrogen gas-jet disturbance system” fitted to the instrumented test vehicle.


[Ashkenas, 1984]
Ashkenas, IL. (1984). Twenty-five years of handling qualities research. J. of Aircraft, 21(5):289–301. STI-P-323. [ bib ]
This paper reflects on 25 years (or more) of handling quality research and shares with the reader some of the author's resulting experiences and thoughts. When reaching back so far and considering all that has been accomplished, there are many facets of handling or flying qualities which could be covered and considered. However, the author chooses to limit discussion to those aspects concerned with the theory of handling qualities, in turn relating to closed-loop, pilot-vehicle, frequency-domain analysis and its application to handling and flight control problems. This is not to deny other aspects of handling qualities research which are beyond the scope of this limited exposition, such as: ground and in flight simulation; rating systems; optimal control operator models; workload concepts; and data collection and codification. Rather, it is to emphasize those aspects that the author is personally most familiar with, and which stress the design guidance role of handling qualities theory and practice. This has always been important and it is especially important now because of increasing dependence on sophisticated flight control systems which can completely alter the way an airplane responds to the pilot's inputs. In fact, handling quality research has recently come up for its share of criticism as being inadequate to cope with some of today's design problems. For example, Berry, in a recent article in Astronautics and Aeronautics and Gibson, in a paper before the AGARD Conference in Fort Worth, both decried the fact that there have been a rash of generic handling problems associated with high-performance aircraft having sophisticated flight control systems, and that such systems have not always reached their full potential to provide handling qualities superior to much simpler aircraft of the past. Against this background, first to be discussed are the basic aspects of handling or flying qualities and some of the early design problems that were solved; then, the growth of handling qualities theory in response to design demands; and, finally, how that theory has been applied and expanded over the years to become a valuable tool, especially useful in coping with new situations such as those that seem to be occurring almost daily.


[Harper Jr. and Cooper, 1984]
Harper Jr., RP. and Cooper, GE. (1984). Handling qualities and pilot evaluation. Wright Brothers Lectureship in Aeronautics. [ bib ]
[Jayasuriya et al., 1984]
Jayasuriya, S., Hubbard, M., and Hrovat, D. (1984). A control scheme for a pole-vaulter derived from an optimal aiming strategy. In Proceedings of 1984 American Control Conference, San Diego, CA. [ bib ]
[Kamman and Huston, 1984]
Kamman, JW. and Huston, RL. (1984). Dynamics of constrained multibody systems. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 51(4):899–903. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[Hess, 1983]
Hess, RA. (1983). A model-based investigation of manipulator characteristics and pilot/vehicle performance. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 6(5):348–354. [ bib ]
[Juniper and Good, 1983]
Juniper, RG. and Good, MC. (1983). Braking, stability and handling of motorcycles. Technical Report Cr 29, Office of Road Safety, Department of Transport, Australia. [ bib ]
A review of the literature relating to braking stability and handling of motorcycles was undertaken. Evidence of relationshops between motorcycle characteristics and accidents was sought. Anecdotal evidence of operational problems published in user magazines was also reviewed. Experimental and analytical investigations of motorcycle dynamics, and the effects of accessories, tyres and machine modifcations was surveyed. Problem areas were identified and priorities for further research recommended.


[Takagi and Sugeno, 1983]
Takagi, T. and Sugeno, M. (1983). Derivation of fuzzy control rules from human operators control actions. In IFAC Symposium on Fuzzy Information, Knowledge Representation and Decision Analysis, pages 55–60, Marseilles, France. [ bib ]
[Weir and Zellner, 1983]
Weir, DH. and Zellner, JW. (1983). The performance and handling of a top fuel drag motorcycle. Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE Paper 830157. [ bib ]
The design and development of a top fuel drag motorcycle are reviewed from the standpoints of performance, stability and handling, and rider safety. The paper begins with a summary of design requirements related to longitudinal performance, lateral/directional stability and control, structural properties, rider factors, organizational rules, and the fact that drag racing is a spectator sport. A contemporary top fuel dragster design is used as an example case study. Analytical results illustrate the effects of aerodynamics, and varying other design parameters, on performance and stability. A principal result is that adequate down load must be maintained on the front tire. The results suggest that safety and good handling need not compromise ultimate performance, and that the required tradeoffs can be guided by analysis at the design stage.


[Winkler and Hagan, 1983]
Winkler, CB. and Hagan, MR. (1983). A new facility for testing motorcycle tires. Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE Paper 830154. [ bib ]
Analysis of the dynamic modes of the single-track vehicle has been hampered by the general lack of facilities for gathering force and moment data on motorcycle tires under dynamic test conditions. The facility described was designed and constructed by UMTRI under the sponsorship of the HONDA Research and Development Company in order to alleviate this problem. Unlike conventional tire dynamometers, this new facility allows for testing under dynamic conditions and provides for non-zero path curvature. These particular capabilities hold promise for advancement in the state-of-the-art understanding of the dynamic operating modes of the single-track, pneumatic-tired vehicle.


[Greenslade Jr., 1983]
Greenslade Jr., TB. (1983). More bicycle physics. Physics Teacher, 21:360–363. [ bib ]
[Kane and Levinson, 1983]
Kane, TR. and Levinson, DA. (1983). The use of kane's dynamical equations in robotics. The International Journal of Robotics Research, 2(3):3–21. [ DOI | arXiv | bib | http ]
Extensive experience has shown that the use of general- purpose, multibody-dynamics computer programs for the numerical formulation and solution of equations of motion of robotic devices leads to slow evaluation of actuator forces and torques and slow simulation of robot motions. In this paper, it is shown how improvements in computational efficiency can be effected by using Kane's dynamical equations to formulate explicit equations of motion. To these ends, a detailed analysis of the Stanford Arm is presented in such a way that each step in the analysis serves as an illustrative example for a general method of attack on problems of robot dynamics. Simulation results are reported and are used as a basis for discussing questions of computational efficiency.


[Kane et al., 1983]
Kane, TR., Likins, PW., and Levinson, DA. (1983). Spacecraft Dynamics. McGraw Hill Book Company. [ bib ]
[Koenen, 1983]
Koenen, C. (1983). The dynamic behaviour of a motorcycle when running straight ahead and when cornering. PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology. [ bib ]
[Nadpurohit and Suryanarayan, 1983]
Nadpurohit, R. and Suryanarayan, S. (1983). Some experimental studies on the influence of wheel base and trail on the dynamic stability of the bicycle-rider system. In Proceedings of the Sixth World Congress on Theory of Machines and MEchanisms, pages 705–708. [ bib ]
[Nagai, 1983]
Nagai, M. (1983). Analysis of rider and single-track-vehicle system; its application to computer-controlled bicycles. Automatica, 19(6):737–740. [ bib ]
[Prem, 1983]
Prem, H. (1983). Motorcycle Rider Skill Assessment. PhD thesis, University of Melbourne. [ bib ]
[Zatsiorsky and Seluyanov, 1983]
Zatsiorsky, V. and Seluyanov, V. (1983). The mass and inertia characteristics of the main segments of the human body. In Matsui, H. and Kobayashi, K., editors, Biomechanics VIII-B, pages 1152–l 159, Illinois. Human Kinetic. [ bib ]
[Lowell and McKell, 1982]
Lowell, J. and McKell, HD. (1982). The stability of bicycles. American Journal of Physics, 50(12):1106–1112. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1982]
Hess, RA. (1982). Prediction of aircraft handling qualities using analytical models of the human pilot. In AGARD Conference Proceedings, No. 333, Criteria for Handling Qualities of Military Aircraft, pages 25–1–25–8. [ bib ]
[Kane and Levinson, 1982]
Kane, TR. and Levinson, DA. (1982). Realistic mathematical modeling of the rattleback. International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, 17(3):175 – 186. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The rattleback (also called a Celt or wobblestone) is an object which, when placed on a horizontal surface and caused to rotate about a vertical axis, sometimes begins to oscillate, stops turning, and then starts rotating in the direction opposite to that associated with the original motion. Earlier analyses dealing with this phenomenon have been based on a variety of assumptions. In the present work, it is shown by means of numerical solutions of full, non-linear equations of motion that one can construct a realistic mathematical model by assuming rolling without slipping and employing a torque proportional to angular velocity to provide for energy dissipation.


[Kvale and Corbett, 1981]
Kvale, C. and Corbett, J. (1981). A fresh look at steering geometry. [ bib ]
[Pennings, 1981]
Pennings, TJ. (1981). Mathematical modeling of bicycle dynamics with computer simulation. Master's thesis, University of North Dakota. [ bib ]
[Davis and Hull, 1981a]
Davis, R. and Hull, M. (1981a). Measurement of pedal loading in bicycling: Ii. analysis and results. Journal of Biomechanics, 14(12):857 – 861, 863–872. [ DOI | bib | http ]
A computer-based instrumentation system was used to accurately measure the six foot-pedal load components and the absolute pedal position during bicycling. The instrumentation system is the first of its kind and enables extensive and meaningful biomechanical analysis of bicycling. With test subjects riding on rollers which simulate actual bicycling, pedalling data were recorded to explore four separate hypotheses. Experiments yielded the following major conclusions: (1) Using cleated shoes retards fatigue of the quadriceps muscle group. By allowing more flexor muscle utilization during the backstroke, cleated shoes distribute the workload and alleviate the peak load demand on the quadriceps group; (2) overall pedalling efficiency increases with power level; (3) non-motive load components which apply adverse moments on the knee joint are of significant magnitude; (4) analysis of pedalling is an invaluable training aid. One test subject reduced his leg exertion at the pedal by 24 per cent.


[Davis and Hull, 1981b]
Davis, R. and Hull, ML. (1981b). Design of aluminum bicycle frames. JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, 103(4):901–907. [ bib ]
[Dikarev et al., 1981]
Dikarev, ED., Dikareva, SB., and Fufaev, NA. (1981). Effect of inclination of steering axis and of stagger of the front wheel on stability of motion of a bicycle. Izv. AN sssR. Mekhanika Tverdogo Tela, 16(1):69–73. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1981]
Hess, RA. (1981). Pursuit tracking and higher levels of skill development in the human pilot. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-11(4):262–273. [ bib ]
[Hull and Davis, 1981]
Hull, M. and Davis, R. (1981). Measurment of pedal loading in bicycling: I. instrumentation. Journal of Biomechanics, 14(12):843 – 855. [ DOI | bib | http ]
This paper presents a new instrumentation system to precisely measure pedal loads and pedal position. A pedal/dynamometer unit implementing four octagonal strain rings measures all six load components between the foot and pedal. To study the relationship between foot position and loading, the pedal/dynamometer offers three degree-of-freedom adjustability. Pedal position along the pedal arc is precisely described by measuring crank arm angle and relative angle between pedal and crank arm. Linear, continuous rotation potentiometers measure the two angles. Transducer signals are sampled by a digital computer which calculates resultant loads and pedal position as functions of crank arm angle. Transducers are designed to mount on most bicycles without modification. Test subjects ride their own bicycles unconstrained on rollers so that loading data is representative of actual cycling.


[Källström and Åström, 1981]
Källström, C. and Åström, K. (1981). Experiences of system identification applied to ship steering. Automatica, 17(1):187 – 198. [ DOI | bib | http ]
Different system identification methods have been applied to determine ship steering dynamics from full-scale experiments. The techniques used include output error, maximum likelihood and more general prediction error methods. Different model structures have been investigated ranging from input-output models in difference equation form to the equations of motion in their natural form. Effects of disturbances, errors and dynamics in sensors and actuators have been considered. Programs for interactive system identification have been used extensively. The experiments have been performed both under open loop and closed loop conditions. Both linear and nonlinear models have been considered. The paper summarizes the experiences obtained from applying system identification methods to many different ships. The results have been applied both to investigate steering properties and to design autopilots for ship steering. Insight into ship steering dynamics and identification methodology has been obtained.


Keywords: Computer-aided design
[Reid and Solowka, 1981]
Reid, L. and Solowka, E. (1981). A systematic study of driver steering behaviour. Ergonomics, 24(6):447–462. [ bib ]
A sequence of driving tasks has been carried out in a driving simulator. The initial tests represented lane tracking along a serpentine roadway and were employed to verify the operation of the simulator and the ability of a computer algorithm to fit linear driver models to experimental data. A second series of tests involved an obstacle avoidance manoeuvre in both a car and a truck. These latter simulator runs were augmented by field trials in an automobile during which driver eye point-ofregard data were recorded. Eye point-of-regard results from both simulator and field trials were compared and employed in formulating a simple driver model for the obstacle avoidance manoeuvre. The results from a preliminary fitting of this model to the experimental data are reported. It was foundthat a single linear model of the driver's dynamic characteristics can be used to represent adequately all of the driver response data measured in the present study.


[Sharp and Alstead, 1980]
Sharp, RS. and Alstead, CJ. (1980). The influence of structural flexibilities on the straight-running stability of motorcycles. Vehicle System Dynamics, 9(6):327–357. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1980]
Hess, RA. (1980). Structural model of the adaptive human pilot. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 3(5):416–423. [ bib ]
[Hasegawa, 1980]
Hasegawa, A. (1980). Analysis of controllability and stability of motorcycles analysis of stability at high speed driving. In Proc. International Motorcycle Safety Conference, volume 2, pages 479–500. [ bib ]
[Hubbard, 1980]
Hubbard, M. (1980). Human control of the skateboard. Journal of Biomechanics, 13(9):745–754. [ bib ]
[Kirshner, 1980]
Kirshner, D. (1980). Some nonexplanations of bicycle stability. American Journal of Physics, 48(1):36–38. [ DOI | bib | http ]
[McRuer, 1980]
McRuer, DT. (1980). Human dynamics in man-machine systems. Automatica, 16(3):237–253. [ bib ]
[Åström, 1980]
Åström, K. (1980). Maximum likelihood and prediction error methods. Automatica, 16(5):551 – 574. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The basic ideas behind the parameter estimation methods are discussed in a general setting. The application to estimation or parameters in dynamical systems is treated in detail using the prototype problem of estimating parameters in a continuous time system using discrete time measurements. Computational aspects are discussed. Theoretical results in consistency, asymptotic normality and efficiency are covered. Model validation and selection of model structures are discussed. An example is given which illustrates some properties of the methods and shows the usefulness of interactive computing. Additional examples illustrate what happens when the data has different artefacts.


Keywords: Computer-aided design
[Hubbard and Glass, 1979]
Hubbard, M. and Glass, SK. (1979). Optimal human control of an unstable vehicle in a simple tracking task. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Asilomar Conference on Circuits, Systems and Computers, pages 60–64, Pacific Grove, CA. [ bib ]
[Weir et al., 1979]
Weir, DH., Zellner, JW., and Teper, G. (1979). Motorcycle handling. Technical Report Volume II, U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Systems Technology, Inc., Washington, D.C. [ bib ]
Analytical and experimental studies of the handling response and performance of motorcycles are reported. Five instrumented example vehicles were used. Steady turn, single lane change, cornering and braking, and cornering and accelearting tests were accomplished. Test procedures and measures are presented, together with subjective evaluations. Oscillatory behavior involving weave and wobble motions was investigated. The effects of adding load, changing operating conditions, and modifying vehicle configuration are shown. Braking tests were made with a motorcycle fitted with a prototype antilock brake system, and the results showed markedly superior performance on wet (low SN) surfaces. Linear and nonlinear digital computer simulations of motorcycle response and performance are described and demonstrated.


[Aoki, 1979]
Aoki, A. (1979). Experimental study on motorcycle steering performance. Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE Paper 790265. [ bib ]
A study of the lateral motion of motorcycles has been conducted through experiments on four large motorcycles of Japanese manufacture. A total of five experimental procedures were applied to straight or nearly straight running conditions and curve running conditions, and the results of each experiment were arranged by frequency response function in terms of input and output.


[Man and Kane, 1979]
Man, GK. and Kane, TR. (1979). Steady turning of two-wheeled vehicles, paper 790187. In Dynamics of Wheeled Recreational Vehicles, pages 55–75, Detroit, MI. SAE. [ bib ]
[Adiele, 1979]
Adiele, C. (1979). Two wheeled vehicle design. Master's thesis, Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University. [ bib ]
[Anderson and Moore, 1979]
Anderson, B. DO. and Moore, JB. (1979). Optimal Filtering. Dover Publications. [ bib ]
[Hubbard, 1979]
Hubbard, M. (1979). Lateral dynamics and stability of the skateboard. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 46(4):931–936. [ bib ]
[Psiaki, 1979]
Psiaki, M. (1979). Bicycle stability: A mathematical and numerical analysis. Bs thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. [ bib ]
[Schwarz, 1979a]
Schwarz, R. (1979a). Accident avoidance characteristics of unconventional motorcycle configurations. Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE Paper 790258. [ bib ]
This paper presents the results of a program investigating the potential of unconventional motorcycle configurations for improved accident avoidance performance. Stability and obstacle avoidance characteristics were investigated analytically using mathematical models of both the uncontrolled and rider-controlled motorcycle. An analysis was also performed of the sensitivity of the optimum front-rear brake proportioning to road surface conditions and lateral acceleration. The results indicate that a low center of gravity, long wheelbase configuration has advantages in the moderate-to-high speed regime in terms of the margin of safety in performing an obstacle avoidance maneuver, and rider skill level required in braking. These advantages accrue at the expense of low speed maneuverability and controllability, and weight and overall complexity of the machine.


[Schwarz, 1979b]
Schwarz, R. (1979b). Advanced motorcycle handling and dynamics. Technical Report DOT HS-804 910., U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. South Coast Technology, Incorporated. [ bib ]
[Weir and Zellner, 1979]
Weir, D. and Zellner, JW. (1979). Experimental investigation of the transient behavior of motorcycles. Technical report. SAE Paper 790266. [ bib ]
Analytical and experimental studies of the transient and oscillatory behavior of motorcycles are reported. Three example vehicles were used. The effects of adding load, changing operating conditions, and modifying the vehicle configuration are shown. The phenomenon known as cornering weave is illustrated and interpreted.


[Zellner and Weir, 1979]
Zellner, JW. and Weir, DH. (1979). Moped directional dynamics and handling qualities. Technical Report 790260. [ bib ]
[Godthelp and Wouters, 1978]
Godthelp, J. and Wouters, P. (1978). Koers houden door fietsers en bromfietsers. Verkeerskunde, (11):537 – 543. [ bib ]
Benodigde strookbreedte op rechte wegvakken en kruisingen Wendbaarheid en stabiliteit van tweewielers Consequenties voor verkeers- en gedragsregels


Keywords: bicycle, experimental, geometrical properties, stability, maneuvrability
[Hess, 1978]
Hess, RA. (1978). A dual-loop model of the human controller. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 1(4):254–260. [ bib ]
[Anonymous, 1978]
Anonymous (1978). Motorcycle dynamics and rider control. In SAE Special Publications, number SP–428, page 116, Detroit, MI, USA. SAE, SAE, Warrendale, PA. Ten (10) papers by various authors were presented at this session. The subjects discussed in these papers included the following: motorcycle steering behavior and straight line stability characteristics; lateral-directional motorcycle dynamics; effect of frame flexibility on high weave of motorcycles; effect of front fork flexibility on the stability of motorcycles; measurement of braking performance; motorcycle dynamics EM DASH fact, fiction and folklore; and riding behavior of motorcyclists as influenced by pavement characteristics. Selected papers were abstracted separately. [ bib ]
[Hartman, 1978]
Hartman, CH. (1978). Human factors portion of the motorcycle dynamics and handling equation. SAE Special Publications, SP–428:73–78. [ bib ]
[Liesegang and Lee, 1978]
Liesegang, J. and Lee, AR. (1978). Dynamics of a bicycle: Nongyroscopic aspects. American Journal of Physics, 46:130–132. [ DOI | bib ]
[Kane, 1978]
Kane, TR. (1978). The effect of frame flexibility on high speed weave of motorcycles. In SAE Paper 780306, pages 33–40. SAE. [ bib ]
The effect of frame flexibility on the stability of constant speed, straight line motions of amotorycle is studied by reference to linearized differential equations governing the behavior of a system of five rigid bodies, two of which are connect to each other with a hinge, a spring, and a damper, and are intended to represent a flexible frame, while the rest represent the front forke and wheels of the vehicle. Alth the configuration of the system is characterized by seven generalized coordinates, it is shown that the stability information of interest can be deduced from four first-order differential equations.


[Weir and Zellner, 1978]
Weir, DH. and Zellner, JW. (1978). Lateral-directional motorcycle dynamics and rider control. Technical Report 780304, SAE. [ bib ]
[Zellner and Weir, 1978]
Zellner, JW. and Weir, DH. (1978). Development of handling test procedures for motorcycles. Technical Report 780313. [ bib ]
[Hurt and DuPont, 1977]
Hurt, HH. and DuPont, CJ. (1977). Human factors in motorcycle accidents. In SAE International Automotive Engineering Congress and Expo, number 770103. [ bib ]
[Kane, 1977a]
Kane, TR. (1977a). Kinematical implications of side slip for single-track vehicles. Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE Paper 770056. [ bib ]
The fact that single-track vehicles do not necessarily roll without slipping must be taken into account in the analysis of certain motions of such vehicles. This paper deals with kinematical questions arising under these circumstances. Constraint equations are formulated for motions involving side slip unaccompanied by longitudinal slip, expressions for side slip velocities are developed, and comparisons are drawn between the kinematical consequences of assuming rolling without slip and rolling with side slip


[Kane, 1977b]
Kane, TR. (1977b). Steady turning of single-track vehicles. In International Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition, number 770057, Detroit, MI. SAE. [ bib ]
[Koenen et al., 1977]
Koenen, C., Pacejka, H., Timan, D., and Zwaan, J. (1977). Beweging van motorrijwielen verstoord door wegdek onregelmatigheden. Technical report, Technische Hogeschool Delft Laboratorium voor Voertuigtechniek. [ bib ]
[McCullagh et al., 1977]
McCullagh, JC., Wilson, DG., Wilson, SS., McGeorge, J., Blossom, M., and Branch, D. (1977). Pedal Power: In Work, Leisure, and Transportation. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA. [ bib ]
[SAE, 1977]
SAE (1977). A bibliography on motorcycle dynamics and handling. Prepared by the SAE Motorcycle Dynamics Subcommittee. [ bib ]
[Wittenburg, 1977]
Wittenburg, J. (1977). Dynamics of Systems of Rigid Bodies. B.G. Teubner Stuttgart. [ bib ]
[Ervin et al., 1976]
Ervin, RD., MacAdam, C., and Watanabe, Y. (1976). Motorcycle braking performance, final technical report. Technical Report UM-HSRI-76-30-2, Highway Safety Research Institute. [ bib ]
[McRuer and Klein, 1976]
McRuer, D. and Klein, R. (1976). Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks. Technical report, SAE. SAE Paper No. 760778. [ bib ]
[Unkown, 1976]
Unkown (1976). Motorcycle handling. Technical Report DOT-HS-6-01381, NHTSA. This is the first volume to the Weir study of 1979. [ bib ]
[Åström and Källström, 1976]
Åström, KJ. and Källström, C. (1976). Identification on ship steering dynamics. Automatica, 12:9–22. [ bib ]
[Kunkel, 1976]
Kunkel, DT. (1976). Bicycle dynamics: simulated bicycle/rider system performance in a turning maneuver calspan technical report. Technical report, Schwinn Bicycle Company. Calspan Corp. [ bib ]
[Rice, 1976]
Rice, RS. (1976). Bicycle dynamics - simplified dynamic stability analyses. Technical Report ZN-5921-V-2, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
[Rice and Kunkel, 1976]
Rice, RS. and Kunkel, DT. (1976). Accident-avoidance capabilities of motorcycles: Lane change maneuver simulation and full scale tests. Technical Report ZN-5899-V-1, Calspan. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 1976a]
Sharp, RS. (1976a). The influence of the suspension system on motorcycle weave-mode oscillations. Vehicle Syst. Dyn., 5(3):147–154. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 1976b]
Sharp, RS. (1976b). The stability of motorcycles in acceleration and deceleration. In Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Conf. Braking Road Vehicles, page 45–50, London. [ bib ]
[Smith, 1976]
Smith, RH. (1976). A theory for handling qualities with applications to mil-f- 8785b. Technical Report AFFDL-TR-75-119, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, WPAFB, OH. [ bib ]
[Taguchi, 1975]
Taguchi, M. (1975). A preliminary test report on the controllability and stability of experimental safety motorcycle. In Second International Motorcycle Safety Conference, Washington, D. C., USA. [ bib ]
[Kunkel, 1975]
Kunkel, DT. (1975). Simulation study of motorcycle response to pavement grooving. Technical Report ZN-5740-V-1, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
[Milliken, 1975]
Milliken, B. (1975). Suggested research studies on the rational design and specification of motorcycle tires. Technical Report 85-662, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
[Segel, 1975]
Segel, L. (1975). Requirements for describing the mechanics of tires used on single-track vehicles. In IUTAM Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Railway Tracks, Delft. [ bib ]
[Singh, 1975]
Singh, DV. (1975). Stability of single track vehicles. In IUTAM Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Railway Tracks, Delft. [ bib ]
[Rice, 1975a]
Rice, RS. (1975a). Accident-avoidance capabilities of motorcycles. Technical Report ZN-5571-V-1, Calspan. [ bib ]
[Chandler et al., 1975]
Chandler, RF., Clauser, CE., McConville, JT., Reynolds, HM., and Young, JW. (1975). Investigation of inertial properties of the human body. Technical Report AMRL TR 74-137, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. NTIS No. AD-A016 485. [ bib ]
[Davis, 1975]
Davis, JA. (1975). Bicycle tire testing - effects of inflation pressure & low coefficient surfaces. Technical report, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
[Godthelp and Buist, 1975]
Godthelp, J. and Buist, M. (1975). Stability and manoeuvrability characteristics of single track vehicles. Technical Report IZF 1975 C-2, Institute for Road Safety Research. [ bib ]
[Hoffmann, 1975]
Hoffmann, ER. (1975). Human control of road vehicles. Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, 5(1):105–126. [ bib | http ]
This paper reviews the present state of knowledge of human control of road vehicles. Lateral and longitudinal control of motorcycles and automobiles are discussed, whenever information is available. Although knowledge has increased greatly in the last decade, the major part of this concerns lateral control and most is of an ad hoc nature. Adequate mathematical models for longitudinal motion of the vehicle are yet to be developed. Their development is a necessary step in the attainment of a complete understanding of longitudinal control.


[Kane, 1975]
Kane, TR. (1975). Fundamental kinematical relationships for single-track vehicles. International Journal for Mechanical Sciences, 17:499–504. [ bib ]
[Rice, 1975b]
Rice, RS. (1975b). Rake-trail offset. Technical report, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
[Rice et al., 1975b]
Rice, RS., Davis, JA., and Kunkel, DT. (1975b). Accident-avoidance capabilities of motorcycles - technical report. Technical Report ZN-5571-V-1, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
[Rice et al., 1975a]
Rice, RS., Davis, JA., and Kunkel, DT. (1975a). Accident-avoidance capabilities of motorcycles - appendices. Technical Report ZN-5571-V-2, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 1975]
Sharp, RS. (1975). The dynamics of single track vehicles. Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, 5(1):67–77. [ bib | http ]
The paper contains a brief review of the more subjective aspects of the steering behaviour of single track vehicles, a review of the more significant published work in the field, and an assessment of the current state of understanding and likely ways in which further progress can be made Attention is drawn to the many areas of agreement between theory and practice and to some areas of disagreement. The greatest need now seems to be for the incorporation of more complex tyre models into vehicle handling models.


[van Zytveld, 1975]
van Zytveld, P. (1975). A Method for the Automatic Stabilization of an Unmanned Bicycle. PhD thesis, Stanford University. [ bib ]
[Calspan, 1974b]
Calspan (1974b). Research on the accident avoidance capabilities of motorcycles. Technical Report ZN-5571-V, Calspan Corporation. Six month progress report. [ bib ]
[Rice, 1974b]
Rice, RS. (1974b). A note on design criteria for bicycle stability in terms of front end geometry. Technical report, Calspan. [ bib ]
[Higbie, 1974]
Higbie, J. (1974). The motorcycle as a gyroscope. American Journal of Physics, 42(8):701–702. [ bib ]
[Jennings, 1974]
Jennings, G. (1974). A study of motorcycle suspension damping characteristics. In SAE West Coast Automotive Meeting. [ bib ]
[Cooper, 1974]
Cooper, KR. (1974). The effect of aerodynamics on the performance and stability of high speed motorcycles. In Second AIAA Symposium on Aerodynamic of Sports and Competition Automobiles, Los Angeles. [ bib ]
[Malewicki, 1974]
Malewicki, DJ. (1974). The dynamics and aerodynamics of jump motorcycles. In Second AIAA Symposium on Aerodynamics of Sports and Competition Automobiles, Los Angeles. [ bib ]
[Arnberg and Tyden, 1974]
Arnberg, PW. and Tyden, T. (1974). Stability and maneuverability performance of different types of bicycles. Technical Report 45 A. [ bib ]
[Calspan, 1974a]
Calspan (1974a). A proposal to develop motorcycle rider training films. Technical report, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
This proposal describes a research program aimed at developing training films utilizing computer graphics techniques for use in motorcycle rider education. The approach is based on applying computer simulations and graphics methods already developed at Calspan to special motorcycle rider training problems. Emphasis has been placed on the off-tracking steering technique for cornering (i. e. the initiation of a turn by first steering out of it) but several other potential applications are identified.


[Davis and Cassidy, 1974]
Davis, JA. and Cassidy, RJ. (1974). The effect of frame properties on bicycling efficiency. Technical report, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
[Hess and Teichgraber, 1974]
Hess, RA. and Teichgraber, WM. (1974). Error quantization effects in compensatory tracking tasks. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-4(4):343–349. [ bib ]
[McRuer and Krendel, 1974]
McRuer, DT. and Krendel, ES. (1974). Mathematical models of human pilot behavior. Technical Report STI-P-146, Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, CA, USA. AGARD AG 188. [ bib ]
[Rice, 1974a]
Rice, RS. (1974a). Bicycle dynamics - simplified state response characteristics and stability indices. Technical report, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 1974]
Sharp, RS. (1974). The influence of frame flexibility on the lateral stability of motorcycles. J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 16(2):117–120. [ bib ]
[Sheridan and Ferrell, 1974]
Sheridan, TB. and Ferrell, WR. (1974). Man-Machine Systems. MIT Press. [ bib ]
[Man, 1974]
(1974). Proceedings of the 10th Annual Congference on Manual Control, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, USA. [ bib ]
[Weir, 1973]
Weir, DH. (1973). A manual control view of motorcycle handling. In Second International Congress of Automotive Safety, number 73018, San Francisco. [ bib ]
Motorcycle handling dynamics and rider control processes are investigated. Lateral-directional control by means of upper body lean and steer torque is analyzed. Rider dynamic response properties, alternative perceptual cues, and motorcycle equations of motion are summarized. The motorcycle degrees of freedom included are lateral velocity, roll angle, heading rate, and front fork steer angle. The resulting motorcycle motions are characterized by a low frequency capisize mode, and two high frequency modes involving weaving and front fork assembly wobble. A number of rider feedback loops (control response to perceptual cues) are reviewed to determine those which satisfy both rider-centered and guidance and control requirements. A representative multiple-loop rider/cycle system control structure is shown, which serves to quantify rider/cycle response and performance, and provide a basis for determining the effect on handling performance of changes in cycle design configuration.


[Eaton and Segel, 1973]
Eaton, DJ. and Segel, L. (1973). Lateral dynamics of the uncontrolled motorcycle. In Second International Congress on Automotive Safety, San Francisco, CA, USA. [ bib ]
[Ellis and Hayhoe, 1973]
Ellis, JR. and Hayhoe, GF. (1973). The steady state and transient handling characteristics of a motorcycle. In Second International Congress on Automotive Safety, San Francisco, CA, USA. [ bib ]
[Hurt, 1973]
Hurt, HH. (1973). Motorcycle handling and collision avoidance: Anatomy of a turn. In Second International Congress on Automotive Safety, San Francisco, CA, USA. [ bib ]
[Roland, 1973c]
Roland, RD. (1973c). Simulation study of motorcycle stability at high speed. In Second International Congress on Automotive Safety, San Francisco. [ bib ]
[Roland, 1973b]
Roland, RD. (1973b). Motorcycle and recreational vehicle safety. In Second International Congress on Automotive Safety, San Francisco, California, USA. [ bib ]
A comprehensive di.gital computer simulation of a two-wheel vehicle and rider has been developed and is being used to study motorcycle stability and handling. The simulation is based on a nonlinear mathematical model with eight degrees of freedom, including steer and rider lean. Tire side force and aligning torque as nonlinear functions of slip angle, camber angle and vertical load, aerodynamic drag, pitching moment and steering torque, steering damping, and gyroscopic effects of the engine and wheels are modeled as well as fork rake angle, steering trail, and the basic physical characteristics of the motorcycle frame, steering assembly, and rider. These parameters are input data to the computer simulation which produces output in the form of time histories of the motion variables of the vehicle. The two-wheel vehicle simulation has been validated by comparison with experimental tests using an instrumented vehicle. A combined analytical and experimental research program has been conducted as a coordinated effort by Calspan Corporation and the Harley-Davidson Motor Company, Inc. to study the weave instability phenomenon which can occur in motorcycles at high speed. "Speedman' s wobble", as it has been called, is characterized by coupled steer-roll-yaw motions of the vehicle and has long been recognized by theoretical dynamicists. The influence of several motorcycle characteristics on weave instability have been evaluated in the context of total system performance by simulating the disturbance-response behavior at high speed.


[Watanabe and Yoshida, 1973]
Watanabe, Y. and Yoshida, K. (1973). Motorcycle handling performance for obstacle avoidance. In Second International Congress on Automotive Safety, San Francisco. [ bib ]
[SAE, 1973]
SAE, editor (1973). Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Automotive Safety, San Francisco, CA, USA. Society of Automotive Engineers. [ bib ]
[Mortimer et al., 1973]
Mortimer, RG., Domas, PA., and Dewar, RE. (1973). The relationship of bicycle maneuverability to handlebar configuration. Technical Report UM-HSRI-HF-TM-73-5, Highway Safety Research Institute, University of Michigan,, Univeristy of Michigan, Huron Parkway & Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. [ bib ]
[Eaton, 1973a]
Eaton, DJ. (1973a). An experimental study of the motorcycle roll stabilization task. In Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference on Manual Control, pages 233–234. [ bib ]
[van Lunteren and Stassen, 1973]
van Lunteren, A. and Stassen, HG. (1973). Parameter estimation in linear models of the human operator in a closed loop with application of deterministic test signals. In Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference on Manual Control. [ bib ]
[Roland and Kunkel, 1973]
Roland, RD. and Kunkel, DT. (1973). Motorcycle dynamics, the effects of design on high speed weave. Calspan Report ZN-5259-K-1, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory. prepared for the Harley-Davidson Motor Company, Inc. [ bib ]
[Roland and Rice, 1973]
Roland, RD. and Rice, RS. (1973). Bicycle dynamics, ride guidance modeling and disturbance response. Calspan Report ZS-5157-K-1, Calspan Corporation. prepared for the Schwinn Bicycle Company. [ bib ]
[Cooper, 1973]
Cooper, KR. (1973). The wind tunnel development of a low drag, partially streamlined motorcycle. DME/NAE Quarterly Bulletin, 4. [ bib ]
[Eaton, 1973b]
Eaton, DJ. (1973b). Man-Machine Dynamics in the Stabilization of Single-Track Vehicles. PhD thesis, University of Michigan. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1973]
Hess, RA. (1973). Nonadjectival rating scales in human response experiments. Human Factors, 15(3):275–280. [ bib ]
[Kunkel and Roland, 1973]
Kunkel, DT. and Roland, RD. (1973). A comparitive evaluation of the schwinn continental and continental-based sprint bicycles. Technical report, Calspan Corporation. [ bib ]
[Lewis, 1973]
Lewis, G. (1973). The manoeuvrability and braking performance of small-wheeled bicycles when ridden by children. Technical Report LR 500, Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL), Department of Environment, Crawthorne, Berkshire. [ bib ]
[Roland, 1973a]
Roland, RD. (1973a). Computer simulation of bicycle dynamics. Mechanics and Sports. ASME. [ bib ]
[Stassen et al., 1973]
Stassen, HG., van Lunteren, A., Brinkman, P., Moolenaar, W., van Dieten, J., de Ron, AJ., Dubois, M. FW., de Haes, H. AU., Kok, JJ., and Veldhuyzen, W. (1973). Progress report january 1970 until january 1973 of the man-machine systems group. Technical report, Delft University of Technology. [ bib ]
[Wilson, 1973]
Wilson, SS. (1973). Bicycle technology. Scientific American, pages 81–92. [ bib ]
[Aut, 1973a]
(1973a). Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Automotive Safety – Volume I, Part One: Motorcycle Safety. [ bib ]
[Aut, 1973b]
(1973b). Proceedings of the second international congress on automotive safety – Volume I, Part Two: Motorcycle Safety. [ bib ]
[Man, 1973]
(1973). Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference on Manual Control. [ bib ]
[Rice and Roland Jr., 1972a]
Rice, RS. and Roland Jr., RD. (1972a). An evaulation of the safety performance of tricycles and minibikes. Technical Report ZN-5144-K-1, Calspan Corp. [ bib ]
[Rice and Roland Jr., 1972b]
Rice, RS. and Roland Jr., RD. (1972b). A supplement to an evaulation of the safety performance of tricycles and minibikes. Technical Report ZN-5144-K-1, Calspan Corp. [ bib ]
[Hess, 1972]
Hess, RA. (1972). An introduction to human describing function and remnant measurement in single loop tracking tasks. Technical Report AFFDL/FGC-TM-72-9, Naval Postgraduate School. [ bib ]
[Roland and Lynch, 1972]
Roland, R. and Lynch, J. (1972). Bicycle dynamics tire characteristics and rider modeling. Calspan Report YA-3063-K-2, Cornell Aeronautical Labaratory, Inc., Buffalo, NY, USA. prepared for the Schwinn Bicycle Company. [ bib ]
[Edwards, 1972]
Edwards, FG. (1972). Determination of pilot and vehicle describing functions from the gemini-10 mission. Technical report, NASA Ames Research Center. [ bib ]
[Lynch and Roland, 1972]
Lynch, JP. and Roland, RD. (1972). Computer animation of a bicycle simulation. In Fall Joint Computer Conference. [ bib ]
[Weir, 1972]
Weir, DH. (1972). Motorcycle Handling Dynamics and Rider Control and the Effect of Design Configuration on Response and Performance. PhD Dissertation, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. [ bib ]
[Ellis and Hayhoe, 1971]
Ellis, JR. and Hayhoe, GF. (1971). The steering geometry of a single-track vehicle. In Second International Congress on Vehicle Mechanics, Paris, France. University of Paris. [ bib ]
[Roland Jr. and Massing, 1971]
Roland Jr., RD. and Massing, DE. (1971). A digital computer simulation of bicycle dynamics. Calspan Report YA-3063-K-1, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., Buffalo, NY, 14221. Prepared for Schwinn Bicycle Company, Chicago, IL 60639. [ bib ]
[Rice, 1971]
Rice, RS. (1971). Are high-rise bikes safe? Traffic Safety, 71(1):8–9. [ bib ]
[Sharp, 1971]
Sharp, RS. (1971). Stability and control of motorcycles. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 13(5):316–329. [ bib ]
[Singh and Goel, 1971]
Singh, DV. and Goel, VK. (1971). Stability of rajdoot scooter. Technical report, SAE. SAE Paper 710273. [ bib ]
[Wingrove, 1971]
Wingrove, R. (1971). Comparison of methods for identifying pilot describing functions from closed-loop operating records. NASA technical note. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. [ bib | http ]
[van Lunteren and Stassen, 1970c]
van Lunteren, A. and Stassen, HG. (1970c). On the variance of the bicycle rider's behavior. In Procedings of the 6th Annual Conference on Manual Control, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. [ bib ]
The behavior of a rider stabilizing a bicycle simulator has been studied. THe simulater used deomonstrates a reasonable similarity to a normal bicycle; the forward motion is missing, however, its effects on the dynamics of the simulator are take into account.
The behavior of the cyclist has been described by the describing functions between the input of the rider, viz. the frame angle, and the outputs, viz. the rotations of handle bar and upper body. The parameters of he model in this way obtained were determined using an on-line open loop parameter estimation method. For low values of teh remnants the bias due to teh use of an open loop method in a closed loop system is small.
It has been found that the behavior of the rider is time-independent over at least five minutes. Futhermore, if σ_a is the mean value of the standard deviation of the parameters for one subject within one test, if σ_b is the mean value of the standard deviation for one subject over a number of tests, and if σ_c is teh mean value of the standard deviation for a group of subjects, then the relation between these quantities can be approximated by σ_a:σ_bσ_c=1:2:3:.


[Rice and Roland, 1970]
Rice, RS. and Roland, RD. (1970). An evaluation of the performance and handling qualities of bicycles. Calspan Report VJ-2888-K, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory. prepared for the National Commission on Product Safety. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle
[Jones, 1970]
Jones, D. EH. (1970). The stability of the bicycle. Physics Today, 23(4):34–40. [ bib ]
[van Lunteren and Stassen, 1970a]
van Lunteren, A. and Stassen, HG. (1970a). Investigations on the bicycle simulator. Chapter III of Annual Report 1969 of the Man-Machine Systems Group WTHD21, Delft University of Technology, Laboratory for Measurement and Control. [ bib ]
[van Lunteren and Stassen, 1970b]
van Lunteren, A. and Stassen, HG. (1970b). On the influence of drugs on the behavior of a bicycle rider. In Sixth Annual Conference on Manual Control, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. [ bib ]
[Weir and McRuer, 1970]
Weir, D. and McRuer, D. (1970). Dynamics of driver vehicle steering control. Automatica, 6(1):87 – 98. [ DOI | bib | http ]
The view point and principles of guidance and control theory provide the basis for analyzing the dynamics of driver steering control of motor vehicles. The resultant driver/vehicle system has as its elements the vehicle equations of motion, experimentally derived models for the human operator's dynamic response characteristics, and descriptions of the roadway environment. A variety of single-loop and multiloop systems are synthesized and examined to select several good, simple, and likely alternative configurations: time-advanced lateral deviation, path angle (or rate) plus inertial lateral deviation, and heading angle (or rate) plus inertial lateral deviation. These do not included all the possible multiloop driver/vehicle structures potentially capable of satisfying guidance and control requirements, but they do provide good performance in command-following and disturbance regulation, insensitivity to variations in the driver's dynamic adaptation, and good predicted subjective opinion from the driver. They are not inconsistent with perceptual data from recent driver experiments. The resultant models provide a new framework for devising future experiments, and can aid the vehicle and highway design process.


[McRuer and Weir, 1969a]
McRuer, D. and Weir, D. (1969a). Theory of manual vehicular control. Man-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 10(4):257–291. [ DOI | bib ]
The analytical basis of manual vehicular control theory is a combination of feedback systems analysis and mathematical models for human operators engaged in control tasks. Simplified representations for the operator-system combination are provided by the 'crossover model', which is described in detail. The system dynamics and average performance of the crossover model system are developed. With these as bases, case studies are presented to illustrate the types of result which can be obtained from application of the operator-vehicle control theory. Two aircraft control examples illustrate the use of the theory and its empirical correlates to estimate operator dynamic characteristics, system performance, pilot ratings, pilot commentary, design implications, and some experimental guidelines. A driver automobile example is presented to illustrate the use of the theory in structuring the key guidance and control features of the driver's visual field. A comprehensive bibliography of operator-vehicle system analysis applications is also provided.


[van Lunteren and Stassen, 1969]
van Lunteren, A. and Stassen, HG. (1969). On-line parameter estimation of the human transfer in a man-bicycle system. In Technical sessions, 4th congress of IFAC, number 70.3, pages 41–55, Warsaw, Poland. [ bib ]
[Cooper and Harper Jr., 1969]
Cooper, RJ. and Harper Jr., RP. (1969). The use of pilot rating scales in the evaluation of aircraft handling qualities. Technical Note TN D-5153, NASA. [ bib ]
[Stassen, 1969]
Stassen, H. (1969). The polarity coincidence correlation technique - a useful tool in the analysis of human-operator dynamics. Man-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 10(1):34–39. [ DOI | bib ]
The paper describes a special correlation technique. It is shown that a two-state characterization of a random process leads to a simple correlation procedure, called the "polarity coincidence correlation method." The utility of the method in dynamics studies of man-machine systems, its limitations, its assumptions, and, finally, the accuracy due to a finite time of observation are discussed.


[Clauser et al., 1969]
Clauser, CE., McConville, JT., and Young, JW. (1969). Weight, volume and center of mass of segments of the human body. Technical Report AMRL TR 69-70, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. NTIS No. AD-710 622. [ bib ]
[McRuer and Weir, 1969b]
McRuer, DT. and Weir, DH. (1969b). Theory of manual vehicular control. Ergonomics, 12(4):599–633. [ bib ]
[Wingrove et al., 1969]
Wingrove, R., Edwards, F., and Center, AR. (1969). A technique for identifying pilot describing functions from routine flight-test records. NASA technical note. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. [ bib | http ]
[Reiss and Haley, 1968]
Reiss, ML. and Haley, JA. (1968). Motorcycle saftey. Technical report, Airborne Instruments Lab, Final Report. Contract FH-11-6543. [ bib ]
[McRuer et al., 1968]
McRuer, DT., Magdaleno, RE., and Moore, GP. (1968). A neuromuscular actuation system model. IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems, 9(3):61–71. [ bib ]
[Wingrove and Edwards, 1968]
Wingrove, R. and Edwards, F. (1968). Measurement of pilot describing functions from flight test data with an example from gemini x. Man-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 9(3):49 –55. [ DOI