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@article{Abbiss2005,
  author = {Abbiss, CR and Laursen, PB},
  title = {Models to explain fatigue during prolonged endurance cycling},
  journal = {SPORTS MEDICINE},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {865-898},
  number = {10},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Abbiss2005},
  issn = {0112-1642},
  unique-id = {ISI:000232783500004}
}
@article{Abbiss2008,
  author = {Abbiss, Chris R. and Laursen, Paul B.},
  title = {Describing and understanding pacing strategies during athletic competition},
  journal = {SPORTS MEDICINE},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {38},
  pages = {239-252},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Abbiss2008},
  issn = {0112-1642},
  unique-id = {ISI:000254196700004}
}
@article{Atkinson2007,
  author = {Atkinson, G. and Peacock, O. and Passfield, L.},
  title = {Variable versus constant power strategies during cycling time-trials:
	Prediction of time savings using an up-to-date mathematical model},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {1001-1009},
  number = {9},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Atkinson2007},
  doi = {10.1080/02640410600944709},
  issn = {0264-0414},
  unique-id = {ISI:000246519300007}
}
@article{Behncke1997,
  author = {Behncke, H},
  title = {Optimization models for the force and energy in competitive running},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL BIOLOGY},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {375-390},
  number = {4},
  month = {MAR},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Behncke1997},
  issn = {0303-6812},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1997WQ35200001}
}
@article{Behncke1993,
  author = {Behncke, H},
  title = {A Mathematical-Model for the Force and Energetics in Competitive
	Running},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL BIOLOGY},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {31},
  pages = {853-878},
  number = {8},
  month = {OCT},
  abstract = {A simple mathematical model for competitive running is developed.
	This model contains the force and energy reserves as key variables
	and it describes their relationship and dynamics. It is made up of
	three submodels for the biomechanics of running, the energetics and
	the optimization. The model for the energetics is an extension of
	the hydraulic model of Margaria and Morton. The key geometric parameters
	of this piecewise linear, three compartment model are determined
	on the basis of well known physiological facts and data.},
  address = {175 FIFTH AVE, NEW YORK, NY 10010},
  affiliation = {BEHNCKE, H (Reprint Author), UNIV OSNABRUCK,FACHBEREICH MATH,ALBRECHTSTR
	28,D-49069 OSNABRUCK,GERMANY.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Behncke1993},
  doc-delivery-number = {MD367},
  issn = {0303-6812},
  journal-iso = {J. Math. Biol.},
  keywords = {ATHLETICS; RUNNING; FORCE; ENERGY; HYDRAULIC MODEL},
  keywords-plus = {ENERGY},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {24},
  publisher = {SPRINGER VERLAG},
  subject-category = {Biology; Mathematical \& Computational Biology},
  times-cited = {5},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1993MD36700006}
}
@article{Billat1999,
  author = {Billat, LV and Koralsztein, JP and Morton, RH},
  title = {Time in human endurance models - From empirical models to physiological
	models},
  journal = {SPORTS MEDICINE},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {27},
  pages = {359-379},
  number = {6},
  month = {JUN},
  abstract = {This article traces the study of interrelationships between power
	output, work done, velocity maintained or distance covered and the
	endurance time taken to achieve that objective. During the first
	half of the twentieth century, scientists examined world running
	records for distances from <100m to >1000km. Such examinations were
	empirical in nature, involving mainly graphical and crude curve-fitting
	techniques. These and later studies developed the use of distance/time
	or power/time models and attempted to use the parameters of these
	models to characterise the endurance capabilities of athletes. More
	recently, physiologists have proposed theoretical models based on
	the bioenergetic characteristics of humans (i.e. maximal power, maximal
	aerobic and anaerobic capacity and the control dynamics of the system).
	These models have become increasingly complex but they do not provide
	sound physiological and mathematical descriptions of the human bioenergetic
	system and its observed performance ability. Finally, we are able
	to propose new parameters that can be integrated into the modelling
	of the power/time relationship to explain the variability in endurance
	time limit at the same relative exercise power (e.g. 100\% maximal
	oxygen uptake).},
  address = {41 CENTORIAN DR, PRIVATE BAG 65901, MAIRANGI BAY, AUCKLAND 10, NEW
	ZEALAND},
  affiliation = {Billat, LV (Reprint Author), Ctr Communal Act Sociale, Ctr Sports
	Med, 2 Ave Richerand, F-75010 Paris, France. Ctr Communal Act Sociale,
	Ctr Sports Med, F-75010 Paris, France. Univ Paris 05, Lab Sci \&
	Tech Activites Phys \& Sport, Paris, France. Massey Univ, Inst Food
	Nutr \& Human Hlth, Palmerston North, New Zealand.},
  author-email = {Veronique.Billat@wanadoo.fr},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Billat1999},
  doc-delivery-number = {214XE},
  issn = {0112-1642},
  journal-iso = {Sports Med.},
  keywords-plus = {CRITICAL POWER; HUMAN BIOENERGETICS; ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD; UPTAKE KINETICS;
	SLOW COMPONENT; MAXIMAL POWER; EXHAUSTION; VELOCITY; EXERCISE; VO2MAX},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {79},
  publisher = {ADIS INTERNATIONAL LTD},
  subject-category = {Sport Sciences},
  times-cited = {13},
  type = {Review},
  unique-id = {ISI:000081352200002}
}
@article{Defraeye2010,
  author = {Defraeye, Thijs and Blocken, Bert and Koninckx, Erwin and Hespel,
	Peter and Carmeliet, Jan},
  title = {Aerodynamic study of different cyclist positions: CFD analysis and
	full-scale wind-tunnel tests},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {1262-1268},
  number = {7},
  month = {MAY 7},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Defraeye2010},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.01.025},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  unique-id = {ISI:000277866500005}
}
@article{Dekerle2006,
  author = {Dekerle, J and Brickley, G and Hammond, AJP and Pringle, JSM and
	Carter, H},
  title = {Validity of the two-parameter model in estimating the anaerobic work
	capacity},
  journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {96},
  pages = {257-264},
  number = {3},
  month = {FEB},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Dekerle2006},
  doi = {10.1007/s00421-005-0074-8},
  issn = {1439-6319},
  unique-id = {ISI:000235139000006}
}
@article{Foster2003,
  author = {Foster, C and De Koning, JJ and Hettinga, F and Lampen, J and La
	Clair, KL and Dodge, C and Bobbert, M and Porcari, JP},
  title = {Pattern of energy expenditure during simulated competition},
  journal = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {826-831},
  number = {5},
  month = {MAY},
  abstract = {Purpose: To determine how athletes spontaneously use their energetic
	reserves when the only instruction was to finish in minimal time.
	and whether experience from repeated performance changes the strategy
	of recreational athletes. Methods: Recreational road cyclists/speed
	skaters (N = 9) completed three laboratory time trials of 1500 in
	on a windload braked cycle. The pattern of energy use was calculated
	from total work and from the work attributable to aerobic metabolism,
	which allowed computation of anaerobic energy use. Regional level
	speed skaters (N = 8) also performed a single 1500-m time trial with
	the same protocol and measurements. Results: The serial trials were
	completed in (mean +/- SD) 133.8 +/- 6.6, 133.9 +/- 5.8, 133.8 +/-
	5.5 s (P > 0.05 among trials): and in 125.7 +/- 10.9 s in the skaters
	(P < 0.05 vs cyclists). The (V) over dot O-2peak during the terminal
	200 m was similar within trials (3.23 +/- 0.44, 3.34 +/- 0.44. 3.30
	+/- 0.51 (P > 0.05)) versus 3.91 +/- 0.68 L.min(-1) in the skaters
	(P < 0.05 vs cyclists). In all events, the initial power output and
	anaerobic energy use was high and decayed to a more or less constant
	value (similar to25\% of peak) over the remainder of the event. Contrary
	to predictions based on an assumed ``all out{''} starting strategy,
	the subjects reserved some of their ability to perform anaerobic
	work for a terminal acceleration. The total work accomplished was
	not different between trials (43.53, 43.78, and 47.48 kJ in the recreational
	athletes, or between the cyclists and skaters (47.79 kJ). The work
	attributable to anaerobic sources was not different between the ride.,
	(20.67. 20.53, and 21.12 kJ in the recreational athletes). In the
	skaters, the work attributable to anaerobic sources was significantly
	larger versus the cyclists (24.67 kJ). Conclusion: Energy expenditure
	during high-intensity cycling seems: 1) to be expended in a manner
	that allows the athlete to preserve an anaerobic energetic contribution
	throughout an event, 2) does not appear to have a large learning
	effect in already well trained cyclists, and 3) anaerobic energy
	expenditure may be the performance discriminating factor among groups
	of athletes.},
  address = {530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA},
  affiliation = {Foster, C (Reprint Author), Univ Wisconsin, Dept Exercise \& Sport
	Sci, La Crosse, WI 54601 USA. Univ Wisconsin, Dept Exercise \& Sport
	Sci, La Crosse, WI 54601 USA. Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Human Movement
	Sci, IFKB, Amsterdam, Netherlands.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Foster2003},
  doc-delivery-number = {675UH},
  doi = {10.1249/01.MSS.0000065001.17658.68},
  issn = {0195-9131},
  journal-iso = {Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.},
  keywords = {anaerobic exercise; sports performance; cycling; anaerobic capacity},
  keywords-plus = {ANAEROBIC CAPACITY; PACING STRATEGY; SKELETAL-MUSCLE; MAXIMAL WORK;
	PERFORMANCE; EXERCISE; CYCLISTS; LACTATE; OXYGEN; CYCLE},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {32},
  publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS \& WILKINS},
  subject-category = {Sport Sciences},
  times-cited = {37},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000182714200016}
}
@article{Fukuba2003,
  author = {Fukuba, Y and Miura, A and Endo, M and Kan, A and Yanagawa, K and
	Whipp, BJ},
  title = {The curvature constant parameter of the power-duration curve for
	varied-power exercise},
  journal = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {1413-1418},
  number = {8},
  month = {AUG},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Fukuba2003},
  doi = {10.1249/01.MSS.0000079047.84364.70},
  issn = {0195-9131},
  unique-id = {ISI:000184527600024}
}
@article{GarciaLopez2008,
  author = {Garcia-Lopez, Juan and Antonio Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jose and Juneau,
	Carl-Etienne and Peleteiro, Jose and Cordova Martinez, Alfredo and
	Gerardo Villa, Jose},
  title = {Reference values and improvement of aerodynamic drag in professional
	cyclists},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {277-286},
  number = {3},
  abstract = {The aims of this study were to measure the aerodynamic drag in professional
	cyclists, to obtain aerodynamic drag reference values in static and
	effort positions, to improve the cyclists' aerodynamic drag by modifying
	their position and cycle equipment, and to evaluate the advantages
	and disadvantages of these modifications. The study was performed
	in a wind tunnel with five professional cyclists. Four positions
	were assessed with a time-trial bike and one position with a standard
	racing bike. In all positions, aerodynamic drag and kinematic variables
	were recorded. The drag area for the time-trial bike was 31\% higher
	in the effort than static position, and lower than for the standard
	racing bike. Changes in the cyclists' position decreased the aerodynamic
	drag by 14\%. The aero-helmet was not favourable for all cyclists.
	The reliability of aerodynamic drag measures in the wind tunnel was
	high (r > 0.96, coefficient of variation < 2\%). In conclusion, we
	measured and improved the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.
	Our results were better than those of other researchers who did not
	assess aerodynamic drag during effort at race pace and who employed
	different wheels. The efficiency of the aero-helmet, and the validity,
	reliability, and sensitivity of the wind tunnel and aerodynamic field
	testing were addressed.},
  address = {4 PARK SQUARE, MILTON PARK, ABINGDON OX14 4RN, OXON, ENGLAND},
  affiliation = {Garcia-Lopez, J (Reprint Author), Univ Leon, C Campus Vegazana, E-24071
	Leon, Spain. [Garcia-Lopez, Juan; Antonio Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jose;
	Peleteiro, Jose; Gerardo Villa, Jose] Univ Leon, E-24071 Leon, Spain.
	[Juneau, Carl-Etienne] Univ Montreal, Dept Kinesiol, Montreal, PQ,
	Canada. [Cordova Martinez, Alfredo] Univ Valladolid, Dept Physiol
	\& Biochem, Valladolid, Spain.},
  author-email = {juan.garcia@unileon.es},
  doc-delivery-number = {251DE},
  doi = {10.1080/02640410701501697},
  issn = {0264-0414},
  journal-iso = {J. Sports Sci.},
  keywords = {biomechanics; aerodynamics; cycling; wind tunnel; time-trial},
  keywords-plus = {PROJECTED FRONTAL AREA; POWER OUTPUT; BODY-MASS; SRM; RELIABILITY;
	PERFORMANCE; RESISTANCE; VALIDITY; POSITION; WHEELS},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {39},
  publisher = {TAYLOR \& FRANCIS LTD},
  subject-category = {Sport Sciences},
  times-cited = {3},
  type = {Article},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#GarciaLopez2008},
  unique-id = {ISI:000252350300007}
}
@conference{Harman2002,
  author = {Harman, Chris},
  title = {A biomechanical power model for world-class 400 metre running},
  booktitle = {Sixth Australian conference on mathematics and computing in sport},
  year = {2002},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Harman2002}
}
@article{Hendrix2009,
  author = {Hendrix, C. Russell and Housh, Terry J. and Mielke, Michelle and
	Zuniga, Jorge M. and Camic, Clayton L. and Johnson, Glen O. and Schmidt,
	Richard J.},
  title = {Critical Torque, Estimated Time to Exhaustion, and Anaerobic Work
	Capacity from Linear and Nonlinear Mathematical Models},
  journal = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {41},
  pages = {2185-2190},
  number = {12},
  month = {DEC},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hendrix2009},
  doi = {10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ab8cc0},
  issn = {0195-9131},
  unique-id = {ISI:000272133100011}
}
@article{Hill2003,
  author = {Hill, DW and Alain, C and Kennedy, MD},
  title = {Modeling the relationship between velocity and time to fatigue in
	rowing},
  journal = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {35},
  pages = {2098-2105},
  number = {12},
  month = {DEC},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Hill2003},
  doi = {10.1249/01.MSS.0000099111.78949.0E},
  issn = {0195-9131},
  unique-id = {ISI:000187241800022}
}
@article{Jenkins1992,
  author = {Jenkins, DG and Quigley, BM},
  title = {Endurance Training Enhances Critical Power},
  journal = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {1283-1289},
  number = {11},
  month = {NOV},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jenkins1992},
  issn = {0195-9131},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1992JX32800014}
}
@article{Johnson2007,
  author = {Johnson, Michael A. and Sharpe, Graham R. and Brown, Peter I.},
  title = {Inspiratory muscle training improves cycling time-trial performance
	and anaerobic work capacity but not critical power},
  journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {101},
  pages = {761-770},
  number = {6},
  month = {DEC},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Johnson2007},
  doi = {10.1007/s00421-007-0551-3},
  issn = {1439-6319},
  unique-id = {ISI:000250117200013}
}
@article{Jones2000,
  author = {Jones, AM and Carter, H},
  title = {The effect of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness},
  journal = {SPORTS MEDICINE},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {373-386},
  number = {6},
  month = {JUN},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jones2000},
  issn = {0112-1642},
  unique-id = {ISI:000087697200001}
}
@article{Jones2002,
  author = {Jones, AM and Whipp, BJ},
  title = {Bioenergetic constraints on tactical decision making in middle distance
	running},
  journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {36},
  pages = {102-104},
  number = {2},
  month = {APR},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jones2002},
  issn = {0306-3674},
  unique-id = {ISI:000174940700011}
}
@article{Jones2010,
  author = {Jones, Andrew M. and Vanhatalo, Anni and Burnley, Mark and Morton, R.
	Hugh and Poole, David C.},
  title = {Critical Power: Implications for Determination of (V) over dotO(2max)
	and Exercise Tolerance},
  journal = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {42},
  number = {10},
  pages = {1876-1890},
  month = {OCT},
  abstract = {JONES, A. M., A. VANHATALO, M. BURNLEY, R. H. MORTON, and D. C. POOLE.
	Critical Power: Implications for Determination of (V) over dotO(2max)
	and Exercise Tolerance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 10, pp.
	1876-1890, 2010. For high-intensity muscular exercise, the
	time-to-exhaustion (t) increases as a predictable and hyperbolic
	function of decreasing power (P) or velocity (V). This relationship is
	highly conserved across diverse species and different modes of exercise
	and is well described by two parameters: the ``critical power'' (CP or
	CV), which is the asymptote for power or velocity, and the curvature
	constant (W') of the relationship such that t = W'/(P - CP). CP
	represents the highest rate of energy transduction (oxidative ATP
	production, (V) over dotO(2)) that can be sustained without
	continuously drawing on the energy store W' (composed in part of
	anaerobic energy sources and expressed in kilojoules). The limit of
	tolerance (time t) occurs when W' is depleted. The CP concept
	constitutes a practical framework in which to explore mechanisms of
	fatigue and help resolve crucial questions regarding the plasticity of
	exercise performance and muscular systems physiology. This brief review
	presents the practical and theoretical foundations for the CP concept,
	explores rigorous alternative mathematical approaches, and highlights
	exciting new evidence regarding its mechanistic bases and its broad
	applicability to human athletic performance.},
  publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS \& WILKINS},
  address = {530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA},
  type = {Article},
  language = {English},
  affiliation = {Jones, AM (Reprint Author), Univ Exeter, Sch Sport \& Hlth Sci, Heavitree Rd, Exeter EX1 2LU, Devon, England.
	{[}Jones, Andrew M.; Vanhatalo, Anni] Univ Exeter, Sch Sport \& Hlth Sci, Exeter EX1 2LU, Devon, England.
	{[}Burnley, Mark] Aberystwyth Univ, Dept Sport \& Exercise Sci, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Wales.
	{[}Morton, R. Hugh] Massey Univ, Inst Food Nutr \& Human Hlth, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
	{[}Poole, David C.] Kansas State Univ, Dept Kinesiol, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA.
	{[}Poole, David C.] Kansas State Univ, Dept Anat, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA.
	{[}Poole, David C.] Kansas State Univ, Dept Physiol, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA.},
  doi = {10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d9cf7f},
  issn = {0195-9131},
  keywords = {FATIGUE; EXERCISE INTENSITY DOMAINS; (V) over dotO(2) KINETICS;
	ANAEROBIC CAPACITY; ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE; MAGNETIC RESONANCE
	SPECTROSCOPY},
  keywords-plus = {HIGH-INTENSITY EXERCISE; OUT CYCLING TEST; CURVATURE CONSTANT
	PARAMETER; MUSCLE METABOLIC-RESPONSES; ACCUMULATED OXYGEN DEFICIT; O-2
	UPTAKE KINETICS; CRITICAL VELOCITY; DURATION RELATIONSHIP; WORK
	CAPACITY; CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION},
  subject-category = {Sport Sciences},
  author-email = {a.m.jones@exeter.ac.uk},
  number-of-cited-references = {84},
  times-cited = {0},
  journal-iso = {Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.},
  doc-delivery-number = {654SH},
  unique-id = {ISI:000282188300011},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Jones2010}
}
@article{Katz1999,
  author = {Katz, JS and Katz, L},
  title = {Power laws and athletic performance},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {467-476},
  number = {6},
  month = {JUN},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Katz1999},
  issn = {0264-0414},
  unique-id = {ISI:000081217600004}
}
@article{Keller2000,
  author = {Keller, JB},
  title = {Optimal running strategy to escape from pursuers},
  journal = {AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {107},
  pages = {416-421},
  number = {5},
  month = {MAY},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Keller2000},
  issn = {0002-9890},
  unique-id = {ISI:000087388300003}
}
@article{Keller1974,
  author = {Keller, JB},
  title = {Optimal Velocity in a Race},
  journal = {AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL MONTHLY},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {81},
  pages = {474-480},
  number = {5},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Keller1974},
  issn = {0002-9890},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1974S909900003}
}
@article{deKoning1999,
  author = {de Koning, JJ and Bobbert, M and Foster, C},
  title = {Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an
	energy flow model},
  journal = {Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {266 - 277},
  number = {3},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#deKoning1999},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/S1440-2440(99)80178-9},
  issn = {1440-2440},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B82X6-4HTKDSH-C/2/7e7d2445ee03b1a76017a4a881c17a25}
}
@article{Maronski1996,
  author = {Maronski, R},
  title = {Minimum-time running and swimming: Bn optimal control approach},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {29},
  pages = {245-249},
  number = {2},
  month = {FEB},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Maronski1996},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1996TP16100013}
}
@article{Martin1998,
  author = {Martin, JC and Milliken, DL and Cobb, JE and McFadden, KL and Coggan, AR},
  title = {Validation of a mathematical model for road cycling power},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMECHANICS},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {14},
  number = {3},
  pages = {276-291},
  month = {AUG},
  abstract = {This investigation sought to determine if cycling power could be
	accurately modeled, A mathematical model of cycling power was derived,
	and values for each model parameter were determined. A bicycle-mounted
	power measurement system was validated by comparison with a laboratory
	ergometer. Power was measured during road cycling, and the measured
	values were compared with the values predicted by the model. The
	measured values Tor power were highly correlated (R-2 = .97) with, and
	were not different than, the modeled values. The standard error between
	the modeled and measured power (2.7 W) was very small. The model was
	also used to estimate the effects of changes in several model
	parameters on cycling velocity. Over the range of parameter values
	evaluated, velocity varied linearly (R-2 > .99). Thr results
	demonstrated that cycling power can be accurately predicted by a
	mathematical model.},
  publisher = {HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC},
  address = {1607 N MARKET ST, CHAMPAIGN, IL 61820-2200 USA},
  type = {Article},
  language = {English},
  affiliation = {Martin, JC (Reprint Author), Univ Texas, Dept Kinesiol \& Hlth Educ, Motor Control Lab, Austin, TX 78712 USA.
	Univ Texas, Dept Kinesiol \& Hlth Educ, Motor Control Lab, Austin, TX 78712 USA.
	Milliken Res Assoc Inc, Williamsville, NY 14221 USA.
	Bicycle Sports, Shreveport, LA 71105 USA.
	Gen Motors Vehicle Aerodynam Lab, Warren, MI 48090 USA.
	Univ Texas, Med Branch, Shriners Burns Inst, Metab Unit, Galveston, TX 77550 USA.
	Univ Texas, Med Branch, Dept Anesthesiol, Galveston, TX 77550 USA.},
  issn = {1065-8483},
  keywords = {aerodynamic drag; rolling resistance; air velocity gradient},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Biomedical; Sport Sciences},
  number-of-cited-references = {0},
  times-cited = {69},
  journal-iso = {J. Appl. Biomech.},
  doc-delivery-number = {106BN},
  unique-id = {ISI:000075110000003},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Martin1998}
}
@article{Miura2002,
  author = {Miura, A and Endo, M and Sato, H and Sato, H and Barstow, TJ and
	Fukuba, Y},
  title = {Relationship between the curvature constant parameter of the power-duration
	curve and muscle cross-sectional area of the thigh for cycle ergometry
	in humans},
  journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {87},
  pages = {238-244},
  number = {3},
  month = {JUL},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Miura2002},
  doi = {10.1007/s00421-002-0623-3},
  issn = {1439-6319},
  unique-id = {ISI:000177173200007}
}
@article{Miura2000,
  author = {Miura, A and Sato, H and Sato, H and Whipp, BJ and Fukuba, Y},
  title = {The effect of glycogen depletion on the curvature constant parameter
	of the power-duration curve for cycle ergometry},
  journal = {ERGONOMICS},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {133-141},
  number = {1},
  month = {JAN},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Miura2000},
  issn = {0014-0139},
  unique-id = {ISI:000084682800008}
}
@article{Morton2006,
  author = {Morton, RH},
  title = {The critical power and related whole-body bioenergetic models},
  journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {96},
  pages = {339-354},
  number = {4},
  month = {MAR},
  abstract = {This paper takes a performance-based approach to review the broad
	expanse of literature relating to whole-body models of human bioenergetics.
	It begins with an examination of the critical power model and its
	assumptions. Although remarkably robust, this model has a number
	of shortcomings. Attention to these has led to the development of
	more realistic and more detailed derivatives of the critical power
	model. The mathematical solutions to and associated behaviour of
	these models when subjected to imposed ``exercise{''} can be applied
	as a means of gaining a deeper understanding of the bioenergetics
	of human exercise performance.},
  address = {233 SPRING STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10013 USA},
  affiliation = {Morton, RH (Reprint Author), Massey Univ, Inst Food Nutr \& Human
	Hlth, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Massey Univ,
	Inst Food Nutr \& Human Hlth, Palmerston North, New Zealand.},
  author-email = {h.morton@massey.ac.nz},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Morton2006},
  doc-delivery-number = {017PD},
  doi = {10.1007/s00421-005-0088-2},
  issn = {1439-6319},
  journal-iso = {Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.},
  keywords = {anaerobic work capacity; energy; endurance; exercise; metabolism;
	performance},
  keywords-plus = {ANAEROBIC WORK CAPACITY; HIGH-INTENSITY EXERCISE; CYCLE ERGOMETER
	EXERCISE; OXYGEN-UPTAKE KINETICS; CRITICAL VELOCITY; RAMP EXERCISE;
	MATHEMATICAL-MODEL; TIME RELATIONSHIP; MIDDLE-DISTANCE; CREATINE
	SUPPLEMENTATION},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {125},
  publisher = {SPRINGER},
  subject-category = {Physiology; Sport Sciences},
  times-cited = {19},
  type = {Review},
  unique-id = {ISI:000235704600001}
}
@article{Morton1990,
  author = {MORTON, RH},
  title = {Modeling Human Power and Endurance},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL BIOLOGY},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {49-64},
  number = {1},
  address = {175 FIFTH AVE, NEW YORK, NY 10010},
  affiliation = {MORTON, RH (Reprint Author), MASSEY UNIV,DEPT MATH \& STAT,PALMERSTON
	NORTH,NEW ZEALAND.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Morton1990},
  doc-delivery-number = {CK758},
  issn = {0303-6812},
  journal-iso = {J. Math. Biol.},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {44},
  publisher = {SPRINGER VERLAG},
  subject-category = {Biology; Mathematical \& Computational Biology},
  times-cited = {11},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1990CK75800004}
}
@article{Morton1986,
  author = {Morton, RH},
  title = {ON A MODEL OF HUMAN BIOENERGETICS .2. MAXIMAL POWER AND ENDURANCE},
  journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY AND OCCUPATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {413-418},
  number = {4},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Morton1986},
  issn = {0301-5548},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1986D439700014}
}
@article{Morton1986a,
  author = {Morton, RH},
  title = {A Three component model of human bioenergetics},
  journal = {Journal of Mathematical Biology},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {451-466},
  number = {4},
  month = {July},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Morton1986a},
  doi = {10.1007/BF01236892}
}
@article{Morton1985,
  author = {Morton, RH},
  title = {A Mathematical and Computer-Simulation Model of the Running Athlete},
  journal = {BULLETIN OF THE AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {32},
  pages = {469-472},
  number = {3},
  month = {DEC},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Morton1985},
  issn = {0004-9727},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1985AYL6900017}
}
@article{Morton1985a,
  author = {Morton, RH},
  title = {Two-Dimensional Short-Term Model of Oxygen-Uptake Kinetics},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {58},
  pages = {1736-1740},
  number = {5},
  address = {9650 ROCKVILLE PIKE, BETHESDA, MD 20814},
  affiliation = {MORTON, RH (Reprint Author), MASSEY UNIV,DEPT MATH \& STAT,PALMERSTON
	NORTH,NEW ZEALAND.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Morton1985a},
  doc-delivery-number = {AHF59},
  issn = {8750-7587},
  journal-iso = {J. Appl. Physiol.},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {29},
  publisher = {AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC},
  subject-category = {Physiology; Sport Sciences},
  times-cited = {15},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1985AHF5900050}
}
@article{Morton1985b,
  author = {Morton, RH},
  title = {On a Model of Human Bioenergetics},
  journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY AND OCCUPATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {285-290},
  number = {3},
  address = {175 FIFTH AVE, NEW YORK, NY 10010},
  affiliation = {MORTON, RH (Reprint Author), MASSEY UNIV,DEPT MATH \& STAT,PALMERSTON
	NORTH,NEW ZEALAND.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Morton1985b},
  doc-delivery-number = {ARY23},
  issn = {0301-5548},
  journal-iso = {Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol.},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {10},
  publisher = {SPRINGER VERLAG},
  subject-category = {Physiology; Sport Sciences},
  times-cited = {8},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1985ARY2300009}
}
@article{Morton2004,
  author = {Morton, RH and Billat, LV},
  title = {The critical power model for intermittent exercise},
  journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {91},
  pages = {303-307},
  number = {2-3},
  month = {MAR},
  abstract = {This paper develops and illustrates the critical power model for intermittent
	work. Model theoretic development reveals that total endurance time
	is always a step function of one or more of the four independent
	variables: work interval power output (P-w), rest interval power
	output (P-r), work interval duration (t(w)), and rest interval duration
	(t(r)). Six endurance-trained male athletes recorded their best performances
	during the season in 3-, 5-, and 10-km races, and performed three
	different intermittent running tests to exhaustion in random order,
	recording their total endurance times. These data were used to illustrate
	the model and compare anaerobic distance capacities (alpha) and critical
	velocities (beta) estimated from each type of exercise. Good fits
	of the model to data were obtained in all cases: 0.954


@article{Morton2009,
  author = {Morton, R. Hugh},
  title = {A new modelling approach demonstrating the inability to make up for
	lost time in endurance running events},
  journal = {IMA JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT MATHEMATICS},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {109-120},
  number = {2},
  month = {APR},
  abstract = {The tolerable duration of high-intensity exercise can be described
	by a simple hyperbolic function of power or velocity, with an asymptote
	referred to as the `critical power/velocity' and a curvature constant
	referred to as the `anaerobic work/distance capacity'. More recently,
	this hyperbola has been generalized by permitting a non-zero temporal
	asymptote. Using this three-parameter model, we consider the consequences
	of running the initial part of a race at a speed different from the
	constant rate proscribed by the hyperbola. We show that for any distance
	split, an improved time is achievable and that the least time occurs
	when both parts of the race are run at speeds determined by applying
	the hyperbola to each part. Further improvement is possible by an
	appropriate selection of initial distance, with the first part being
	run at a higher speed than the second. Still further improvement
	is possible if the athlete follows an all-out running strategy, and
	we prove that for this model an all-out strategy is uniquely optimal.
	Significant performance gains appear possible for events of less
	than 10-min duration. Thus, under this model, an athlete, who at
	any time during a race drops below their all-out pace, can never
	make up for lost time. This result is contrary to conventional wisdom.
	Accordingly, we examine some recent empirical evidence which confirms
	the predicted nature of all-out power development over short time
	periods and suggests that pace variation, at least to some degree,
	may not be as suboptimal as previously assumed.},
  address = {GREAT CLARENDON ST, OXFORD OX2 6DP, ENGLAND},
  affiliation = {Morton, RH (Reprint Author), Massey Univ, Inst Food Nutr \& Human
	Hlth, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand. Massey Univ, Inst Food
	Nutr \& Human Hlth, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand.},
  author-email = {h.morton@massey.ac.nz},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Morton2009},
  doc-delivery-number = {557NV},
  doi = {10.1093/imaman/dpn022},
  issn = {1471-678X},
  journal-iso = {IMA J. Manag. Math.},
  keywords = {all-out effort; critical power; hyperbolic model; optimal strategy;
	power-duration curve},
  keywords-plus = {CRITICAL POWER; PACING STRATEGY; PERFORMANCE; RACE; EXERCISE; TRIAL;
	PACE},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {23},
  publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS},
  subject-category = {Management; Mathematics, Interdisciplinary Applications; Social Sciences,
	Mathematical Methods},
  times-cited = {0},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000274677100003}
}
@article{Nakamura2009,
  author = {Nakamura, F. Y. and Okuno, N. M. and Perandini, L. A. B. and de Oliveira,
	F. R. and Buchheit, M. and Simoes, H. G.},
  title = {Perceived exertion threshold: Comparison with ventilatory thresholds
	and critical power},
  journal = {SCIENCE \& SPORTS},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {24},
  pages = {196-201},
  number = {3-4},
  month = {JUN-AUG},
  abstract = {Objective. - The aim of this study was to provide concurrent validity
	evidences to perceived exertion threshold (PET) by comparing and
	establishing relationships with aerobic fitness parameters derived
	from square-wave and incremental tests. Methods. - Eleven male college
	students performed one incremental test to determine first and second
	ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2, respectively), maximal oxygen
	uptake (VO2max), and maximal aerobic power (MAP); four predictive
	trials for the critical power (CP) and PET estimations. Results.
	- Oxygen consumption (VO2) at VT1 and VT2 were 22.9 +/- 4.2 and 35.8
	+/- 4.7 ml/kg per minute, respectively. The MAP and VO2max. were
	267 +/- 34 W and 40.3 +/- 6.3 ml/kg per minute, respectively. The
	PET (146 31 W) and CP (146 +/- 33 W) did not differ from each other,
	and both estimates were between VT1 (121 +/- 28 W) and VT2 (228 +/-
	36 W). The correlations between PET and CP, expressed in relative
	terms to body mass, were significant (P < 0.01, r = 0.84). The correlations
	between PET and relative VO2 at VT1 (r = 0.76), VT2 (r = 0.72) and
	VO2max (r = 0.73) were significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion. - PET
	did not significantly differ from CP, and presented significant correlations
	with VT1, VT2 and VO2max, derived from incremental test. Thus, it
	can be considered as a valid measure of aerobic capacity. (C) 2008
	Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.},
  address = {23 RUE LINOIS, 75724 PARIS, FRANCE},
  affiliation = {Nakamura, FY (Reprint Author), Univ Estadual Londrina, Dept Educ Fis,
	Ctr Educ Fis \& Esporte, Grp Estudo Adaptacoes Fisiol Ao Treinamento
	GEAFI, Km 380,Campus Univ, BR-86015990 Londrina, PR, Brazil. {[}Nakamura,
	F. Y.] Univ Estadual Londrina, Dept Educ Fis, Ctr Educ Fis \& Esporte,
	Grp Estudo Adaptacoes Fisiol Ao Treinamento GEAFI, BR-86015990 Londrina,
	PR, Brazil. {[}de Oliveira, F. R.] Univ Fed Lavras, Lavras, Brazil.
	{[}Buchheit, M.] Picardie Jules Verne Univ, Amiens, France. {[}Simoes,
	H. G.] Univ Catolica Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.},
  author-email = {fabioy\_nakamura@yahoo.com.br},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Nakamura2009},
  doc-delivery-number = {481YQ},
  doi = {10.1016/j.scispo.2008.07.003},
  issn = {0765-1597},
  journal-iso = {Sci. Sports},
  keywords = {Aerobic capacity; Maximal oxygen uptake; Validity},
  keywords-plus = {MAXIMAL OXYGEN-UPTAKE; CYCLE ERGOMETER EXERCISE; ADULT OMNI SCALE;
	CRITICAL VELOCITY; RESPIRATORY PROFILE; WORK CAPACITY; HEART-RATE;
	LACTATE; TIME; VALIDATION},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {36},
  publisher = {ELSEVIER FRANCE-EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER},
  subject-category = {Sport Sciences},
  times-cited = {0},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000268850200012}
}
@article{Noakes2000,
  author = {Noakes, TD},
  title = {Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations
	that predict or enhance athletic performance},
  journal = {SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE \& SCIENCE IN SPORTS},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {123-145},
  number = {3},
  month = {JUN},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Noakes2000},
  issn = {0905-7188},
  unique-id = {ISI:000087014000002}
}
@article{Olds1993,
  author = {Olds, TS and Norton, KI and Craig, NP},
  title = {Mathematical-Model of Cycling Performance},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {75},
  pages = {730-737},
  number = {2},
  month = {AUG},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Olds1993},
  issn = {8750-7587},
  unique-id = {ISI:A1993LT58200036}
}
@article{Sharp2000,
  author = {Sharp, RS and Casanova, D and Symonds, P},
  title = {A mathematical model for driver steering control, with design, tuning
	and performance results},
  journal = {VEHICLE SYSTEM DYNAMICS},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {33},
  number = {5},
  pages = {289-326},
  abstract = {A mathematical model for the steering control of an automobile is
	described. The structure of the model derives from linear optimal
	discrete time preview control theory but it is non-linear. Its
	parameter values are obtained by heuristic methods, using insight
	gained from the linear optimal control theory. The driver model is
	joined to a vehicle dynamics model and the path tracking performance is
	demonstrated, using moderate manoeuvring and racing speeds. The model
	is shown to be capable of excellent path following and to be robust
	against changes in the vehicle dynamics. Application to the simulation
	of manoeuvres specified by an ideal vehicle path and further
	development of the model to formalise the derivation of its parameter
	values and to put it to other uses are discussed.},
  publisher = {SWETS ZEITLINGER PUBLISHERS},
  address = {P O BOX 825, 2160 SZ LISSE, NETHERLANDS},
  type = {Article},
  language = {English},
  affiliation = {Sharp, RS (Reprint Author), Cranfield Univ, Sch Mech Engn, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
	Cranfield Univ, Sch Mech Engn, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.},
  issn = {0042-3114},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Mechanical},
  number-of-cited-references = {13},
  times-cited = {37},
  journal-iso = {Veh. Syst. Dyn.},
  doc-delivery-number = {310RF},
  unique-id = {ISI:000086840600001},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2000}
}
@article{Sharp2000a,
  author = {Casanova, D and Sharp, RS and Symonds, P},
  title = {Minimum time manoeuvring: The significance of yaw inertia},
  journal = {VEHICLE SYSTEM DYNAMICS},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {34},
  number = {2},
  pages = {77-115},
  abstract = {A formal method for the evaluation of the minimum time vehicle
	manoeuvre is described. The problem is treated as one of Optimal
	Control and is solved using a direct transcription method. The
	resulting Non Linear Programming problem is solved using a Sequential
	Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm for constrained minimisation of a
	multivariable function. The optimisation program is used to investigate
	the effect of the yaw moment of inertia on vehicle performance in a
	double lane change manoeuvre. The method is shown to have excellent
	capabilities to predict the vehicle maximum performance in transient
	conditions and to perform sensitivity analysis. The influence of yaw
	inertia on the minimum manoeuvre time is found to be surprisingly
	small. The extension of the method to larger problems, e.g., lap time
	simulation, is also discussed.},
  publisher = {SWETS ZEITLINGER PUBLISHERS},
  address = {P O BOX 825, 2160 SZ LISSE, NETHERLANDS},
  type = {Article},
  language = {English},
  affiliation = {Casanova, D (Reprint Author), Cranfield Univ, Sch Mech Engn, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.
	Cranfield Univ, Sch Mech Engn, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England.},
  issn = {0042-3114},
  subject-category = {Engineering, Mechanical},
  number-of-cited-references = {19},
  times-cited = {16},
  journal-iso = {Veh. Syst. Dyn.},
  doc-delivery-number = {353BF},
  unique-id = {ISI:000089253300001},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Sharp2000a}
}
@article{Swart2009,
  author = {Swart, J. and Lamberts, R. P. and Lambert, M. I. and Lambert, E.
	V. and Woolrich, R. W. and Johnston, S. and Noakes, T. D.},
  title = {Exercising with reserve: exercise regulation by perceived exertion
	in relation to duration of exercise and knowledge of endpoint},
  journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {43},
  pages = {775-781},
  number = {10},
  month = {OCT},
  abstract = {Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine ratings of perceived
	exertion (RPE) and performance during repetitive maximal effort 40
	km time trials as well as after an intervention that aimed to decrease
	certainty about the remaining distance of the exercise bout. In addition,
	we examined the RPE during exercise bouts of markedly different duration.
	Methods: Part 1: 12 well-trained, competitive-level cyclists completed
	five 40 km time trials. During the final time trial all feedback
	was withheld until the final kilometre. In addition, to cause confusion
	about the remaining distance, they were asked to report their RPE
	at random intervals from 18 km to 38 km. Part 2: 6 well-trained,
	recreation-level cyclists randomly completed a 5 km, 10 km, 40 km
	and 100 km time trial. Results: Part 1: Mean RPE increased during
	the first four trials and decreased during the final trial. The rate
	of RPE progression increased in linearity during the first four trials
	and became more conservative in the final trial. These changes were
	directly related to performance. Part 2: Mean RPE for longer duration
	trials (40 km, 100 km) were lower during the first half of trial
	duration but matched those of shorter trials in the final 20\%. Conclusions:
	Increased familiarity of the exercise bout and certainty about its
	endpoint are associated with a more aggressive RPE strategy that
	produces a superior exercise performance. Certainty about the endpoint
	and the duration of exercise affect both the RPE strategy and performance.},
  address = {BRITISH MED ASSOC HOUSE, TAVISTOCK SQUARE, LONDON WC1H 9JR, ENGLAND},
  affiliation = {Swart, J (Reprint Author), Univ Cape Town, MRC, Res Unit Exercise
	Sci \& Sports Med, Dept Human Biol,Sports Sci Inst S Africa, POB
	115, ZA-7725 Newlands, South Africa. {[}Swart, J.; Lamberts, R. P.;
	Lambert, M. I.; Lambert, E. V.; Woolrich, R. W.; Johnston, S.; Noakes,
	T. D.] Univ Cape Town, MRC, Res Unit Exercise Sci \& Sports Med,
	Dept Human Biol,Sports Sci Inst S Africa, ZA-7725 Newlands, South
	Africa.},
  author-email = {jeroen.swart@uct.ac.za},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#Swart2009},
  doc-delivery-number = {503FY},
  doi = {10.1136/bjsm.2008.056036},
  funding-acknowledgement = {Medical Research Council of South Africa ; University of Cape Town
	Harry Crossley ; Nellie Atkinson Staff Research Funds ; Discovery
	Health and the National Research Foundation of South Africa through
	the THRIP initiative },
  funding-text = {Funding for this research was provided by the Medical Research Council
	of South Africa, the University of Cape Town Harry Crossley and Nellie
	Atkinson Staff Research Funds, Discovery Health and the National
	Research Foundation of South Africa through the THRIP initiative.},
  issn = {0306-3674},
  journal-iso = {Br. J. Sports Med.},
  keywords-plus = {CYCLING TIME TRIAL; FATIGUE; INTENSITY; PERFORMANCE; PERCEPTION},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {16},
  publisher = {B M J PUBLISHING GROUP},
  subject-category = {Sport Sciences},
  times-cited = {2},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000270520100019}
}
@article{WardSmith1999,
  author = {Ward-Smith, AJ},
  title = {The kinetics of anaerobic metabolism following the initiation of
	high-intensity exercise},
  journal = {MATHEMATICAL BIOSCIENCES},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {159},
  pages = {33-45},
  number = {1},
  month = {JUN},
  abstract = {A mathematical study is made of the kinetics of anaerobic metabolism
	following the initiation of high-intensity exercise. Power and energy
	relationships are proposed for oxygen-independent glycolysis, phosphocreatine
	utilisation and the utilisation of endogenous ATP. The power relations
	consist of two components, ne describing the build-up phase, the
	other the controlled-utilisation phase. The controlled-utilisation
	phase of oxygen-independent glycolysis and the build-up of aerobic
	metabolism are shown to be closely inter-related. The theoretical
	relations display trends consistent with published experimental results.
	Some property values are derived, but because of the scatter of the
	experimental results, the values are, in general, to be regarded
	as tentative. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.},
  address = {655 AVENUE OF THE AMERICAS, NEW YORK, NY 10010 USA},
  affiliation = {Ward-Smith, AJ (Reprint Author), Brunel Univ, Dept Sport Sci, Osterley
	Campus,Borough Rd, Isleworth TW7 5DU, Middx, England. Brunel Univ,
	Dept Sport Sci, Isleworth TW7 5DU, Middx, England.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#WardSmith1999},
  doc-delivery-number = {199JB},
  issn = {0025-5564},
  journal-iso = {Math. Biosci.},
  keywords = {athletics; running; biomechanics; bioenergetics; phosphocreatine;
	glycolysis},
  keywords-plus = {RUNNING PERFORMANCE; MATHEMATICAL-ANALYSIS},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {13},
  publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC},
  subject-category = {Biology; Mathematical \& Computational Biology},
  times-cited = {6},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000080476500003}
}
@article{WardSmith2000,
  author = {Ward-Smith, AJ and Radford, PF},
  title = {Investigation of the kinetics of anaerobic metabolism by analysis
	of the performance of elite sprinters},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {997-1004},
  number = {8},
  month = {AUG},
  abstract = {The principal motivation for the present work was the study of the
	kinetics of anaerobic metabolism. A new mathematical model of the
	bioenergetics of sprinting, incorporating a three-equation representation
	of anaerobic metabolism, is developed. Results computed using the
	model are compared with measured data from the mens' finals of the
	100 m event at the 1987 World Championships. The computed results
	closely predict the overall average performance of the competitors
	over the course of the entire race. Further calculations show the
	three-equation model of anaerobic metabolism to be a significant
	improvement over the previous one-equation model. Representative
	values of time constants that govern the rare of anaerobic energy
	release have been determined for elite male athletes. For phosphocreatine
	utilisation, values for lambda(2) = 0.20 s(-1) and psi(2) = 3.0 s(-1)
	are consistent with data previously reported in the literature. New
	values of lambda(3) = 0.033 s(-1) and psi(3) = 0.34 s(-1) are proposed
	as offering an improved representation of the kinetics of oxygen-independent
	glycolysis. For the first time, tentative values for the time constants
	of ATP utilisation, lambda(1) = 0.9 s(-1) and psi(1) = 20 s(-1),
	are suggested. The maximum powers developed during sprinting by oxygen-independent
	glycolysis, PCr utilisation and endogenous ATP utilisation were calculated
	as 34.1, 30.1 and 16.6 W kg(-1), respectively, with an overall maximum
	anaerobic power of 51.6 W kg(-1). Sample calculations show the mathematical
	model can be used in principle to derive data on the kinetics of
	anaerobic metabolism of individual athletes. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science
	Ltd. All rights reserved.},
  address = {THE BOULEVARD, LANGFORD LANE, KIDLINGTON, OXFORD OX5 1GB, OXON, ENGLAND},
  affiliation = {Ward-Smith, AJ (Reprint Author), Brunel Univ, Dept Sport Sci, Osterley
	Campus,Borough Rd, Isleworth TW7 5DU, Middx, England. Brunel Univ,
	Dept Sport Sci, Isleworth TW7 5DU, Middx, England.},
  bib = {bibtex-keys#WardSmith2000},
  doc-delivery-number = {321VD},
  issn = {0021-9290},
  journal-iso = {J. Biomech.},
  keywords = {running; sprinting; biomechanics; bioenergetics; anaerobic; glycolysis;
	metabolism},
  keywords-plus = {RUNNING PERFORMANCE; MATHEMATICAL-ANALYSIS},
  language = {English},
  number-of-cited-references = {15},
  publisher = {ELSEVIER SCI LTD},
  subject-category = {Biophysics; Engineering, Biomedical},
  times-cited = {16},
  type = {Article},
  unique-id = {ISI:000087474600011}
}

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